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Full text of "Creative Computing Magazine (April 1981) Volume 07 Number 04"

creative 



April 1981 

vol 7, no 4 

$2.50 



the #1 magazine of computer applications and software 



Evaluations: 



Apple 80-Column Boards 
The Microconnection 
Atari Music Composer 
Nine New Games 
Centronics 737 Printer 
MPI 88G Printer 
• Infinite Basic 



Saucer Shoot 



f the City: 

■winning 

Drtation 




Networks: 

Community Bulletin Boards 

• Time-sharing for Apple 

The Computerized Writer 

• Guide to Data Banks 
• Home Banking 

• Hooking Up with Atari 



Aircraft Landing Simulator 




Wlltl 



u 

CO 

ru 



Announcing: The Osborne 1 



mm 



COMPUTER CATALOG 



TSE/HARDSIDE 

6 SOUTH STREET. MILFC 



75€JHARD6ID€ 




S& OSS 

9 3 >' ° 



Ml 
• 


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Iftjfll !m. 



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CIRCLE 183 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Coming In May 

Emphasis on Personal 
Finance and Small 
Business Computing 

• Home Accounting 
System 

• Break Even Analysis 
with VisiCalc 

• An Unusual Investment 
Strategy 

• The Office of the 
Future 

• The Vermont Inn 
Syndrome 

• Determining Economic 
Order Quantity 

• Comparison Chart of 
Small Business 
Computers 



Reviews 

• Data Base Packages 

• Financial Planning 
Language 

• War Strategy Games 

• Fantasy Games, Part 2 



Plus 

• Applications 

• New Products 

• Games 

• Columns 

• And Lots More 





Your ad in 

creative 
computing 

will reach over 

90,000 
paid readers! 

The average reader : 

• Male 

•33 Years Old 
•College Graduate 

• Professional 
•Computer at Home 
•Responsive to 

Advertising 

For advertising rates and 
a complete media kit, 
drop a line to : 

Advertising Department 
Creative Computing 

P.O. Box 789-M 
Morristown, NJ 07960 




The Colossal Computer 
Cartoon Book 

Edited by David H. Ahl. The best col- 
lection of computer cartoons ever is now in 
its second printing. There are fifteen 
chapters of several hundred cartoons about 
robots, computer dating, computers in the 
office, and much more. Keep the book with 
your reference works. When needed, the 
right cartoon can say it all for you Pro- 
vides hours of fun and comic insight 1 20 pp. 
8% x 11" softbound. (6G) $4.95. 



NMountair^Hardware 



B 



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iisicSystem 

i Instruments 
Anyone, witrkxn Apple 



MusicSystem ound of any mu: 

: loud. At ho 

concert hall ' 'oom. M 

dards for lompul 
Digital Syntl ' ' outpul 

Polyphonic -miilti vo 

Additive synthesis ot instrum 
' implitud* 

nt definil 

music dynarl 

resolution iJ Graphical input of 

music on JKgh-resolution screen using standard 
music notation Print out sheet music with a 

phicyprinter. Complete softwai 
systefjMTGraphical music editor using light 

"entered music provided for mime • lying 

ijoyment Thorough docurtv 
tut. i s manual 



Drop by your A: 
yourself You II k 
Music Sy 
Appl 



■Name 

[Address 
(City 



LEADERSHIP IN COMPUTER PERIPHERALS 

A Division ol Mountain Computer. Inc. 
300 Harvey Was! Blvd Sanla Cruz. CA 95060 
(408) 429-8600 
Music I can play? Sand data**. 



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Financial plans needed tomorrow? 
Use DESKTOP/PLAN software today. 



Personal Software offers you an alternative to burning the 
midnight oil: DESKTOP/PLAN II,'" a professional financial 
planning software package for Apple* II personal computers. 
Now enhanced with powerful new features. 

In an easy-to-learn and easy-to-use process, DESKTOP/ 
PLAN speeds the preparation of just about any type of financial 
statement, budget, forecast, projection and analysis. 

Faster and less expensive. 

If you are currently preparing plans with an 
accounting pad and a calculator, DESKTOP/PLAN 
will expand your capabilities. And if you are using 
a time-sharing system, DESKTOP/PLAN will 
save you money. 

DESKTOP/PLAN's creator patterned the 
program after time-share planning systems. 
He realized how powerful and convenient a 
sophisticated planning program can be 
when adapted to a personal computer. 
And thousands of users have proven 
how right he was. 

No programming needed. 

DESKTOP/PLAN is designed for 
managers; no programming know-how 
is necessary. You are guided step-by- 
step through the planning process by 
"prompts" or requests for column head- 
ings and row titles, calculation rules, and 

See us in Chicago at NCC -booth 88 1 

Apple jnd ApplePlot are trademarks of Apple Computer. Inc. 



the numbers to be calculated. The instruction manual fully 
explains and illustrates how to build your model. 

Your printer produces a finished financial report that looks 
good enough to carry into the board room. Once the model is 
constructed, you can play "What if?',' changing any of the num- 
bers, recalculating and printing out the new results. 

Exceptionally powerful. 

DESKTOP/PLAN II includes some exceptionally powerful 
planning system features. It consolidates portions of several 
plans into a final plan, and it summarizes identical plans 
from several sources— such as budgets from a chain of 
stores— into a total budget. It performs complex computa- 
tions with 20 built-in calculations plus "custom calcu- 
lations" you can easily write yourself. If you 
want a graph, it does that, too. DESKTOP/ 
PLAN can also operate with VisiCalc " 
and ApplePlot,'" creating a family of 
management productivity software. 
Ask your Personal Software 
computer retailer for a demonstra- 
tion. For his name, phone Personal 
Software Inc. at 408/745-7841, or 
write 1330 Bordeaux Drive, Sunny- 
vale, CA 94086. While you're there, 
see our other Productivity Products: 
VisiCalc and CCA Data Manage- 
ment Systems. 




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In This Issue 

evaluations 6 profiles 

1 1 The Centronics 737 Mannering 

1 ' Low cost and letter quality 



Archibald 



1 4 MPI 88G 

A dot matrix printer with a bonus 

1 O Project 80 Alinsky and Gayler 

1 ° Comparison of 80-column boards for the Apple 



. Lorenzen 



9fi ln* lnlt « Ba8ic 

Enhancement for Level II Basic 

28 Atari Mu8lc Composer Zinn and Zinn 

An educator's view 



Archibald 



30 ABM 

A successor to Space Invaders? 

OO Soft Centered Lubar 

** Athletics and astrology 



Archibald 



3T Wars In Space 

Five new games 

42 Tne Ultimate Connection Ware 

Telecommunication for the TRS-80 



articles 



NETWORKS AND TELECOMMUNICATION 



5 1 Hooking Up with Atari Blank 

Using the Atari Telelink cartridge 

56 A Guide to Data Banks 

60 Apple as Time-Sharing User Parr 

New horizons for Apple users 

ee A Manager and His Machine Heltman 

»" A email mmm itor f mrl« a hrarw in hid business 



A small computer finds a home in big business 



76 The System is the Solution 

An AT&T vice president speaks out 

7Q Calling Information 

' ° Telecomputing with personal computers 



Qg The Future is Here 

An experiment in home banking 

Q4 Minimal Message System 
Community Bulletin Board 



98 CONFER Connection 

Communicating at U. Michigan 

1 06 The Computerized Writer 

A ghostwriter meets his match 



McGill 



Licklider 



Streeter 



Ryan 



Zinn 



Philcox 



■1 QO The Osborne 1 Ahl and Osborne 

The design, the history and the philosophy 



Ahl 



112 Tne Sorcerer Reappears 

" Another in our "Where are they now? series 

116a Ciphering Technique Raab 



applications - qpn\es 

■i 26 Saucer Shoot White 

Arcade-type game teaches math 

1 32 Streets of the City Murray 

Prize-winning transportation simulation 

1 52 Fo « lndM Nottingham 

How readable is your writing? 

1 56 Land'na Simulator Jacobs 

Prepare your Apple for take-off 

fiction & foolishness 

1 04 Obituaries from Factone Slinglutf 



departments 

6 Et Cetera £"»' 

8 Input/Output Readers 

4g Dateline: tomorrow Ahl 

Latebreaking news and views 

1 68 The Compieat Computer Catalogue Staples 

The latest in hardware, software and accessories 

1 86 Software Legal Forum Novick 

1 88 TR S-»0 Strings Gray 

1 94 Outpost: Atari Blank 

** Adding up and down to back and forth 

200 Apple-Cart Carpenter 

21 Intelligent Computer Game* Levy 

A peek at Poker 

21 7 Re 1 "" Roster 



21 ft Effective Writing Dickson 

Good writers make good programmers 



Mullin 



OOf\ Compendium 

fcfcV What else is new? 

222 Personal Electronic Transactions Yob 

224 Book Reviews Gray 

228 lndex to Advertisers 

This month s cover is a picture of the new Osborne 1 computer. 
See page 108 for details. 



APRIL 1981 



VOLUME 7, NUMBER 4 



Creative Computing magazine is published monthly by Creative Computing. P.O. 
Box 789-M. Morristown. NJ 07960 (Editorial office 39 East Hanover Ave . Morris 
Plains. NJ 07950 Phone (201 1 540-0445 ) 

Domestic Subscriptions 12 issues $20. 24 issues $37. 36 issues $53 Send 
subscription orders or change of address IPO Form 35751 to Creative Computing 
PO Box 789-M. Morristown. NJ 07960 Call 800-63 1-81 12 toll-free (in New Jersey 
call 201-540-04451 to order a subscription (to be charged only to a bank card I 
Controlled Circulation paid at Richmond. VA 23228 

Copyright©1981 by Creative Computing All rights reserved Reproduction pro- 
hibited Printed in USA 



APRIL 1981 



Publisher/Editor-in-chief David H. Ahl 



Editorial Director 
Editor 
Associate Editor 



George Blank 

Elizabeth Staples 

David Lubar 



Contributing Editors Charles Carpenter 
Thomas W. Dwyer 
Stephen B. Gray 
Glenn Hart 
Stephen Kimmel 
Harold Novick 
Peter Payack 
Alvin Toffler 
, C. Barry Townsend 
Gregory Yob 
Karl Zinn 




Editorial Assistant 
Secretary 



Peter Fee 
Elizabeth Magin 



Production Manager Laura MacKenzie 



Art Department 



Typesetters 



Diana Negri 

Chris Demilia 

Joanne Fogarty 

Alan Rowe Kelly 

Jean Ann Vokoun 
Maureen Welsh 



Advertising Sales Renee Fox Christman 
Charles Coffin 

Marketing Coordinator Barbara Garris 

Creative Computing Press 

Managing Editor Burche nal Green 

Software Development Chris Vogeli 

Bob Callan 

William Kubeck 

Kerry Shetline 

Owen Linderholme 



Software Production 



John White 

Rita Gerner 

Heather Everett 

Bill Rogalsky 



Operations Manager 

William L. Baumann 

Personnel & Finance Patricia Kennelly 



Bookkeeping 






Joan Swihart 
Ethel Fisher 

Jennifer Bun- 
Laura Gibbons 
David Rogers 

Suzanne Guppy 

Frances Miskovich 

Dorothy Staples 

Moira Fenton 

Carol Vita 

Patricia Brown 

Rosemary Bender 

Linda McCatharn 

Marie Groves 

Diane Feller 

Jim Zecchin 

Rick Mullin 

Ralph Loveys 

Gail Harris 

Toby Loyd 

Shipping & Receiving 

Ronald Antonaccio 

Scott McLeod 

Nick Ninni 

Mark Archambault 
Mike Gribbon 



Retail Marketing 



Circulation 



Customer Service 
Office Assistants 



Order Processing 



Advertising Sales 

Advertising Coordinator 

Renee Christman 
Creative Computing 
P.O. Box 789-M 
Morristown. NJ 07960 
(201)540-0445 

Western States, Texas 

Jules E. Thompson. Inc. 
1 290 Howard Ave., Suite 303 
Burlingame, CA 94010 
(415)348-8222 

Southern California 

Jules E. Thompson, Inc 

2560 Via Tejon 

Palos Verdes Estates. CA 90274 

(213)378-8361 

Mid-Atlantic, Northeast 
CEL Associates, Inc. 
27 Adams Street 
Braintree, MA 02184 
(617)848-9306 

Midwest 
Ted Rickard 
435 Locust Rd. 
Wilmette, IL 60091 
(312)251-2541 

New York Metroplitan Area 
Nelson & Miller Associates. Inc. 
55 Scenic Dr. 

Hastings-on-Hudson, NY 10706 
(914)478-0491 

Southeast 

Paul McGinnisCo. 
60 East 42nd St. 
New York, NY 10017 
(212)490-1021 



Responsibility 

Creative Computing will not be 
responsible for the return of unsolicited 
manuscripts, cassettes, floppy disks, pro- 
gram listings, etc. not submitted with a 
self-addressed, stamped envelope. 

OK to Reprint 

Material in Creative Computing may 
be reprinted without permission by 
school and college publications, per- 
sonal computing club newsletters, and 
nonprofit publications. Only original 
material may be reprinted; that is. you 
may not reprint a reprint. Also, each re- 
print must carry the following notice on 
the first page of the reprint in 7-point or 
larger type (you may cut out and use this 
notice if you wish): 

Copyright © 1981 by Creative Com- 
puting. 39 E. Hanover Ave.. Morris 
Plains. NJ 07950. Sample issue $2.50 
12-issue subscription $20 

Please send us two copies of any publi- 
cation that carries reprinted material 
Send to attention: David Ahl. 

Microform 

Creative Computing is available on 
permanent record microfilm. For com- 
plete information contact University mi- 
crofilms International. Dept. FA , 300 
North Zeeb Road. Ann Arbor. Ml 48106 
or 18 Bedford Road. London WC1R 4EJ 
England. 



Foreign Customers 

Foreign subscribers in countries listed below 
may elect to subscribe with our local agents using 
local currency Of course, subscriptions may also 
be entered directly to Creative Computing (USA) 
in US dollars (bank draft or credit card) All 
foreign subscriptions must be prepaid 

Many foreign agents stock Creative Computing 
magazines, books, and software However, please 
inquire directly to the agent before placing an 
order Again, all Creative Computing products may 
be ordered direct from the USA-be sure to allow 
for foreign shipping and handling 



CANADA 


Surface 


Mr 


1-year 


CS29 


n/a 


2-year 


55 


n/a 


3-year 


80 


n/a 


Micron Oistrib 






408 Oueen SI w 






Toronto. OT MSV 2AS. Canada 




AUSTRALIA 


*A 


(A 


1-year 


28 


52 


2-year 


54 


101 


3-year 


78 


150 


ELECTRONIC CONCEPTS PTY . LI 




Attn Rudi Hoess 






Ground Floor 55 Clarence St 






Sydney. NSW 2000. Australia 






ENGLAND 


r 


C 


1-year 


1250 


2100 


2-year 


24 00 


41 00 


3-year 


34 50 


6100 


CREATIVE COMPUTING 






Attn: Hazel Gordon 






27 Andrew Close 






Stoke Goiding. Nuneaton CV13 6EL 




FRANCE 


F 


F 


1-year 


120 


201 


2-year 


229 


395 


3-year 


332 


568 


SYBEX EUROPE 






14/18 Rue Planchat 






75020 Paris. France 






OERMANY 


4m 


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1-year 


52 


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2-year 


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168 


3-year 


141 


250 


HOFACKER-VERLAG 






Ing w Hofacker 






8 Munchen 75 






Postfach 437. West Germany 






HOLLAND. BELGIUM 




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1-year 




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2-year 




231 


3-year 




332 


2XF COMPUTERCOLLECTIEF 




Attn: F. de Vreeze 






Amstel 312A 






101 7 AP AMSTERDAM. Holland 




ITALY 


IL 


IL 


1-year 


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ADVEICO S.H.L. 






Via Emilia Ovesl. 129 






43016 San Pancrazio (Parma) Italy 




Attn Giulio Bertellini 






JAPAN 


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2-year 


13300 


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3-year 


19.300 


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ASCII PUBLISHING 






Aoyama Building 5F 






S-16-1 Minam: Aoyama. Minato-Ku 




Tokyo 107. Japan 






PHILIPPINES 


P 


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1-year 


214 


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INTEGRATED COMPUTER SYSTEMS. 


NC 


Suite 205. Limketkai Bldg . Ortigas Ave 




Greenhills P O Box 483. San Juan 




Metro Manila 3113. Philippines 




SWEDEN 


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HOBBY DATA 






Attn: Jan Nilsson 






Feck 






S-2O0 12 Malmo 2. Sweden 






OTHER COUNTRIES 


US* 


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CREATIVE COMPUTING 






P O Box 789-M 






Morristown. N J 07960. USA 







CREATIVE COMPUTING 



If North Star or uromemco orrvr # c 

WE HAVE IT!! 

Immediate Deliver y at Discount Prices 



NORTH STAR Horizon 



32K Double Density 
Assembled and Tested 

Us, Snly$2619 



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ASSEMBLED 



HORIZON 1. DD $2279 



32K. QD. List $2996 2539 



HORIZON 2. 32K. DD $2619 
32K. QD. List $3595 3049 

48K. DD, List $3590 3039 



48K, QD. List $4090 3469 

64K. DD, List $3830 3239 

64K.QD, List $4330 3669 



NORTH STAR APPLICATIONS SOFTWARE 

(Exclusive tor use with North Star Disk Systems — specify Double 
or Quad Density) 

NORTHWORD, List $399 *339 

MAILMANAGER, List $299 249 

INFOMANAGER. List $499 419 

GENERALLEDGER, List $999 799 

ACCOUNTSRECEIVABLE. List $599 499 

ACCOUNTSPAYABLE, List $599 499 

NORTH STAR HARD DISK HD 18 

18 megabytes, plugs into parallel port of North Star 
Horizon, Utilizes tried-and-proven 14" Century Data 
Marksman. List $4999. QUR pR|CE $4-199 

NORTH STAR MDS-A - Double (or Quad) 
Density Disk System, Kit, List $799 . OUR PRICE $669 
Assembled and Tested, List $899 SPECIAL $719 

NORTH STAR MEMORY BOARDS 

16K Dynamic RAM (RAM 16 A Al. Assembled. List $499 $420 

32K (RAM 32 Al, Assembled, List $739 *620 



INTRODUCTORY SPECIALS ON ... 

PREMIUM QUALITY BASF DISKS 
CERTIFIED FOR QUAD SYSTEMS 



." DOUBLE DENSITY DOUBLE SIDED i.»t$57 50 
DOUBLE DENSITY DOUBLE SIDED i.»i$75 00 

siiipiiki u so - ft- tMMi«t i" "»>"»•• <» '»• •»■ • 



(Bob ol lent 

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$47 49 



NEW System 3 

byCROMEMCO 

Now with Dual 

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Double Density 

over 2 megabytes 

of Storage) 

64K of RAM 

List $7995 

LIMITED TIME $6395 



CROWEMCO SYSTEM 2 — Now double Density 
with Double Sided Drives, Quad Capacity mini 
floppy disc drives List $4695 Only $3899 




CROMEMCO Z-2H 




Full 1 1 -megabyte Hard Disk 
system. FastZ-80A 
4 MHz processor, 
two floppy disk 
drives, 64K RAM 
memory, RS232 
special interface, 
printer interface, 
and extensive 
software available. 
List $9995 

our price $8489 



NEW DOUBLE DENSITY CONTROLLER BOARD 

From Cromemco 

With built-in diagnostics — 16 FDC Controller 

L.st $595 OUR PRICE $505 

Z-2 COMPUTER SYSTEM List $995 S845 

SINGLE CARO COMPUTER - SCC-W 4 MHz. List $450 $382 

NEW COLOR GRAPHICS INTERFACE - SOI List $595 OUR PRICE $505 
CROMEMCO H00 - 1 1 /22-megabyte Hard Disk (or use with existing 
systems DMA controller Transfer rate ol 5 6 megabytes/second 
HDD 11. List $6995 OUR PRICE ONLY $5939 
H00-22. List $1 1 .995 $10,189 



SHIPPING AND INSURANCE. Add $15 or Horizons. $2 50 for Boards and Software Hard Disk Systems and Cromemco systems shippefl I 'weight . :oltacr 
Advertised prices are for prepaid orders. Credit card and COD. 2% higher Deposit may be required on COD. All prices subiect to change and offers 



subject to withdrawal without notice. 



- WRITE FOR FREE CATALOG 



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1618 James Street, Syracuse, NY 13203 (315)422-4467 

CIRCLE 157 ON READER SERVICE CARD 
APRIL 1981 5 



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Creative Computing 
Game Programmer 
Award 

Creative Computing has introduced a 
special award for outstanding creativity in 
game programming for small computers. 
The 1980 winner of the Creative Computing 
Award will be announced at the West Coast 
Computer Faire in San Francisco on April 
3 and 4. 1981. 

The award will recognize the programmer 
of a computer game selected for originality 
of approach, creativity, and "flow." Flow 
is the quality of some activities to absorb 
people completely, causing them to forget 
such activities as eating, sleeping, and the 
passage of time. Good computer games 
are notorious in this respect, and it is not 
unusual at the home office of Creative 
Computing in Morris Plains. New Jersey 
to see employees playing games on the 
computers long after working hours. 

The editoral staff of Creative Computing 
has been seeking nominations from their 
regular review staff. Final selection of the 
winning game is the responsibility of a 
committee consisting of David Ahl. George 
Blank, and Betsy Staples. 



7987 National 
Computer Shows 

Northeast Expositions. Inc. has 
announced five regional National Computer 
Shows for 1981. 

In chronological order the shows are: 
The Southwest Computer Show. Thursday. 
April 9 through Sunday. April 12. at the 
Dallas Market Hall: the Second Annual 
Mid-West Computer Show. Thursday. 
September 10 through Sunday. September 
13. at Chicago's McCormick Place; the 
Second Annual Mid-Atlantic Computer 
Show. Thursday. September 24 through 
Sunday. September 27. at Washington's 
D.C. Armory: the Third Annual Northeast 
Computer Show. Thursday. October IS 
through Sunday. October 18. at Boston's 
Hynes Auditorium: the Southeast Computer 
Show. Thursday. October 29 through 
Sunday. November 1 at the Atlanta Civic 
center. 

For more information contact: The 
National Computer Shows. 824 Boylston 
Street. Chestnut Hill. MA 02167. (6171 
739-2000. 



Apple Seed, A 
Computer Literacy Kit 
For Schools 

Apple Computer Inc. has announced a 
computer literacy program -named Apple 
Seed— that promises to provide qualifying 
elementary and high schools in the U.S. 
and Canada with computer course 
materials. 

Under the program. Apple Computer 
will provide a bonus kit of course materials, 
valued at approximately $500. to each school 
that qualifies as a "start-up" school and 
which buys a 32K Apple computer with 
disk drive. The offer runs through July 3 1 . 
1981. School districts expanding ongoing 
computer education programs with addi- 
tional computers can also qualify to receive 
the free material, but the offer is limited to 
one set of Apple Seed materials per 
school. 

The Apple Seed kit is designed to serve 
teachers as well as students. It contains 
computer literacy programs for teachers 
and students, including tutorial materials 
in Basic for classes with up to 25 students. 
Course materials include: Computers 
and Education and Microcomputer Systems 
and Apple Basic, both by James S. Poirot; 
a "Computer Literacy Show and Tell Kit." 
developed by Dr. Poirot and the Sterling 
Swift Company; "Computer Discovery," a 
comprehensive computer literacy course; 
an "Applesoft Tutorial," by Apple Com- 
puter and Educational Software Direc- 
tory. 



M.I. T. Summer Session 

The Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology has announced a special summer 
session program to be held at M.I.T. this 
August. Entitled Media Technology, the 
program will run in two parts. Part 1 deals 
with "The Human Interface with the 
Information Sciences." Part 2 with "Optical 
Videodiscs. Their Production and Applica- 
tion." The first part will run from August 
10—14. the second from August 17—21. 

For more information, contact: Director 
of the Summer Session. Room E19-356. 
M.I.T.. Cambridge, MA 02139. 



National TRS-80 
Microcomputer Show 

The First Annual National TRS-80 Micro- 
computer show will be held in New York 
City May 22nd. 23rd and 24th at the New 
York Statler Exposition Center (opposite 
Madison Square Garden and Pennsylvania 
Railroad Station). Featured at the show 
will be commercial exhibits of manu- 
facturers, distributors, and retailers of TRS- 
80 related equipment for the Model I. 
Model II, Model III. Color and Pocket 
Computers. This is the first mirocomputer 
show ever held for the TRS-80 user. 

Seminars and user groups will be held in 
conjunction with the show. In addition, 
some very famous names in the TRS-80 
world will be speaking on topics of interest 
to Tandy computer owners, and potential 
owners. The show will be aimed at business 
users, educational users and personal users 
of the 5 Tandy products. 

Show hours are Noon to 6 PM on 
Thursday. 1 1 AM to 6 PM on Friday and 
10 AM to 4 PM on Saturday. Over 100 
exihibitors are expected to be at this show. 
This show is not sponsored or endorsed 
by Radio Shack or Tandy Corporation. 

For additional information, write or call : 
Kenneth A. Gordon. President. Kengore 
Corporation. 3001 Route 27. Franklin Park. 
NJ 08823. (201)297-6918. 



Superman 




In the December 1980 issue we published 
an article by Bill Dyck entitled "It's a 
Blurb— It's a Game — It's Superman!" It 
should have been noted that Superman 
and his associated elements are the exclusive 
property of DC Comics Inc. and we regret 
the oversight. 



J 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



VM 


LNE1 



AN EVEN BETTER IDEA. 



Memory — you never seem to have quite 
enough of it. 

But if you're one of the thousands of Apple 
owners using the SoftCard, there's an economical 
new way to expand your memory dramatically. 

16K ON A PLUG-IN CARD. 

Microsoft's new RAMCard simply 
plugs into your Apple II," and adds 16k 
bytes of dependable, buffered 
read/write storage. 

Together with the SoftCard, 
the RAMCard gives you a 56k 
CP/M" system that's big enough 
to take on all kinds of chores that 
would never fit before (until now, 
the only way to get this much 
memory was to have an Apple 
Language Card installed). 

GREAT SOFTWARE: 
YOURS, OURS, OR THEIRS. 

With the RAMCard and 
SoftCard. you can tackle large- 
scale business and scientific 
computing with our COBOL and 
FORTRAN languages. Or greatly 
increase the capability of CP/M | | ~ 



i! 



a 



applications like the Peachtree Software account- 
ing systems. VisiCalc™ and other Apple software 
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Input/ 



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Output 



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Color Coordinated 



Dear Editor: 

Being a recent purchaser of the TRS-80 Color Computer, I 
found James Garon's review in the January issue to be quite 
interesting and informative; in fact, it is the best of several that 
I have read recently. I believe that I have the explanation for 
the token "SUB" which Mr. Garon could not find in either 
manual -this is the SUB in GOSUB (note that "GO" is a 
separate token (number 129)). Similarly, the token TO" is 
used in both GOTO and FOR...TO. 

Here are a few other interesting things that I have found in 
my meanderings through the Color Computer: the "real" video 
addresses are from 1024 to 1535 (as opposed to the "ghosts" 
which appear starting at 9216 and 25600, which Mr. Garon 
found). The cursor address is stored at bytes 136 (MSB) and 

In the area of printable characters, there is a difference 
between the results gotten by POKEing video memory and 
using the CHR$ function. When using POKE, the reverse 
video (lower case) characters occur from to 63 (including 
numbers and punctuation); when using the CHR$ function, 
values through 31 are non-printing control characters, 32-63 
are punctuation and numerics, etc. (following the standard 
ASCII layout with lowercase characters occuring from 
9<> — 127— there are no reverse video numerics using the CHR$ 
function). Note that when using the ASC function, the CHR$ 
values are returned and that when one PEEKs at video memory, 
the "POKE" values are returned. 

Thank you for publishing such an informative review— I will 
be sending in my subscription request soon so that I won't miss 
any future articles which you may have forthcoming on the 
Color Computer. 

Alexander Frazer 

764 N. W. 43rd Street 

Fort Lauderdale, FL 33309 



Sorcerer's Apprentice 

Dear Editor: 

First of all I would like to thank Creative* readers for a 
rather overwhelming response to my two Sorcerer articles 
which appeared in the January 1981 issue. Secondly I would 
like to clarify a few points and pass on some valuable information 
I have received. 

"Low-Resolution Graphics for the Sorcerer" requires 
corrections to the third and fourth sentences in the eighth 
paragraph. They should read: 

"Since each character contains 64 dots, there are two to the 



64th possible representations (clearly exceeding the Sorcerer's 
capabilities). If each character is instead viewed as containing 
four points which can be on or off, only two to the 4th (sixteen) 
graphics characters are necessary to account for all combinations 
of points." 

In "The Sorcerer Meets the Paper Tiger" I neglected to 
mention how to call the screen printer routine from Basic. 
This is accomplished by the following statements- 
POKE 260,86 :REM LOW ORDER BYTE OF DRIVER 
ADDRESS 

POKE 261,56 :REM HIGH ORDER BYTE OF DRIVER 
ADDRESS 
X=USR(0) .REM CALL SCREEN PRINT ROUTINE 

Both Joseph Power and Earl Youngs of East Lansing, MI 
were kind enough to let me know how to protect machine 
language routines from being clobbered by the Basic interpreter. 
Basic's CLEAR command has an optional second parameter 
(undocumented) which informs the interpreter of the highest 
memory address it may use. Machine language routines can be 
safely loaded into memory addresses higher than the value 
specified. The command format is: 

CLEAR a,b 
where ^a" is the number of bytes of string space to be reserved 
and "b" is the highest address (in decimal) that Basic can use. 
"b" cannot be greater than 32766. The CLEAR command 
should be the first statement in the program. 

Bob Stuckmeyer 

2347 Cavendish Lane 

St. Louis, MO 63129 



Hamming It Up 



Dear Editor: 

In your I/O column of Feb., 1981 , David Williams expressed 
a need for a modem that would be switchable from ASCII to 
Baudot code, to be used in communications involving the deaf 
who have access to Baudot terminals. I would suggest another 
possible solution. It is to use one of the programs written for 
many popular microcomputers, for Amateur Radio operators 
who use both the ASCII and the Baudot codes over the air. 

I have written such a program myself, for the Heath (or 
Zenith) H89 computer with H88-3 serial interface. It works 
with almost any modem having the RS-232 interface standard, 
and a simple RS-232/current-loop converted could be incorpor- 
ated. It translates from ASCII to Baudot, and vice versa, at 
several selectable standard speeds. 

Phillip L. Emerson 

3707 Blanche 

Cleveland Heights, OH 44118 



Help 



Dear Editor: 

I need an 8K (or larger) Basic interpreter on Tarbell 
cassette suitable for use with an Imsai 8080. I also want the 
source code listing if at all available. 

I live in Saudi Arabia where computer materials are unob- 
tainable. Any help you could give would be much appre- 
ciated. 
Thank you. 

Richard Herman 

c/o Donald Herman 

Thor Johnson Dorm 

Interlochen Arts Academy 

Interiochen, MI 49643 

Can any readers out there help?—DHA 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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A new rugged ballistic-type print head. 




And its simple, chassis-mounted 
cartridge ribbon lasts up to four times 
longer than cassette or spool ribbons. 
Paper Tiger 460 is the one printer 
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•Suggested single-unit US retail price 

t Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer Inc 

tTRS 80 is a trademark of Radio Shack, a division of Tandy Corp 



I/O, continued... 

34 Users 

Dear Editor: 

Now that the IBM System 34 has a Basic compiler, 
Creative Computing s customer base has been widened. 

I purchased Volume 1 and 2 of The Best of Creative 
computing and found both to be very interesting. The pro- 
gram I found most interesting was Star Trek. I became so 
engrossed by the program that I rewrote it in IBM System 34 
Basic. The program works perfectly. To the best of my 
knowledge, it is the only working Star Trek on the IBM 
System 34. 

If any of you IBM System 34 readers have other games they 
would like to trade by swapping diskettes, I would appreciate 
their correspondence. 

Karl Dittman 

Data Processing Supervisor 

Ozark Lead Company 

Sweetwater, MO 63680 



The Big Fix 



Dear Editor: 

In the November 1980 issue of Creative Computing there 
was a letter to the editor concering "Adventure" games. The 
person who wrote the letter was a Mr. Timothy Marino. 

I can relate to Mr. Marino's concern over the lack of computer 
games for mainframes. When I saw his letter I thought it was 
really fantastic that you put a letter like that in your magazine. 



I was starting to think nobody else cared for games for the 
"large" computers. 

I have written Mr. Marino twice in two months as I have a 
copy of Original Adventure in both Fortran and PL/1. 

Since Mr. Marino doesn't seem to want to answer my letters, 
I was wondering if you could forward some names and addresses 
of people who would like to start a users' group for Mainframes. 
In this users' group, I would like to be able to have the 
members swap programs and data, write their own adventures 
such as a "Zork," and trade programming tips. 

Any assistance that you could give me would be appreciated 
so much words couldn't describe it. 

Walter A. Schwarz 

Route 1 Mariner's Cove 

Box F8 Garden Dr. 

Estero, FL 33928 

We hope lots of readers will respond to this plea. We even 
have a name we ve been saving for just such a group: BUG- the 
Big Users' Group. Good Luck!- EBS 



stJL /TULHjt 




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1 have been watching the price of 
letter-quality printers for a couple of years. 
Although the cost of a formed-character 
printer has declined in that time, the 
decrease has been neither steady nor 
spectacular as it has been with other small- 
computer hardware. Today, it still takes 
over two thousand dollars to buy a daisy- 
wheel printer. 

It was with some excitement, then, 
that I saw an announcement that Cen- 
tronics Corporation had produced a letter- 
quality printer for under a thousand 
dollars. My excitement level dropped 
considerably when I read the announce- 
ment and discovered that the printer, the 
737, produced dot-matrix characters, not 
pre-formed characters, "III believe it when 
1 see it," 1 said to myself, and filed the 
announcement away for future reference. 
A few weeks later 1 was in a local 
computer store, lamenting the high cost of 
letter quality printers, when the proprietor 
showed me a sample of the printing from 
the Centronics 737. 1 saw, and I believed, 
and I ordered one on the spot. 1 was excited 

again. 

Eleven weeks later, when the printer 
finally arrived. 1 was not so excited. 
During that time I saw a 737 which 1 could 
have bought in another computer store. 
The only problem was that it didn't work. 
About the same time a friend of mine 
returned from a trip to another state, 
where he reported seeing another 737 
which also did not work. No one seemed to 
know whether there was a problem with 
the printer itself or if it had just not been 
interfaced correctly, but it seemed like a 
bad omen to me. 

I received a call from the computer 
store informing me that my printer had 
arrived. When I went to pick it up they had 
it unpacked, but they had been unable to 
test it because it didn't come with a 
connecting cable, and they didn't have the 
40-pin edge connector required to make a 
cable. Thus, I made a 40 mile trip to 
Kansas City to get the connector before 1 
tried out my printer. 

Now comes the good news. After 
some minor problems with getting the edge 
connector tight enough on the ribbon 
cable, 1 plugged the 737 into the parallel 
port of my Sol-20, and it worked perfectly. 
1 quickly wrote a little Basic program to 
test out the many features of the printer, 
and 1 was quite impressed with the print 
quality and the other special abilities that 
are available on the 737. 

What It Has And Does 

Some of the physical features of the 
printer include the ability to handle either 
single sheets, roll paper, or continuous 
forms on pin feeds which are nine inches 
apart. It can handle up to three-ply paper. 
On the front of the printer are a power 

David Mannerinx. 1026 Tennessee. Lawrence, 
KS 66044. 






§ff®ml 




David Mannering 

switch, an online/ local switch, and a 
line feed forward /reverse switch. The 
ribbon is a continuous Mobius loop and 
runs only when the printhead is not resting 
in the carriage return position. The printer 
makes no noise when it is not printing. 

Print speed is 22 lines per minute at 80 
characters per line. It interfaces to a 
parallel port with 7 ASCII bits and up to 
four control lines. 

It's not much bigger than a breadbox 
and weighs twelve pounds. My price was 
$995, but I have seen advertisements for 
less. 

Now for the internal features. First of 
all. there are three different character sets 
available. These are all standard ASCII 




characters, but they are formed with 
varying densities of dots. The regular 
characters are 7x8 matrix at lOcharacters 
per inch, 80 columns per line. These look 
like the characters produced by just about 
any other dox matrix printer. Another set 
of characters available are also 7x8 
matrix, but they arc printed at 16.7 
characters per inch. This is called the 
condensed mode and will result in 132 
columns per line. Finally, there is the 
proportional character set. 

The proportional character set is 
formed from a N x 9 matrix, where the 'N' 
may be from 6 to 18 depending upon the 
character being produced. This produces 
text of very high quality. While you would 



APRIL 1981 



11 



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Centronics, continue 

never mistake these characters for those 
produced by a daisy-wheel, they far exceed 
the readability of any other dot-matrix 
characters I have ever seen. 

In this mode the printer produces 80 
columns per line, but you have the ability 
to make every line exactly the same length. 
Right-margin justification is possible in 
this mode, because you can tell the printer 
how many dot spaces to put between each 
character. Thus if you have a table of the 
widths of the different characters (supplied 
in the manual), you can adjust the spacing 
between words to produce right margins 
as straight as those in a book. 

Within each mode, double-width 
characters are available to give you an 
additional three types of characters. One of 
my favorites is double-width condensed 
characters, which make very nice program 
listings. Also available at any time is the 
ability to underline text as it is printed. 

Some of the additional features 
available include half-line feeds both up 
and down so that superscripting and 

You can tell the printer 

how many dot spaces 

to put between 

each character. 



subscripting are possible, and backspacing 
from I to 126 dot positions. 

All of the features I have mentioned 
are under software control. Typically the 
driver routine will send an escape character 
(Hex IB) to the printer, followed by 
another character which is the code for the 
feature to be invoked. In Basic these 
features can be turned on or off by PRINT 
CHRS functions or by OUT statements, 
but if you want to use the full capabilities 
of the printer in machine-language 
programs, be prepared to write a fairly 
intelligent driver routine. 

The Centronics 737 is a line printer. 
This means that it buffers characters 
internally until a carriage return or line 
feed is received or until its buffer is full. It 
has an 80-character buffer in standard 
character mode, a 1 32-character buffer in 
condensed character mode, and an 1185- 
dot buffer in proportional character mode. 
It also has a separate line feed buffer which 
can store up to 255 linefeeds. The first line 
feed is executed as soon as it is encountered 
by the printer. While the stepper motor is 
executing the line feed, up to 255 more may 
be sent to the printer at the normal 
character rate. If the line feed buffer 
becomes full the printer will not accept any 
more characters until there is a space 
available in the linefeed buffer. This buffer 
is entirely independent of the regular 
character buffer which can also be filled 



12 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



luring the execution of the line feeds. The 
fact that it buffers characters means that a 
great many Basic programs that I have 
cannot be run using the printer as an 
output device because my Basic does not 
send a line feed to the printer after an 
INPUT statement. Thus 1 can only see the 
question I was answering on the printer 
after 1 have answered it. 1 have heard of 
Basics which fudge a line feed somehow to 
get around this, but mine doesn't. 

The owner's manual for the 737 is one 
of the best pieces of documentation I have 
ever seen. It tells you everything you could 
possibly want to know, from detailed inter- 
face instructions to how to change the fuse. 
I simply cannot imagine anything that they 
left out. 

Small Problems 

I have only two suggestions for 
improvement for the 737. The First is a 
somewhat minor but frustrating feature of 



The owner's manual for 

the 737 is one of 

the best pieces of 

documentation 

I have ever seen. 



the double-width mode. It turns itself of fat 
the end of every line. This is unlike the 
other features which stay on until you turn 
them off. In order to produce my double- 
width condensed-character program 
listings, my driver has to turn on double- 
width at the beginning of each line. 

My second suggestion is one of those 
things that seems totally out of place with 
respect to the design philosophy of the 
printer. The printer comes with the "auto 
line feed after carriage return" option on. 
In order to disable this, you must actually 
cut the lead to a resistor on the PC board. 
Then it is permanently disabled unless you 
buy another resistor and stick it in. As 
someone who deals with lots of different 
software and driver routines, 1 can tell you 
that it ought to be a little easier to turn this 
on or off. 1 am willing to bet that 
Centronics could have installed a tiny slide 
switch on the lead to the resistor and still 
have brought the price of the printer in 
under a thousand dollars. Ideally the 
feature should be software-selectable, like 
everything else on the printer. 

Overall 1 am quite satisfied with the 
Centronics 737 and would recommend it 
for anyone like me who wants letter- 
quality printing capability but cannot 
justify spending more money on a printer 
than on a processor and disk drives. It may 
be just what you've been waiting for. 
(Centronics, Hudson, NH 03051.) D 




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MODEL III $919. 



TRS-80 COMPUTERS 



Mod I. 64K RAM (126-4002) $3599.00 

Mod III, 16K RAM (f26i062) $919 00 

Mod III. 48K RAM i«6-i062*> $1039.00 

Pocket Comp w/lnter (#26-3&oi ♦) $259.00 



Color Comp. 4K RAM (#26 -30011 $359.00 

Color Comp. 16K RAM (K6-3001 ♦ 1 - - .$399.00 
Color Comp. Ext BASIC 1*26-3002) . . $529.00 



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PERC0M Data Sep (17-03) $29.95 

PERC0M Doubler (#7 07) $199.95 

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CHATTERBOX Interf (#4 en $239.00 

DISK-80 Inlert. 16K RAM (#4-82) ... $339.00 
DISK-80 Interl, 16K RAM i*4 -83). . . . $369.00 

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RS Expan Interf 32K RAM(#26 1140 -32) $399.00 
16K Memory Kit TRS-keypad(#s-no2 u $59.00 
16K Memory Kit. TRS-lnterf(§s-no2) - - $59.00 

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Upper/Lower Mod Kit (#15-021 $24.95 

CPU Speed-up Mod kit (#15-04) $37.50 

Video Reverse Mod kit (#15-05) $23.95 

2-port TRS-BUS Ext (#15-12) $29.95 

3-port TRS-BUS Ext (#15 -13) $39.95 

TRS-80 Model I Dust Cover Set (#16-01) . . $7.95 
TRS-80 Model I Carrying Casei#i7 ?od$109 00 
TRS-80 Monitor Carrying Case (#17 202) $84. 00 



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TRS-80 Model III Dust Cover («i6-os) ... $7.95 



TERMS' Prices and speclllcatlone are subject to Chang*. HARDSIDE accapta VISA & MASTERCARD. 
Cartlflsd chacka and Monay Ordara; Personal checks accepted (takaa 3 weeks to clear). HARDSIDE Pays 
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CIRCLE 1 80 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



APRIL 1981 



13 




rfii 






._^^ 



*-•■ 



, j 



I'm not a computer hacker by any stretch 
of the imagination. I write freelance news- 
paper and magazine articles for a living— as 
many as I can. as often as I can. So when I 
discovered that word processors could make 
a writer's life easier, I decided to put one 
together using my Apple II Plus. 

As a profession, magazine writing earns 
a little more than delivering newspapers. 
So. I had to make every penny count. 
Over the course of six months. I was able 
to bag everything I needed for my dream 
machine . . . except the printer. 

Ideally . of course, a letter-quality printer 
would have suited me best. As I'm sure the 
editors of Creative Computing will admit, 
many of the manuscripts that arrive on 
their desks are in dismal shape. Not just 
because of poor writing, but also due to 
strange-colored paper, worn-out ribbons. 

Dale Archibald. 1NI7 Third Ave. N.. Minneapolis. 
MN 55405. 



smudges, pencil scrawls, etc. Together, 
these form the gauntlet nearly every editor 
runs at each mail delivery. I didn't want to 
add to their problems by using a poor 
typeface. 

Realistically, though, a letter-quality 
printer cost three times more than I wanted 
to pay. In addition, they were slower than 
a dot-matrix, and perhaps more subject to 
mechanical problems. 

I also decided against the typewriter 
attachment that features little solenoids 
that strike the keys of an electric typewriter. 
They were too much like the long-lost 
cousins of a a pinball machine to suit my 
taste. Also, they cost practically as much 
as some of the new dot-matrix printers. 

Thermal printers, with aluminum paper, 
were out of the question. 

But before I made my final selection. I 
polled some of the editors I write for. 
"Would you object to articles arriving on 



14 




MPI 



88G 



Dale Archibald 




your desk in dot-matrix form?" I asked. 
Not one of them had any objection after I 
had explained what dot-matrix was. 

So I asked around, looked around, and 
settled on the M.P.I. 88G. This is the second 
printer in the Micro Peripherals. Inc.. line. 
and retails for $749. 

The main reason I picked it was its print 
quality, naturally. The fact that it could 
do graphics was gravy. 

The machine prints a normal 7x7 matrix 
in 10 characters per inch (c.p.i.). 12c.p.i.. 
and 16.5 c.p.i. bidirectionally. More impor- 
tant, it has what the company terms a 
correspondence type, an 1 1 x 7 matrix. 10 
c.p.i. That typeface looks so good one 
editor I checked with hadn't even realized 
it was a dot-matrix. ("Hey. the letters are 
made up of litte dots!") The characters 
don't have descenders, but otherwise look 
very good, with solid type and nice black 
edges. 

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almadon is no ordinary creature. Fables 
describe him as a nightmare made flesh. 
His dungeon is ten (10) levels deep and 
filled with hideous creatures. 

They dwell within the maze of caverns for only one 
reason: to keep you from reaching the O 
Dragon and his wealth There is no map. 
The levels and rooms seem to re- 
arrange themselves at will. 

As you battle your way deeper into the 
dungeons you find keys to the Great 
Dragon's lair. But which one is the 
magic key? 

Remember you cannot take the wealth from 



Salmadon's lair without slaying him. and you cannot 
slay the great dragon without one of the right keys. 

Dragon Fire is an intricate strategy adventure with 
170 monsters guarding over 150 different tr< 

The random generation of the rooms and mazes 
makes each game unique. It can be played on a 
color or black and white monitor. It includes sound, 
iraphics and a "save the adventure" feature. 

Dragon Fire is written in Integer Basic for the 
Apple II and Apple II Plus with I disk drive and 
48K RAM. Contact your local computt: >bby 

store or contact Level- 10. a subsidiary of Dakin5 
Corporation, Post Office Box 21 187, Denver. 
Colorado 80221. 



fgm 






A subsidiary of Dakm5 Corporation 
CIRCLE 122 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




The Perfect Fit 



The Micromodem II data communications system 
and the Apple II* computer. What better combination to 
maximize the capabilities of your personal computer! 

This popular direct connect modem can transmit 
data between an Apple II and another Apple II, a 
terminal, another microcomputer, minicomputer or 
even a large time-sharing computer anywhere in North 
America. The Micromodem II has unique automatic 
dialing and answer capabilities which further increases 
the communications possibilities between the Apple II 
and another computer or terminal. 

You can send and/or receive messages or data 
when you are out of your office, home or out of town. 
Your branch business locations can communicate with 
each other regarding inventory and other matters over 
the phone. Or you can communicate with friends 
across the country. And you can access information 
utilities like the SOURCE for various business and 
personal applications. 

The Micromodem II consists of two parts. One part 
includes the printed circuit board which holds the 
Micromodem II, ROM firmware and the serial interface. 
The board plugs directly into the Apple II providing all 
the functions of a serial interface card plus 
programmable auto dialing and auto answer 
capabilities. The on-board ROM firmware enables the 
Micromodem II to operate in any of three modes to 
perform different tasks-terminal mode, remote console 
and program control mode. 



The other part of the Micromodem II datacomm 
system is a Microcoupler which connects the 
Micromodem board and Apple II to a telephone line. 
The Microcoupler gets a dial tone, dials numbers, 
answers the phone and hangs up when a transmission 
is over. There are none of the losses or distortions 
associated with acoustic couplers. The Microcoupler is 
compatible with any North American standard 
telephone lines and is FCC-approved for direct 
connection in the U.S. It works with standard dial 
phone service or Touch-tone service. 

The Micromodem II is completely compatible with 
Bell 103-type modems. Full and half-duplex operating 
modes are available as well as speed selectable 
transmission rates of 1 10 and 300 bps. 

Why not increase your Apple lis capabilities by 
outfitting it with the sophisticated Micromodem II data 
communications system? The Micromodem II is 
available at retail computer stores nationwide. For the 
store nearest you, call or write: 



G)Hayes 



Hayes Microcomputer Products Inc. 

5835 Peachlree Corners East. Norcross. Georgia 30092 (404) 449-8791 

'" Micromodem II is* trademark ol Hayes Microcomputer Products, Inc 

* Apple II is ■ registered trademark ol Apple Computer Inc 

The Micromodem II can also be used with the Bed & Howell computer. 




CIRCLE 153 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




MPI, continued... 

The ribbon is a continuous loop cartridge 
with a 5-million-character life. It snaps on 
and off in seconds. 

The 88G has a full upper and lower 
case. 96-eharacter ASCII set. with software 
selectable single or double width characters. 
The height of the characters is .10 inch. It 
offers an eight-inch line length with K0. 96. 
or 132 characters per line, depending upon 
the c.p.i. And it will line space six or eight 
lines per inch, user selectable. Because of 
thegraphics.a IK buffer is standard; 2K is 
optional. 

Physically, the 88G is very close to the 
color of my Apple II Plus. It measures 
10 3/4" x 16 1/4" x 6 1/4". and weighs less 
than 15 pounds. 

There are three buttons and two lights 
on the front of the printer, plus an on-off 
switch and fuse on the side. One of the 
lights is for power on: the other lights 
when the Selection button is pushed in. to 
show the printer is connected to the 
computer. 

The three front buttons are the Paper 
Advance. Top of Form, and Select. The 
Select button determines whether the 
printer can communicate with the com- 
puter, by locking in or out. (Changing the 
setting during printing stops the machine. 
Push it back in. and it begins printing 
again.) The Top of Form button boosts 
the paper up a dot at a time to reach the 
top. The Paper Advance moves the paper 
up one line; if it's held in. after half a 
second paper will feed until the button is 
released, or the next Top of Form is 
peached. 

The machine has a Power-On Confidence 
test. If the switches inside the case are set 
to that, the printer will test itself each time 
it is turned on. The same results can be 
realized from the outside by a Self-Test. 
Press the Select button in. then press the 
Paper Advance and Top of Form buttons 
at the same time. The printer starts pounding 
out all the characters it offers across the 
sheet, and continues until the buttons are 
released. 

Paper feeds in from underneath, but the 

loading isn't as awkward as it may sound: 
the machine is designed to stand on its 
back (or if it's not designed to. it seems as 

if it were). An operator can use standard 
l ) 1 2" tractor-feed paper, roll-feed paper, 
single sheet paper, or labels. I've even 
tested it on invoice forms with multiple 
carbons, and it seems to do an adequate 
job. 

In fact, it offersa forms control that lets 
the user select any of sixteen form lengths, 
and has a "skip-over-perforation" control. 

One new attachment holds roll-feed paper 
behind the printer. Another will allow the 
user to slide single sheets such as letterhead 
in from the front, without having to make 
the machine do its balancing act. 

Adjustable tractors accommodate labels 
or odd-sized paper. Just flip a lever on the 

APRIL 1981 



_lor and slide it along the rods to the 
correct spot. Tighten, and it stays there. If 
you're running single sheets, a pressure 
roller is used. 

How fast is it? At full bore, printing in 7 
x 7 matrix, it's supposed to hit 100 characters 
per second. But the throughput— the actual 
number of lines per minute (l.p.m)— ranges 
from 55 l.p.m. at 10 c.p.i. to 36 l.p.m. for 
the correspondence font. Supposedly it'll 
hit 150 l.p.m. for short lines-handy for 
printing program listings. 

I asked the distributor about the printhead 
life. He claimed 10 million characters. 
Changing it requires only unscrewing two 
Phillips head screws, sliding the old head 
off and the new head on. plugging in the 
jack, and screwing the two screws back in. 
A five minute job. even for me. 

Repair problems are almost as easy. To 
change an electronics board requires 
removing three screws and ten minutes 
work. All dealers, distributors and sales 
representatives have replacement boards. 
A higher-level service center could replace 
a bad chip or other component. 

According to the sales literature, the 
88G will operate either parallel, with a 
Centronics type seven-bit ASCI 1 ; or serial 
RS-232C at 110. 150. 300. 600. or 1200 
baud; 24(H). 4800. and 9600 baud are 
optional, as is an IFEF-488 BUS interface. 



The main reason I 
picked it was its print 

quality, naturally. 

The fact it could do 
graphics was gravy. 



Now for you graphics lovers! 

According to the technical memo I have, 
the 88G operates on a dot addressable 
basis, with each dot position under control 
of the host computer. 

Vertical resolution is 72 dots per inch 
(d.p.i.t. Horizontal resolution -available 
by either switch or sof tware control — is 50 
d.p.i.. 60 d.p.i.. 72 d.p.i.. or 82 d.p.i.. with 
dot diameter at .014. 

All graphics printing is done in unidirec- 
tional mode, but a "quick return" brings 
the print head back to the left margin 
quickly. 

Six vertical dots can be printed simulta- 
neously on each line, and the paper can be 
advanced in steps of zero to 15 dots for 
each command. The top of the seven 
solenoids for the printer differentiates 
between graphics and control information. 
There is no automatic wraparound in 
graphics: all bytes beyond the selected 
line length are tossed. 

The unit I bought here in Minneapolis 



17 



has a hi-res graphics program as standard 
equipment, attached to the cover of the 
manual. The distributor claimed it is easily 
equivalent to some selling for over $40. 
Unfortunately, that program may not be 
automatically furnished in other parts of 
the country. Ask your dealer about it. 

Of course, the 88G isn't perfect. I wish 
there were some sort of mark on the 
machine to help me line up letterhead, but 
that's a detail. I can use a pencil mark for 
that, or invest in the front-loading attach- 
ment for around $25. 

Another minor problem is the tendency 
of the machine to leave faint lines across 
tractor-feed paper and labels. It may be 
due to ink rubbing off of one of the metal 
plates. It seems to be at its worst on labels, 
and nonexistent on pressure feed single 
sheets. Perhaps as the ribbon wears a bit it 
will disappear. The problem is a minor 
annoyance. 

The scream it prints at is a noise of 
another tenor. When it's clippin" along at 
the slowest throughput of 36 lines per 
minute, it shrieks like a rusty knifegrinder. 
The noise doesn't bother me for the 
short time it runs to type out an article 
(although it jolts the puppy out of her nap 
in a hurry when it starts). I imagine if the 
machine were used in an office, or next to 
the kids' bedroom, it would probably get 
obnoxious real fast. 

Here again, though, there's another 
attachment on its way to cut the db's by a 
claimed 50 per cent. 1 also defy anyone 
using an impact printer to have absolutely 
no noise when printing. 

Altogether. I'm very happy with the 88G. 
I may even be tempted into playing with 
graphics, since the machine has that 
capability. 1 recommend it. 

Micro Peripherals. Inc.. 2099 W. 2200 
South. Salt Lake City. UT 841 19. □ 




"Didn't you hear me say I was setting my end 
down. Bill?" 



One of the differences between the video 
output of the Apple computer and that of 
many "professional" units is the 40-column 
display of the Apple. For those of us used 
to the "normal" 80 columns of characters, 
the Apple limitation can be frustrating. 
This is particularly true when interfacing 
with equipment that either offers or 
demands 80 columns. The reason Steve 
Wozniak designed the Apple with only 40 
columns is good: the Apple was originally 
intended to be used with a standard B&W 
or color TV. and the bandwidth on these 
sets is simply not wide enough to provide 
the necessary resolution needed to make 
individual letters and characters legible at 
80 columns. 

With the advent of such information 
data banks as the Source and Micronet. a 
serious drawback to the 40-column display 
has become evident. Both the Source and 
Micronet require a standard 80 column 
terminal. (See Figure I.) When used with 
the Apple, textlines are disconcertingly 



broken up. sometimes reducing the overall 
legibility of the text. 

In addition, when using a text editor it is 
difficult to see how a page will look in the 
final printed version if your margins are 
set at 10 and 75 and your video display will 
not extend that far. 

Three manufacturers of Apple Periph- 
erals have addressed the problem and come 
up with plug-in boards that are unique in 
both design and operation. Yet. all three 
designs do display an 80-character line. 

We have tested all three products from 
both engineering and user standpoints. 
Through the text and accompanying charts 
and photos, we have tried to provide the 
information that will make it easy for you 
to choose the board that fits your needs. 

Before discussing each board separately, 
we have compiled a list of those features 
that are common to all three boards. 

Common Characteristics 

I ) The boards plug into Apple peripheral 



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Joe Alinsky. P.O. Bo» Mil. Canoga Park. CA 
91.104. 



slots (slot 3 for the Sup'r'terminal: any slot 
except for the others). 

2) All obtain power from the Apple (and 
all use lots of it). 

3) All have composite video output. 80 
columns with 24 lines of text. (The Videx 
board changes the number of lines depend- 
ing on dot-matrix size.) 

4) All display upper and lower case char- 
acters. 

5) All allow keyboard selection of lower 
case. 

6) All the boards require an actual B&W 
monitor, not just a TV. Even televisions 
with excellent resolution, displaying a gcxxl 
image with Apple's 40-column output will 
probably be disappointing with any of the 
80-column boards. 

7) None of the boards will handle all 1 28 
ASCII characters from the keyboard, e.g.. 
underscore, backslash, etc. 

8) All are more difficult to read and will 
cause a lot more squinting than the 40- 
column display. One obvious reason is that 
the letters are smaller. 

9) All the boards enable the user to view 
either Hi- or Lo-Res graphics on a regular 
television connected to the Apple video 
output, while viewing text on a monitor 
connected to the 80-column output. But. 
in the mixed graphics/text mode, the 
television set does not get the four lines of 
text at the bottom. 

10) Once installed, it is impossible to see 
anything on your monitor without running 
the board's software or doing a PR#. All 
video is routed through the boards. It is 
possible to see the display through a separate 
conventional television (connected, of 
course, through an rf modulator). See the 
special note at the end of the Videx sec- 
tion. 

1 1) CRT controller chip: All the units 
have a controller chip that provides the 
following hardware functions: horizontal 
and vertical timing: horizontal and vertical 
sync outputs; programmable cursor; text 
window manipulation: light pen register; 
screen memory addressing; character 



18 



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Project 80, continued... 

generator row addressing; interface to the 
microprocessor bus. 

Point 1 1 has several implications for the 
80-column board user. By using a CRT 
LSI chip, the designer can minimize the 
parts count, power, and cost. Also, the 
user can access the programmable cursor, 
and future software could use the light 
pen input present on this chip. As a last 
note on this subject, one of the boards 
(MciR) uses the text window manipulation 
ability. 

Videx Videolerm 

Of all the boards, only the Videx provided 
a first class manual to accompany its 
product. 

Included in its book were a complete 
schematic, theory of operation, and com- 
mented source code (how rare!). In addition, 
instructions are given on how to generate 
your own character set and instructions 
on directly accessing the CRT controller 
chip registers. As Apple recommends to 
all peripheral manufacturers, all firmware 
is contained in EPROM and a simple PR# 
command fires up the board. 

One of the most interesting and useful 
features of the Videx board is the ability 
to control the dot matrix cell size. Table 1 
indicates the choices available. 



the "shift" key for upper-lower conversion 
as on a normal typewriter. At the very 
least, one should expect to strike a single 
key that can be reached relatively easily 
by the left hand little finger. 

Unfortunately. Videx appears to have 
gone out of its way to make this a difficult 
task. It is necessary to hit a "Ctrl A" (two 
keys) in order to shift. But thafs not all. 

Normally, after striking the "shift" key 
on a typewriter, it returns to lower case 
mode after release of the key. Not so on 
the Videx. The "Ctrl A" arrangement is a 
toggle situation. Switch it "on" with a "ctrl 
A." and it stays in uppercase until you do 
another "Ctrl A." In order to type the word 
"Apple" with the "A" capitalized, it is 
necessary to hit four superfluous characters, 
(the ctrl key twice, and the "A" twice). 
Although a software fix to any text editor 
program might be possible, this is a design 
limitation that must be reckoned with. In 
talking with the manufacturer, they have 
indicated that a hardware fix for this might 
appear sometime in the future, but it is not 
available at this lime. Those of you who 
decide the Videx is the board to buy should 
contact the manufacturer to find out when 
and if this mod will occur. 

We discovered another problem with 
the "ctrl A" arrangement. It can do strange 



CELL SIZE (HxV) 


CHAR 


8x10 


7x9 


9x10 


8x9 


8x12 


7x11 


9x12 


8x11 



SIZE SCREEN FORMAT 
80x24 
80x23 
80x20 
80x18 



Simple keyboard commands allow the 
user to pick any of the dot matrix cell sizes 
available. (See Figures 2 and 3.) 

By adding an optional 2708 or 2716 
EPROM. it is possible to generate your 
own character set. The EPROM expands 
this character set by 64 or 128 characters. 

Any 80-column board being used with a 
text editor must contend with the problem 
of shifting between upper and lower case. 
Obviously, when one is entering text for 
later hard-copy printout, it is nice to hit 



Tabic I 

things from within a program. At one point 
in utilizing the Videx Videoterm with a 
program of ours, we found the program 
displaying lower case the first time it ran. 
upper case the second time, then lower, 
etc. Presumably, this was due to an 
embedded control A causing the toggling 
effect between upper and lower case. 

The user should experiment with the 
four matrix sizes to find the one that goes 
best with his eyes and monitor. We found 
the display slightly difficult to read on a 9" 



Sanyo, but it reproduced very well on a ' 
Hitachi and 12" Leedex monitor. The user 
may also find it necessary to adjust the 
"height" control (usually found on the back) 
on his monitor. 

It should also Ik- mentioned that many 
functions and commands do not work with 
each of these boards. This is particularly 
true of control characters and escape 
functions, although on the Videoterm board 
such common commands as "Home." "Text" 
and "Vtab" do not appear on the screen. 
There are. however, substitute control 
characters that perform the same func- 
tions. 

Videx provides an optional switch to 
allow normal viewing when the normal 40- 
column display is desired. We thought this 
was an unusual show of concern for the 
end user, and demonstrates gixnl fore- 
thought on Vidcx*s part. 

Double Vision 

As with the Videx. the Double Vision 
board plugs into any slot. However, the 
manner in which the board is initialized, 
or "fired up." differs from the Videx. Instead 
of a straight PR#. it is necessary to boot a 
disk containing the software for the board. 
We believe it is important to emphasize 
that if you are only using a monitor and 
are not simultaneously plugged into a 
standard television (through a modulator) 
you will not be able to see anything until 
you bcxit the Double Vision disk. If for 
some reason you do not wish to have 80- 
columns for a period of time, you will have 
to remove the connector from the board 
and re-plug it into the back of the Apple, 
unless of course, you have that separate 
TV. 

Once the disk is up and running, we 
found the Double Vision display on the 
Sanyo and Hitachi to be a bit (no pun 
intended) better then the Videx board on 
these same monitors. The characters are 
not as close together as on the Videx. (See 
Figure 4. 1 This is probably due to the smaller 
5x7 matrix. With the smaller matrix, any 
one character is less well-formed, but the 
whole screen of characters is easier to 
read. 

Another plus of the Double Vision board 



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Figure 2. Videx »ith the dctauit option oltOcim n ct t n 

\ 24 lines. Note the narrow vertical spacing between 
lines. 



I iiuire 3, Videx with the format programmed lor 
K0 characters \ 20 lines. Note thai with fewer lines 
there is more space between lines and the true 
descenders are evident. 

20 



Figure 4. Double-Vision: The lower ease g. y. p. q. 
etc. area little aw kward. but the overall text iscasv 
to read. 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 




sensational 
software 



creative 

computing 

software 



Super Invasion 
and Space War 




DiskCS-4508S29 9S 
Requires 48K Apple II or Apple II Plus 

Super Invasion 

This original invasion game features superb 
high resolution graphics, nail biting tension 
and hilarious antics by the moon creatures 
Fifty-five aliens whiz across the screen, 
quickening their descent, challenging you 
to come out trom behind your blockades 
and pick them oft with your lasers A self- 
running attract mode makes it easy to 
learn and demonstrate the game Game 
paddles are required 



Space War 

Take command in Space War. Select trom 
five game modes, including reverse gravity, 
and the battle begins Challenge your op- 
ponent with missle fire force him to collide 
with the sun or to explode upon re-entry 
from hyperspace Be wary He may circle 
out of sight and re-appear on the opposite 
side of the galaxy.lThis is the classic MIT 
game redisgned especially for the Apple I 



3 Adventures 



DiskCS-4513»39 95 

Requires 48K Apple II or Apple II Plus 



Space and Sports Games 

Disk CS-4501 $24 95 8 programs Requires 32k Apple II or Apple II Plus 





Adventureland Iby Scott Adams) 
You II encounter wild animals, 
dwarfs and many other puzzles 
and perils as you wander through 
an enchanted work), trying to res- 
cue the 13 lost treasures Can 
you rescue the Blue Ox from the 
quicksand' 7 Or find your way out 
of the maze of pits' 7 Happy 
Adventuring 1 

Pirate Adventure Iby Scott 
Adamsl - Yo Ho Ho and a bottle 
of rum You II meet up with 

the pirate and his daffy bird along 
with many strange sights as you 
attempt to go from your London 
Hat to Treasure Island Can you 
recover Long John Silvers lost 
treasures' 7 Happy sailing matey 

Mission Impossible Adventure Iby 
Scott Adamsl- Good Morning. 
Your mission is to and so it 
starts Will you be able to complete 
your mission in time 9 Or is the 
world s first automated nuclear 
reactor doomed? This one s well 
named, its hard, there is no magic 
but plenty of I 
Good Luck 



Strategy and Brain Games 

DiskCS-4502124 95 12 programs Requires 32K Apple II or Apple II Plus 



Star Wars. Shoot down as many TIE lighters Breakout. Four skill levels and improved 
as possible in 90 seconds scoring make this the best breakout ever 

Saucer Invasion. Fire missies to destroy 

the invaders who fly at different speeds 

and altitudes 

Rocket PHot Maneuver your spaceship over 

the mountain using horizontal and vertical 

thrusters 

Torpedo Alley. Sink as many warships as 
possible in 2 minutes 

Darts. Use game paddles to control the 
throw of 6 dans 

Dynamic Bouncer. A colorful, ever-changing 
graphics demonstration 




Baseball; A ?p!ayer game with pitching, 
batting . fielding, stealing and double 
plays 




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Build a wall to trap your opponent 
but don t hit anything 




Skunk. A 2-player strategy game played 
with dice, skill and luck 



Dodgem. Be the first to move all your pieces 
across the board in this intriguing strategy 
game 

Nuclear Reaction A game of skill, fast 
decisions and quick reversals of position 
UFO. Use lasers, warheads or guns to des- 
troy an enemy spacecraft 
Genius A fast-moving trivia quiz with scores 
of questions 

Parrot. A Simon-type game with letters and 
tones Dueling digits is a version with num- 
bers 

Midpoints and Lines. Two colorful graphics 
demonstrations Tones lets you make music 
and sound effects 

Checkers. Pit your skill against the com- 
puter version of this all time favorite 



To order any of the software packages 
listed above, send payment plus $2.00 
postage and handling per order to 
Creative Computing. Morris Plains. NJ 
07950. Visa. MasterCard and American 



Express orders may be called toll-free to 
800-631-8112 (In NJ. 201-540-0445). 

Order today at no risk. If you are not 
completely satisfied, your money will be 
promptly and courteously refunded. 



CIRCLE 300 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Creative Computing Software 

Morris Plains. NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800-631 -81 12 

(In NJ. 201-540-0445) 



APRIL 1981 



21 



Project 80, continued. 

is thai it allows escape key cursor move- 
ments. Both single key (escape D.A.C.B) 
and multiple key (escape 1 J.K.M) cursor 
operations are allowed. In fact, if you don't 
have the autostart ROM or an Apple II 
Plus, the Double Vision will give you 
multiple key cursor moves and stop list! 
As mentioned before, we feel shifting to 
upper case is a function that should be 
easy. The Double Vision board accom- 
plishes this nicely in two ways: Escape 
Key: hit the escape key once and the next 
letter is upper case, or Shift Key: This 
requires a one-wire modification to your 
Apple. The Double Vision manual explains 
how this is accomplished. After the modi- 
fication is complete, holding the shift key 
down while hitting a key prints it in upper 
case. Releasing it returns you to lower. 
This is true shift key operation. However, 
the shift-lock is not so easily accomplished. 
It is necessary to type "crtl E" to shift- 
lock, then "escape. Ctrl /." to get back to 
lower case again. 

We also discovered that while in the 
Double Vision software, neither Basic nor 
DOS responds to lower case. 

The Double Vision uses a CRT controller 
chip, as do all the units, however, no 
instructions are given on how to access its 
registers. 

M&R Sup'rTerminal 

The first thing you notice is its size. This 
is the largest board we have ever seen for 
the Apple. It looks like something that 
belongs in an S- 100 bus! In addition, there 
is a small piggyback board that plugs into 
an IC socket on the Apple motherboard. 

Unlike the other two boards the M&R is 
slot dependent: it must be plugged into 
slot 3. Its on-board firmware is contained 
in a 2716 EPROM and is activated by a 
PRff command (as is the Videxl. 

The M&R is the power-hungry champ 
of the three boards. We were interested in 
this and upon investigation, discovered 
that the M&R design places a power resistor 
on the board between the +5 and +12 
volt supplies. This appears to be a method 
of transferring some of the +5v load to 
the +12v supply. Indeed, the M&R has 
the lowest +5v current drain of the three 
boards. (See Table 2.) 

Checking further, we found our +5v 
supply near capacity (2.5 amps as specified 
by Apple t. The 1 2v supply had considerable 
margin, as might be expected. The logic 
therefore, of transferring the +5v load to 
the 12v supply appears to be sound. How- 
ever, the trade-off here is increased power 
dissipation (heat) inside the Apple. 

Since all the boards generate a fair 
amount of heat (the M&R more than the 
others), we feel a better design for all 
three manufacturers would be to use power- 
down circuitry (again as Apple recom- 
mends) or a simple on-off switch. 

The SupYTerminal can be loaded with 



Manufacturer 


Videx 


Computer Stop 


M\R Enterprises 


Model 


Videotenn 


Doublevision 


Sup'r 'terminal 


Basic Price 


S345 


S2s>5 


S.W.S 


HARDWARE: 








l( Quantity 


24 


20 


.11 


Sockets 


Y 


Y 


1 


Memory Required 


16K 


4*K 


\ \ 


Disk Required 


N 


Y 


N 


1 ypical Current 








Drain • > N 


■MXIma 


400ma(570mal 


380ma(380mal 


+ I2v 


30ma 


(i 


I90ma(210mal 


o\ 


I Smi 





1 1 mieroampi 


I2v 


() 





(I 


Total Power 


2 1 W 


2W(2.9W| 


•4.2Wi4.4W) 



Note: 

Current values are range as provided b\ the manufacturers. Powers are derived from the 

currents. Values in parentheses were measured on earlv hoards. 



SOFTWARI 


27<>X IPROM 


l.5Kol 


machine 


2716 EPROM 




at CH00-CBFF 


(ode loads from 


at C800CFFF 






disk to 


RAM 








just below IX )S 




Keyboard 










Characteristics: 










Shift Method 


CTRL A 


1 SCor 


Shift Key 


CTRL A or Sh 


Shift Lock 


Y 


Y 




Y 


Cursor Escape Functions 


N 


Y 




Y 


Ctrl I' copy 


N 


Y 




Y 


DISPLAY 










CHARACTERISTICS 










Dot Matrix 


1 Vanes 

See Table li 


5x7 




SxN 


Cursor 


P 


Blinking Rectangle 


P 


Inverse Character 


Y 


Y 




Y (alpha onlvi 


Control Character 


Y 


N 




N 


Graphics 


Limited 


N 




N 


True Descenders 


Y 


N 




Y 


Flashing Character 


N 


N 




N 


X-Y Cursor Addressing 


Y 


Y 




Y 


COMPATIBILITY: 










DOS 3.1 


Y 


N 




Y 


DOS 3.2 


Y 


Y 




Y 


Com Card 


• 


• 




• 


Integer Basic 


Y 


Y 




Y 


Applesoft 


Y 


V 




Y 


Pascal 


C 


c 




C 


Peripherals 


• • 


M 




• • 


I'nltd.TextEd. 










Ver.3.0 










Apple Pi 


*• 


•• 




• • 


Serial Card 


c 


N/A 




C 


Micromodcni 


C 


N/A 




N A 


Lower Case Basic 


Y 


N 




N 


and DOS commands 










-HOME." -VTAB." etc. 


N 


Y 




N 



* Only with additional software (B.I.T.S.. etc. I 

*• Both software companies claim comparability with all the boards soon. 



DOCUMENTATION: 



Schematic 


Y 


N 


Source Listing 


Y 


N 


1 'heory of Operation 


Y 


N 


Manual I eniith 






tin equivalent 






N 1 2x11 pages) 


.Sfi 


13 


OP I IONS: 


Graphics 


Pascal 




S25 EPROM 


Software $25 




Video Switch 






Plate S| 2 





N 
N 
N 



33 



22 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



el :7il J : I M? 



FOR 80 COLUMN PETS 

The Integrated Visible Memory for the PET 
has now been redesigned for the new 
12" screen 80 column and forthcoming 
40 column PET computers from Com- 
modore. Like earlier MTU units, the 
new K-1 008-43 package mounts inside 
the PET case for total protection. To 
make the power and flexibility of the 
320 by 200 bit mapped pixel graphics 
display easily accessible, we have de- I 
sig ned the Keyword G raph ic Prog ram . I 
This adds 45 graphics commands to ^ 
Commodore BASIC. The image a 
on the screen was created by the - A 
program below. If you have been^ 
waiting for easy to use, high ^ 
resolution graphics for your PET, 
isn't it time you called MTU? 



C«3»VJ 



=°^BU,,., 



w 



NOW 80 COLUMN PETS CAN HAVE MTU HIGH RESOLUTION GRAPHICS 



10 VISMEM: CLEAR 

20 P=160: Q=100 

30 XP=144: XR=1. 5*3. 1415927 

40 YP=56: YR=1: ZP=64 

50 XF=XR/XP: YF=YP/YR: ZF=XR/ZP 

60 FOR ZI=-Q TO Q-l 

70 IF ZI<-ZP OR ZI>ZP GOTO 150 

80 ZT=ZI*XP/ZP: ZZ=ZI 

90 XL=INT(.5+SQR(XP*XP-ZT*ZT) ) 

100 FOR XI=-XL TO XL 

110 XT=SQR(XI*XI+ZT*ZT)*XF: XX=XI| 

120 YY=(SIN(XT)+.4*SIN(3*XT) )*YF 

130 GOSUB 170 

140 NEXT XI 

150 NEXT ZI 

160 STOP 

170 X1=XX+ZZ+P 

180 Y1=YY-ZZ+Q 

190 GMODE 1: MOVE XI, Yl: WRPIX 

200 IF Y1=0 GOTO 220 

210 GMODE 2: LINE Xl,Yl-l,Xl,0 

220 RETURN 



K-1008-43M Manual only $10 

(credited toward purchase) 

K-1 008-43 Complete ready to install package 
$495 

MASTERCHARGE & VISA accepted 

Write or call today for our full line catalog describing 
all MTU 6502 products, including our high speed 
8" Floppy Disk Controller for up to 4 megabytes of 
PET storage. 



|l. 



ilif Micro Technology Unlimited 

„ 2806 Hillsborough Street 
r P.O. Box 12106 

Raleigh. NC 27605. U.S.A. 
1919)833-1458 

CIRCLE 244 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



The joy of music — 

without years of practice! 




ALF offers the very finest in music 
hardware and software for the 
Apple* II. You can enter your own 
songs from sheet music and play 
them back very easily — our de- 
tailed manual shows you how, step 
by step. And there's a growing 
library of preprogrammed songs 
available too — now over 115 songs 
on 7 "albums", priced under $15 
each. ALF's highly acclaimed music 
software has many features found 
on no other Apple music product — 
and no customer has ever reported a 
"bug" or error. 

Whether you pick our exciting 
9-voice MCI music card at just 
$195, or our gourmet 3-voice MC16 
card at $245, you'll get ALF's top- 
quality hardware that's famous for 
reliability and clean sound (we've 
been designing computer-controlled 
musical instruments since 1975). 

So see your Apple dealer today, and 
be sure to specify ALF music cards 
for the best performance. When 
you've seen ALF's total music 
package, you'll know why some 
music cards are more equal than 
others! 

Pleat* mention this magazine when 
requesting information from: 

ALF Products Inc. 

1448 tsies Denver. CO 80215 (303) 234-0871 
Apple is a trademark af Apple Gocnputcr Int. 



EAR TRAINING 

Four programs (pilch discrimination, 
interval recognition, chord recognition, 
and scale recognition) tor the ALF MC16 
music card (described above) are 
available on disk (or cassette). Under 
$50 for the set. see your local Apple 
dealer. 

For more information write 

ALF Products Inc. 

1448 Estes Denver. CO 80215 
(303)234-0871 



Project 80, continued. 

KEY TO TABLE 
All table entries should be self-explanatory except the following: 

Ctrl V copy: 

This feature which is inherent in the Apple's 40-column system allows you to copy characters 

from the screen using the right arrow key (Ctrl I'l 

X-Y Cursor addressing: 

A feature often found in CRT terminals that allows you to directly position the cursor vie X-y 

coordinates. 

Y Yes 

N No 

C Claimed by the manufacturer hut not tested b) the authors 

l' Programmable 



custom character fonts (type faces) from 
disk or tape. Up to ten fonts can be held in 
a "staging area" located in RAM and then 
quickly transferred to the Sup'r'terminal 
for display. The preliminary manual includes 
a utility program. "Font Compressor." to 
aid this process. (See Figure 5.) 



SUP *F:' TERM ML 

tfCDEFMIJKLHKOPORSTUVt'XYZ 
abcdefahijklrnopqrstUxH'xyz 



Figure S. Sup'r'tcrniinaldisplaysKood readability. 

Like the Double Vision, this board adds 
ESC I J.K.M cursor moves and stop list to 
the Apple. It also accomodates an optional 

one-wire hardwire modification for true 
shift key operation. The shift procedure is 
as follows: without mod: Ctrl A. activates 
lowercase; single Ctrl A. next letter is upper 
case; double Ctrl A. caps lock. With mod: 



Ctrl A; activates lowercase; shift key; 
uppercase: double Ctrl A; caps lock. 

The SupVTerminal does not respond 
to "Home." "Vtab." etc.. but as on the 
Videx. substitute commands to provide 
the same functionsare given in the manual. 
DOS and Basic will not re spo nd to lowercase 
commands. 

The 80-column screen does respond to 
the tab character (Ctrl 1 1 by moving the 
cursor to the next field. Tab fields are NO 
characters wide. 

We also noted as a handy feature the 
ability to program the HO-column scrolling 
window as can be done with the Apple's 
40-column output. 

We observed a couple of peculiar items 
with the M&R: when the SupVTerminal 
is activated, the color of any graphics 
displayed on the 40-column output deteri- 
orates, anil the inverse video mode (black 
on white) affects only alpha characters, 
not numerals or symbols. 

There are many good reasons for wanting 
NO columns on your Apple, and if you are 
looking for a board to make your Apple 
"Professional,'' the chart in Table 1 should 
help you with your shopping. Be aware 
though, that product improvements are 
likely, so check with your dealer before 
deciding which board is for you. □ 




CREATIVE COMPUTING 



AN ENTIRE STAR FLEET FOR $39.95. 

YOU'LL LOVE IT! 




Like some future starship 
admiral hurtling through the vast 
void of hyperspace at speeds 
beyond comprehension, you are 
challenged to a battle for cosmic 
supremacy. 

THE WARP FACTOR the latest 
computer strategy game from SSI, is 
what every space war fan has been 
waiting for - the ability to command 
a star fleet in realistic battle 
simulation against alien vessels. 
It is light years ahead of all 



other "space" games because it 
doesn't just fill your screen with 
pretty pictures and little substance. 
THE WARP FACTOR is a high- 
powered tactical simulation that 
places you squarely in the Captain's 
role dealing with the critical 
parameters of interstellar battle 
such as sensor and scanner 
readings; energy allocation for 
weapons (phasers, disruptor bolts, 
photon and plasma torpedoes), 
shields, and warp engines; and 
battle damage. 



THE STARSHIPS. With twelve diffe- 
rent starship designs - ranging 
from dreadnoughts and fighters to 
star bases and base stations - 
representing five Qalactic Empires, 
you can set up an astronomical 
variety of confrontations against 
another player or the computer. 

Each class of vessels is awarded 
a point value to reflect its relative 
strength so you can assemble fleets 
of comparable power for a balanced 
game Of course your - re free to play 
the intrepid hero against seemingly 
hopeless odds -perhaps mere 
fighters against a star base! 

Employing up to ten ships, both 
sides can give individual or fleet 
orders, the latter allowing all your 
ships to execute your commands in 
unison. 

THE COMPUTER aside from being 
the game's perfect administrator and 
referee, also serves as your ever- 
ready, ever-capable nemesis in the 
multiple solitaire scenarios provided: 
The Reman Chase (replete with the 
Cloaking Device Plasma Torpedoes, 
and Meutral Zone); Attack on Star 
Base; Attack on Base Station; and 
Dogfight 

THE TWO-PLAYER VERSION is 
essentially free-form. With each 
player choosing starships from a 
different Empire you can create 
scenarios ranging from space skir- 
mishes to a full-scale all-out star 
war! 

FOR $39.95. THE WARP FACTOR is 
undeniably the most complete and 
detailed simulation of tactical star- 
ship combat yet designed. It comes 
with the 5V4" program disc a 
Starship Operating Manual; 3 Star- 
ship Data Cards; and a Oame 
Selection Card - all of which will 
convert your computer into the 
gateway to galactic adventure 



THE WARP FACTOR™. The Universe Awaits Your Command. 



Credit card holders if you own an 
Apple®ll 48K (Applesoft ROM) and a 
mini-floppy disc drive call 80O-227- 
1617 ext 335 (toll free) and charge 
your order to your VISA or MASTER- 
CARD. In California call 800-772-3545. 
ext 335. 

To order by mail send your check 
to: Strategic Simulations Inc DepL CC 
465 Fairchild Drive Suite 108. Moun- 
tain View. CA 94043. 



All our games carry 

money- back guarantee. 

While you're at it you can also get our 

other games: 

FOR YOUR APPLE®: 

D Computer Bismarck: $59.95. 

D Computer Ambush (a tactical sim- 
ulation of man-to-man combat in 
WWII): $59.95. 

D Computer Napoleonics, the Bat- 
tle of Waterloo: $59.95. 



a 14-day □ Computer Quarterback (a real- 
time strategy football game): $39.95. 

D Computer Conflict (two modern- 
day tactical warfare simulations 
featuring REBEL FORCE and RED 
ATTACK!): $39.95 

Q Computer Air Combat (a simula- 
tion of air combat in WWII): $59.95. 



FOR YOUR TRS-80*: 
O Computer Bismarck 48K Disc 
$59.95. 32 K Cassette: $49.95. 



Apple Is a registered trademark of Apple Computer /m: ™S-80 Is a registered trademark of Tandi, Corporation 

CIRCLE 201 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





Infinite Basic 





Frustrated by the limitations of Level 
II Basic? Infinite Basic from Racet Com- 
putes may be your saving grace! Unlike 
most other enhancements to Level II, IB 
takes up very little memory because you 
create a specialized load module contain- 
ing only the function routines necessary 
for a specific program. The module can 
be located anywhere in memory and 
saved on the same tape as your program. 
The machine language routines are acti- 
vated by executing a ?USR( 1 ) statement 
and deactivated by executing the Infinite 
Basic command &NOIB. 

Matrix functions include reading or 
writing arrays to tape without leaders 
between elements, redimensioning and 
deleting arrarys with no loss of data, 
reading data statements into arrays, and 
copying or transposing one array into 
another as well as scalar, element, and 
matrix addition, subtraction, multiplica- 
tion, division, solutions to simultaneous 
linear equations. Basic subroutine call- 
ing, and subroutine return value facilities 
are all part of the package and indi- 
vidually selectable. 

Extensive string manipulation routines 
include justify, rotate, shift, and truncate 

April Lorenzen. Route 2 Box 44. Canton. KS 

67428 



April D. Lorenzen 

left or right, search a string for a sub- 
string, delete or insert a substring, and 
truncate left or right, search a string for a 
substring, delete or insert a substring, and 
the verify routine which compares two 
strings and returns the location of the 
first discrepancy. You can also create an 
absolute string pointer, convert any 
string or numerical value to a hexadeci- 
mal string, perform a character string or 
multivariable sort. PLUK or PLUG a two 
byte word into memory, propagate a byte 
consecutively in memory, and compress 
or decompress bytes to four, five. six. or 
seven bit formats. 

Infinite Basic allows you to draw and 
erase horizontal and vertical lines at high 
speeds and control screen scrolling up, 
down, left, and right with more handy 
routines. 

Many functions could be used in text 
editing such as the text pack function 
which deletes spaces from the ends of 
strings and leaves words separated by not 
more than one space. A character other 
than a blank space can be specified and 
will be deleted instead. Centering and 
justifying text, generating random strings. 



and converting to upper or lower case at 
will is also possible. 

The routines mentioned above and 
several more are fully explained with pro- 
gram examples in eighty-four pages of 
excellent documentation. I received my 
copy of Infinite Basic less than two weeks 
from the day I mailed my order. It comes 
on a single cassette with the tape version 
on one side and the disk version on the 
other. I had no trouble loading it on the 
first try. The only criticism I have is that 
the terminology used in the manual may 
not be familiar to the average TRS-80 
programmer. A glossary of terms would 
be a definite advantage. Perhaps David 
Lien will write a book entitled Learning 
Infinite Basic for all us novices! 

Infinite Basic is easy to use, well docu- 
mented, has greater capability and 
executes faster than Basic subroutines in 
less memory, and appears to have 
unlimited applications. An add-on 
module (Infinite Business) is available 
and more modules will be introduced in 
the future. Both are available for 16K to 
48K cassette and disk based TRS-«0"s at 
the very reasonable price of $49.95 
(Infinite Basic) and $29.95 (Infinite 
Business) from Racet Computes. 702 
Palmdale. Orange. CA 92665. □ 



26 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



HARD DISK MULTIPLEXOR WITH 10 MEG HARD DISK 

FOR THE TRS-80* Mod II 
NOW YOU CAN HAVE THAT LARGE COMMON OATA BASE!! 

• Allows up to 4 Mod II 'i to connect to a single controller — up to 4 hard disk 
drives per controller. Users may access the same file simultaneously (first -come 
first-served). 

• Uses Cameo controller and standard 10-megabyte cartridge (hard) disk drives 
along with RACET Hard/Soft Disk System (HSD) software. 

• Access times 3 to 8 times faster than floppy. Mixed floppy/hard disk operation 
supported. 

• Compatible with your existing TRSDOS programs! All BASIC statements 
are identical. 

• A single file may be as large as one disk. Alternate mode allows 24-million 
byte record range. Directory expandable to handle thousands of files 

• Includes special utilities — backup and copies. HPURGE for multiple deletions. 
HOCS directory catalog system, and Hard Disk Superzap FORMAT utility 
includes options for specifying sectors/gran, platters/drive, logical disk 
size. etc. 

HARD DISK DRIVE A CONTROLLER $5995 RACET HSD Software $400 

Call for multiuser pricing. Dealers call for OEM pricing. 

INFINITE BASIC (Mod I & III Tape or Disk) Mod I $50.00, Mod III $60.00 

Extends Level II BASIC with complete MATRIX functions and 50 more string 
functions. Includes RACET machine language sorts! Sort 1000 elements in 9 
seconds!! Select only functions you want to optimize memory usage. 

INFINITE BUSINESS (Requires Infinite BASIC) Mod I * III $30.00 

Complete printer pagination controls — auto headers, footers, page numbers. 
Packed decimal arithmetic — 127 digit accuracy +, -, *, /. Binary search 
of sorted and unsorted arrays. Hash codes. 

BASIC CROSS REFERENCE UTILITY (Mod II 64K) $50.00 

SEEK and FIND functions for Variables. Line Numbers. Strings. Keywords. All' 
options available for line numbers and variables Load from BASIC — Call with 
'CTRL'R. Output to screen or printer! 

DSM Mod I $75.00, Mod II $150.00, Mod III $90.00 

Disk Sort/Merge for RANDOM files. All machine language stand-alone package for 
sorting speed. Establish sort specification in simple BASIC command File. Execute 
from DOS. Only operator action to sort is to change diskettes when requested! 
Handles multiple diskette files! Super fast sort times — improved disk I/O times 
make this the fastest Disk Sort/Merge available on your TRS. 

(Mod I Min 32K 2-drive system. Mod II 64K 1 -drive Mod III 32K 1 -drive) 



**NEW** DISCAT(32K1 -drive Min) Mod I. Ill $50.00 

This comprehensive Diskette Cataloguing/Indexing utility allows the user to keep 
track of thousands of programs in a categorized library. Machine language program 
works with all TRSDOS and NEWDOS versions. Files include program names and 
extensions, program length, diskette numbers, front and back, and diskette free space. 

* * NEW* it 

KFS-80 (1 -drive 32K Min — Mod II 64K) Mod I, III $100.00; Mod II $175.00 

The keyed file system provides Keyed and sequential access to multiple files Provides 
the programmer with a powerful disk handling facility for development of data base 
applications. Binary tree index system provides rapid access to file records. 

* it NEW * * 

MAILLIST (1 -drive 32K Min - Mod II 64K) Mod I. Ill $75.00; Mod II $150.00 

This ISAM-based maillist minimizes disk access times. Four keys — no separate 
sorting. Supports 9-digit zip code and 3-digit state code. Up to 30 attributes. Mask 
and query selection. Record access times under 4 seconds!! 

* * NEW* * LPSP00L(32K 1 -drive Mm) Mod I $75.00 

LPSPOOL — Add multi-tasking to permit concurrent printing while running your 
application program. The spooler and despooler obtain print jobs from queues 
maintained by the system as print files are generated. LPSPOOL supports both 
parallel and serial printers. 

UTILITY PACKAGE (Mod II 64K) $150.00 

Important enhancements to the Mod II. The file recovery capabilities alone will pay 
for the package in even one application! Fully documented in 124 page manual! 
XHIT. XGAT, XCOPY and SUPERZAP are used to reconstruct or recover date from 
bad diskettes! XCOPY provides multi-file copies. 'Wild-card' mask select, absolute 
sector mode and other features. SUPERZAP allows examine/change any sector on 
diskette include track-0. and absolute disk backup/copy with I/O recovery. DCS 
builds consolidated directories from multiple diskettes into a single display or 
listing sorted by disk name or file name plus more. Change Disk ID with DISKID. 
XCREATE preallocates tiles and sets ' LOF ' to end to speed disk accesses. DEBUGll 
adds single step, trace, subroutine calling, program looping, dynamic disassembly 
and more!! 

DEVELOPMENT PACKAGE (Mod II 64K) $125.00 

Includes RACET machine language SUPERZAP. Apparat Disassembler, and Model 
II interface to the M ciosoft 'Editor Assembler Plus' software package including 
uploading services and patches for Disk I/O. 

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'THE COMPUTER PRINTER 
SPECIALISTS" 



CENTRONICS 737 



Word Processing 
Print Quality 




• 18 x 9 dot matrix; suitable for word 
processing • Underlining • proportional 
spacing • right margin justification • serif 
typeface • 50/80 CPS • 9W" Pin 
Feed/Friction feed • Reverse Platen • 
80/132 columns 



CENTRONICS 737-1 (List $995) 

CENTRONICS 737-3 (List $1045) 



$765 
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EPSON MX80/MX70 

Low-Priced Professional Print Quality 



• 9 x 9 dot matrix • Lower case descenders 

• 80 CPS • Bidirectional, Logic seeking • 
40, 66, 80, 132 columns per line • 64 special 
graphic characters: TRS-80 Compatible • 
Forms handling • Multi-pass printing • Ad- 
justable tractors 




EPSON MX80 (List $645) 

EPSON MX 70 Dot graphics. 5x7 matrix (List $450) 



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«mC Dot Resolution Graphics, quality print 

• 7 wire printhead (445); 9 wire printhead 
(460) with lower case descenders • Over 
150 CPS • bi-directional, logic seeking 
(460) • 8 character sizes; 80-132 columns 
• Adjustable tractors • High-resolution dot 
graphics • Proportional spacing & text 
justification (460). 

IOS 445G 7 wire printhead. graphics (List $895) $ 750 

IDS 460G 9 wire printhead, graphics (List $1394) $1150 

IDS 560G 9 wire, wide carriage, graphics (List $1794) $1590 



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PRINTERS 

ANACOM 150 150CPS, wide carriage. 9 x9dot (List $1350) $1130 

ANADEX 9500 wide carriage, graphics (List $1650) $1350 

VISTA V300 (C. ITOH) Typewriter quality, daisy wheel (List $1895) $Call 

OKIDATAMICROLINE80 (List$699) $ 520 

NEC 5530-5 letter quality. RO. parallel, tractors (List $2970) $2599 

MALIBU Dot graphics. 132 Col. Letter quality $ Call 

QUME 5/45 Typewriter quality (List $2905) $2559 

INTERFACE EQUIPMENT 

CCS APPLE PARALLEL Interlace card and cable $ 150 

SSMAIO BOARD Serial/Parallel interface board (List $225) $175 

TRS-80 CABLES expansion interlace or direct $ Call 



TOLL FREE (800) 854-8275 

CA, AL, HI (714)630-3322 c.nio, free catalog 



Phone orders WELCOME; same 
day shipment. Free use ot VISA & 
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require 2 weeks to clear. Manu- 
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equipment. Prices subject to 
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Oronge 

fTllCrO, Inc. 



3150 E. LaPalma, Suite I 
Anaheim, CA 92806 





Atari Music 
Composer 



We've been using the Atari Music Com- 
poser in home education and some school 
situations. We would like to share our 
initial experience and preliminary ideas 
here, and suggest other things that could 
be done. 

The manual for the Music Composer 
suggests it can be used to develop skills in 
listening, perception, music notation, 
composing (melodies, harmony and coun- 
terpoint), musical relationships, and building 
musical structures from simple parts. We 
found we could do all these things and 
more, always in a pleasant and rewarding 
educational environment. Nearly all of our 
trials were in a home setting; but some 
were in a summer class for 8 to 14 year- 
olds interested in using computers. 

For those who know other music boards 
for small computers (ALF. MicroMusic. 
MicroTech, Symtek). this one is comparable 
with five important differences. 

1 ) Nothing extra is needed. The circuitry 
is built into the Atari and the audio is 
amplified by the TV set (or monitor) which 
is used as the display device for the 
computer. You can also take the audio 
out of a 5-pin jack on the side of the Atari 
800 to feed any other amplifier. 

2) Most people will use it as given. Since 
the Composer software is in ROM it can't 
be changed. Programs can be written in 
Basic either to generate data files that can 
be read by the Composer, or to play the 
Composer's data files with other tonal char- 
acteristics. 

3) Use is very straightforward, with most 
of the options so obvious that a manual is 

Karl Zinn. University of Michigan. Center for 
Research on LearninK & Teaching Ann Arbor. Ml 
48104. 

David Zinn. Grcenhills School. Ann Arbor. Ml. 



Karl Zinn 

and 
David Zinn 



not needed. The user works through menu 
pages linked in a hierarchical structure, 
with clear mnemonics and using normal 
key s for insert , delete and cursor con trol . 

4 1 The system protects rather well against 
common user errors. New users, without 
previous experience with computers, get 
melodies to play back about as they intended 
them, and are not likely to lose them acci- 
dentally. 

5) The user has little or no control over 
tone quality, attack and decay, crescendo. 
and the like. 

The basic building block is a musical 
phrase; up to ten can be stored in memory. 
Phrases are arranged in up to four voices, 
with dynamics, repetition and transposition 
specified in a list of statements which looks 
like a computer program. Indeed, the 
composition activity can be used to develop 
programming concepts such as sequencing 
and iteration. Building a melody and 
counterpoint f'om phrases is good practice 
in music education as well. 

Phrases, voices or an entire composition 
can be saved on tape or disk, and retrieved 
later, perhaps with new arrangements. We 
much prefer disk because it is faster, but 
the cassette was adequate when we put 
only one data file on the beginning of a 
tape. (You will have discovered this problem 
with positioning the tape when reading a 
file from the middle of a tape if you use 
cassette on the Atari. We have heard that 
this software problem in cassette control 
will be fixed by Atari in a future release of 
the operating system.) 



We already said we hardly needed the 
manual. This should be true for almost 
any experienced computer user, and per- 
haps many novices. We find a five-minute 
demo to be enough to get anyone started; 
a few things may not be obvious, such as 
"FN" as the abbreviation for "File Name" 
in a prompt, and the prefix "D:" needed to 
specify that the file is to be retrieved from 
(or saved on I disk instead of cassette. But 
the manual is well-organized with clear 
descriptions and photos of the screen in 
various states. We recommend it to those 
who would rather learn systematically than 
by exploration. One part provides an overall 
description with things to do; another 
provides the file structure for those who 
wish to do things with Basic as well: it 
includes programs for listing files, computing 
music, and arranging harmony. A last part 
summarizes each of the commands. 

We have many stories to tell about our 
use of the Music Composer, and plan to 
do so in a later article after we have 
experience with a greater variety of users 
and in other educational settings. Perhaps 
you can get an idea from these brief notes: 
Piano music entered into the Atari was 
played and displayed by the computer in a 
regular way which made obvious some 
syncopation which had been hard for the 
student to catch and perform otherwise. 
Some band music was entered so that the 
cornet player could practice (at home) 
with the other parts played by the Atari. A 
band part in the Atari was used as a model 
(and a metronome) for repeated practice 



28 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



of a difficult sequence, gradually coming 
up to the required speed. Music heard 
only on the air was entered and reviewed 
(and played for fun), exercising notation, 
interval recognition, note duration, time 
signature, key signature and other music 
components. The pleasure of this activity 
for kids contrasts with the reluctant response 
of some students to "dictation" exercises. 

Music already stored in the Atari was 
modified in various ways (e.g.. tempo and 
counterpoint) to change the style. Musical 
rounds and fugues were explored, pushing 
the complexity until the sounds were no 
longer pleasing to the arranger or composer. 
Timbre (tone quality) was explored by 
writing parts in unison and then transposing 
them to various partial* (harmonics) one 
octave away, an octave and a fifth, two 
octaves, etc. Original compositions were 
developed by entering familiar melodies 
in up to ten phrases and rearranging them 
in interesting ways (such as those compo- 
sitions of P.D.Q. Bach as discovered by 
Professor Peter Schickele!) 

What we missed most while using the 
Atari Music Composer is a display of all 
four voices at once (as on a regular musical 
score or piano music). Sometimes it is 
difficult to find the part you wish to modify, 
since you can look at only one phrase at a 
time, and one measure in that phrase. 
Getting everything on the screen at once 



is a lot to ask of an 8K ROM application 
cartridge operating with an 8K RAM (yes. 
all these cartridges work on the 8K Atari 
400 as well as our 48K 800) and displayed 
on an ordinary TV. If it weren't for the 
lack of resolution in TV rasters Atari might 
have avoided the problem of where to put 
the note stems by displaying each voice on 
a separate staff. Having a printout of the 



Use is very 

straightforward, with 

most of the options so 

obvious that a manual 

is not needed. 



score would be really nice, and get around 
the TV display limitations. 

At times we could enter music as chords 
instead of notes in separate voices. A good 
composer aid offer many options for entry 
of music. But being limited to one. entry in 
phrases and voices is the right one for this 
beginner's composer. Other advanced aids 
are also missing: tone quality, envelope 
(attack and decay), inversion, and other 



operations on musical patterns. We suspect 
that some of these can be done from Basic. 

Although it is nice to be able to get all of 
the disk operating system from the Music 
Composer, working through it all to get a 
listing of what files are on the disk is a 
nuisance. One should be able to display 
the music files on the screen directly, and 
select one without the computer first erasing 
all the names. I It takes "D. < RETURN > . 
A. < RETURN >. RETURN" to get the 
directory on the screen. To get back requires 
a < RETURN > which erases the screen 
and then a "B. < RETURN > " to get back 
into the Music Composer. The new DOS 
2.0S for the Atari simplifies this slightly 
(fewer returns are required) but one is still 
limited to what was designed into the 
Composer ROM. 

In summary, although we could ask for 
more, what is provided was done very well 
for home education and recreational 
activities at a simple level. Clearly some 
people thought carefully about what should 
go into the Music Composer to make it 
helpful in music education. We hope others 
who find themselves in the position of 
advising computer companies will also help 
make the entertainment products better 
for education. 

The Music Composer is available for 
SfU.^.S from Atari Inc.. 1272 Borregas Ave.. 
Sunnyvale. CA 94086. Q 



Colorful Graphics Programs for Apple II, Atari, T I 99/4 



LAND WAR : A unique computer war game. 
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armies. Two players can oppose each other, or 
one o layer fight a computer general. 

All this for only $20.00 

Apple II with 24K RAMj Atari with 24K RAM. 
Not available for TI 99/4. 



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game in three dimensions instead of two. Hi-res- 
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Discover new planets, destroy Klingons, and save 
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$15.00 
Apple II.32K RAMI Atari, l6K RAMj and TI 99/4. 

DRY WELL" Entertaining strategy game of 
oil exploration. Discover the pattern of the oil 
deposits and maximize the profits of your oil- 
drilling company. Pattern of deposits is differ- 
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$15.00 
Apple II.24K RAM, ROM Applesoft i Atari. 16K RAMi 
TI 99/4 

MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL- 

Strategy game based on 1980 Major League teams. 
You manage your favorite team and make all the 
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your own teams. 

$25.00 (on disk) 
for Apple II only. Requires 48K RAM, ROM Apple- 
soft, and one disk. 



CIRCLE 133 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



APRIL 1981 



29 



Inciting the Cuss Factor... 




ABM 



Dale Archibald 



Dadblast it. There I was. solemnly 
dedicating my day to hard work writing, 
and the mailman innocently dropped a 
bomb in my hands. Bah! 

The product announcement proclaimed. 
"Invader and Asteroids move over.. .ABM 
has arrived!" So it has. From Muse. 330 N. 
Charles St.. Baltimore. MD 21201. It sells 
for $24.95 on disk, and requires 32K. 
Applesoft ROM. 

Your goal is to protect the cities of the 
eastern seaboard from Boston to Richmond 
against guided missile attacks that stream 
in from the top of the screen. 

You see a green vapor trail begin, if you 
have color. Control the crosshairs with 
the game paddles (or I imagine a joystick 
would be better), and launch either 1 - or 5- 
kiloton anti-ballisic missiles. But you must 
lead the correct distance: if you miss, the 
missile streaks on in to explode with a roar 
and hi-res color graphics. 

Some incoming missiles are multiple 
warhead jobs. That is. they reach a certain 
point and split into five or six: then those 
may split into five or six: then those may 
split yet again. At first, the game is fairly 
easy. The farther into it you get, however, 
the more missiles rain down on you. 

My paddle is rather worn from playing 
invader and asteroid games and "Computer 
Quarterback. " so I wasn't able to cover 
the entire visible screen. 

The beginning instructions allow you to 




Dale Archibald. IN17 Third Ave. N.. Minneapolis 
MN 55405. 



calibrate your paddles, but it didn't work 
on mine. That is. the program didn't adjust 
for the lack of resistance in the paddle. It 
did allow me to select the direction in 
which I wanted to use the two paddles. I 
ended up with the paddle controlling up 
and down movement while the 1 controls 
horizontal moves. 

I chose to put the untouchable section 
at the top of the screen: I can't fire when I 
first see the missile, after all. I have to wait 
until I can lead it properly. 

Sometimes a fireball will spread to stop 

30 



other incoming warheads (or your ABMs). 
I've found the best strategy is to just keep 
protecting everything as long as possible. 
When the bombardment gets too heavy, 
focus on one area and try to protect that 
until the final explosion goes off. 

The game even keeps track of the highest 
score achieved, lest you stop striving for 
self-improvement! 

This is another arcade game suitable 
for Archibald's Law: The more you cuss 
it. the better it is. This monster's highly 
cussable. □ 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



r 






TWDNEWONES 
FOR THE APPLE U OR U phis 



ABM 

Invader and Asteroids move over . . . 
ABM has arrived! Command your 
launch sites to fire 1 and 5 kiloton 
anti-ballistic missiles (ABMs). Save 
the East Coast from increasingly 
fierce Enemy nuclear attack. Posi- 
tion your target crosshairs to blast 
the green streamers before they fire- 
ball your cities— or worse— split into 
multiple warhead MIRVs turning the 
entire coast into a thundering 
specter of destruction. Hi-res color 
graphics, sound, high score to date 
memory, paddle or joystick control. 
On disk, reguires Applesoft ROM. 
($24.95) 





DATA PLOT 

Easy editing features allow you to 
create and modify a wide variety of 
full color graphic representations of 
numerical information. Bar charts, 
including additive bars, as well as 
single and multiple line charts may 
be plotted individually or cumula- 
tively. Pie charts are easily sliced. 
All figures may be output to a 
graphics printer or saved as hi-res 
"pictures" for dramatic full color 
recall as visual aids during presen- 
tations. Basic statistics are displayed 
automatically. On disk, reguires 48 k 
and Applesoft ROM. ($59.95) 



available now at your local computer store 



MUSE 



SOFTWARE' 



CIRCLE 226 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Apple n it o trademotv ot Apple 
Compute! Cap 

Dealer Inquiries Welcome 



330 N. CHARLES STREET 
BALTIMORE. MD 21201 
,(301)659-7212 



APRIL 1981 



31 




David Lubar 



If you didn't make it to Russia this 
summer, all is not lost. The Olympics live 
on in the form of an excellent TRS-80 
game. There is also hope for those of you 
who haven't managed to book passage on 
the space shuttle. You can engage in a bit 
of lunatic defense on an Atari. Finally, for 
those of you who want to know whether 
you should go to Russia, buy bonds, get 
married, or undergo any other risky activity, 
there's a horoscope program for the 
Apple. 



Test Your Medal 

Not satisfied with merely providing 
excellent versions of Basic for home 
computers. Microsoft. 4(X) 108th Ave. N.E.. 
Suite 200. Bellevue. WA 98<XM. has entered 
the world of sports. Defying the laws of 
physics, they've squished all the excitement 
of Olympic competition into a 32K TRS- 
80 program. It will fit in 16K if you don't 
mind making a second load from the cassette 
in the middle of the game. Simply put. 
Decathalon ($24.95 on tape or disk) is 
great; the game is exciting and well designed. 
the graphics are superb, and the price is 
reasonable. The program opens with clever 
title graphics, and keeps getting better. 
Up to eight players can compete in the ten 
events, or take part in practice sessions. 
The practice is essential since some of the 
events require careful timing and ctx>rdina- 
tion. This is not just another number- 
crunching simulation. 




Several examples will suffice to give an 
idea of the events in Decathalon. The javelin 
begins with a running approach, accom- 
plished by rapidly hitting two keys. (If you 
have a loose cable, your TRS-80 might 
respond to the pounding by doing an 
undesired reset.) At the right time, you 
have to hit another key which, while 
depressed, raises the javelin. A fourth key 
makes the throw. If you wait too long 
before throwing, you'li cross the line and 
foul. The excellence of the graphics bears 
repeating; the athletes depicted are verv 
realistic. In the pole vault, coordination 
and timing are really put to the test. After 
choosing the length of your approach and 
the height of your grip on the pole, yon 
start running. At the right moment, you 
have to lower the pole so it lands in the pit. 
Then, once up in the air. you have to do a 
handstand on the pole at the right moment, 
then kick off to clear the crossbar. It ain't 
easy The results of a bad jump can be 
both pathetic and funny. In certain 
instances, the player slides back down the 
pole, head first. 

Between events, the scores and standing 
of the participants are displayed, adding 
to the excitement. Decathalon also makes 
a fine solo game. The individual player 
will always come in first when there is no 
competition, but there is more involved 
here than just order of placing. Each event 
produces a score, and you can play again 
anil again trying to achieve a higher total. 
I recommend Decathalon to anyone who 
owns a TRS-80. 



Still Driving Them Crazy 

Atari, Inc.. P.O. Box 427. Sunnyvale. 
CA 94086 has introduced Space Invaders 
for their model 8(X) and 4(X) home com- 
puters. This version is different from the 
familiar arcade version, but similar to the 
Atari Video Computer System cartridge. 
Designed for one or two players, the game 
comes with twelve options, which vary in 
such factors as the number of lives you 
get. the speed of the missiles, and whether 
or not the missiles are attracted to your 
ship. Rather than appearing in full rows on 
the screen, the aliens come in columns 
from a rocket at the right of the screen. If 
you manage to shoot all of them, the rocket 
moves a bit closer and a new set appears. 
If you get enough sets to bring the rocket 
all the way to the ground, a surprise graphic 
piece of humor occurs. 

In the one-player version, the field 
remains the same when you are shot, 
allowing you to continue where you left 
off during any game. In the two-player 
mode, the field resets to the start at the 
beginning of any turn. In other words, you 
always start out at the same place. 

It's nice to see Atari releasing a popular 
game on tape instead of ROM. thus making 
it a bit easier on the wallet. One warning; 
don't play the game within a half hour of 
the time you need to do anything with 
your hands. They just won't be able to 
function for a while after gripping the 
joystick in a frenzied clutch. 



32 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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You learn by doing, not just reading. Special exercises guide you 
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CIRCLE 206 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Soft Centered, continued... 

Starry Night 

Astro-Scope ($30.00) is a disk-based 
program for a 32K Apple with ROM 
Applesoft or 32K TRS-80 with Disk Basic 
2.3. from Astro-Graphics Services, Inc.. 
Box 28. Orleans. MA 02653. As the title 
implies, the program produces complete 
horoscopes, giving all the required data 
for the positions of the sun. moon, and 
planets. This is followed by a mass of text 
describing the personality and traits of the 
individual in relation to each aspect of the 
horoscope. 

I will leave any arguments for or against 
astrology alone, and deal only with the 
program as a piece of software. On the 
bad side, the input routines show a fair 
amount of laziness. Any error during input 
will throw you to the top of the input loop, 
requiring that all information be re-entered. 
Also, input data are separated in all cases 
by commas. For instance, the date 1/15/55 
must be entered as 1,15.1955. and the time 
3:30 must be entered as 3.30. This shows 
an interest in making things as easy as 
possible for the programmer with less 
concern for the user. 

Once the data (time and date of birth, 
latitude and longitude of birthplace, and 
time zone) are entered, the program takes 
about a minute to calculate the horoscope; 
not bad considering all the computations 
involved. The documentation gets high 



marks. It includes information that will 
aid in determining time zones, latitude, 
and longitude. It also explains the meaning 
of many astrological terms and tells how 
to get the most benefit from the program. 

It's interesting to note that everyone 
watching the program, whether a skeptic 
or believer, wanted to try it. This seems 




to indicate that, beyond being useful to 
those interested in astrology, the program 
might be fun at parties. AGS software also 
produces Sex-O-Scope, a similar program 
which deals with a person's sexual ten- 
dencies and attitudes as influenced by the 
stars. Discounting the poor input routines. 
Astro-scope is probably the most compre- 
hensive and interesting astrology program 
available. 



Feedback 

A few months ago, I asked for thoughts 
on the subject of protected software. Bruce 
Oakes of Lebanon NJ was kind enough to 
respond with some interesting ideas. He 
raises an important point: many home 
computer owners don't just play the games 
they buy. they also learn from them. 
Obviously, if you can't list a program, you 
can't learn from it. On the other hand. I 
believe that a programmer who has devel- 
oped a unique technique probably deserves 
some protection for his ideas. This seems 
to bring us to a dilemma which can be 
alleviated by another point Mr. Oakes 
mentions. Thorough documentation 
encourages individual purchasing. Perhaps 
protected software could be furnished with 
documentation that explains some of the 
techniques used in the program. While it 
might seem unfair to expect software 
vendors to take the role of teachers, this 
approach deserves consideration. There 
are already programs on the market that 
include extensive tutorial documentation. 
I would imagine such packages suffer a 
low rate of piracy. 

Is it unfair to expect vendors to provide 
software from which you can learn? Does 
documentation limit piracy? Is there any 
solution that will suit both suppliers and 
users? Let me hear from you. □ 




CIRCLE 261 ON RfTADER SERVICE CARD 



INTRODUCING 

THE APPLE-CRATE 

Now, you can put all your Apple components into one desk- 
top package. Everything is right at your finger tips. Stacked, 
racked and packed in the new Apple-Crate. For more effi- 
ciency For more elbow-room. 

The Apple-Crate is built by the same company that man- 
ufactures top-line stereo speaker cabinets ... so it's rugged, 
scratch and stain resistant, and looks like an expensive 
piece of furniture but costs only $49.95. 

Don't settle for any flimsy imitation. Ask for it by name. 
"The Apple-Crate." 



Exclusively distributed by 



4079 Glencoe Ave., Marina del Rey, CA 90291 
(800)421-0980 In CA (213) 822-8933 



€ 



See it at computer stores 
across the country. 



— 



_V- 






^■i^BH 



■1 



Wars In Space 



If »] 



Dale Archibald 



//• 



I enjoy space programs— and I don't 
mean N.A.S.A. or Buck Rogers. I admit 
part of the reason is that such flights of 
fancy feel so appropriate played on a home 
computer. Thus they're fun for several 
reasons, not the least of which is knowing 
such enjoyment would have been unavail- 
able to me just five years ago. 

Of course I'm referring to the games 
that use outer space as the background, 
from arcade shoot'em-ups to the new space 
strategy gems. Galaxy (P.O. Box 22072. 
San Diego. CA 92122) and Broderbund 
Software (Box 3266. Eugene. OR 97403) 
both offer good strategic space games. 

1 don't have a color monitor or TV set 
yet. even though most of the newer games 
for 48K Apple II Plus use high resolution 
color graphics. I'm sure I miss a lot of 
vibrancy, but most of the time color isn't 
essential. 

I say most of the time, because in Galaxy 
Space War 1 . if it isn't essential it sure is 
handy. Frank Tarkeny spent 1 1 months 
working on this game, and it was time well 
spent. 

War 1 is a strategy game on disk for the 
48K Apple II with Applesoft in ROM. or 
the Apple II Plus. It can be played solitaire, 
or by two people. It seems there is a war 
raging between opposing galaxies, the red 
and the green, each of which has a certain 
amount of energy and a certain number of 
building blocks with which to build a fleet. 

Two modes of play are available. One 
mode allows total knowledge: that is. the 

Dale Archibald. 1817 Third Ave. N.. Minneapolis 

MN 5.S-40S. 

APRIL 1981 



player can see all ships of both fleets, and 
their placement on the 17x33 sector grid. 

More interesting is the "sensor know- 
ledge" mode. Using this, the opposing craft 
aren't seen until— and here's where color 
is necessary — they're within sensor range. 
At that point, the four dots at the affected 
corners of the sector turn violet. So sensor 
knowledge allows the opponents to play 
blind until something blunders close. This 
is a fine example of what wargamers call 
"fog of war"; that is. in the confusion of 
combat, it isn't always possible to see and 
know everything that's happening on a 
battlefield. A computer is ideal for simu- 
lating this. 

Play begins with shipbuilding. Ships are 
built by selecting the size, shape, and total 
energy. Each is designed according to 
individual taste, as long as the blocks— each 
filling a sector— touch one another. Each 
combatant can have a fleet of up to 26 
ships, composed of from one to nine blocks, 
with between 100 and 999 energy units. 

The instructions take up six pages and a 
summary sheet. They're a bit convoluted, 
but understandable after several readings. 

For instance, the total energy a ship has 
is divided into quarters, each of which is 
allocated either to screen/detection or 
attack/move. Thus, if screens are set at 
(zero per cent) detection is also set at 0. 
but the ship can move 4 sectors (doubled 
with hypermove) and/or attack with beams 
as far as 4 sectors away. If the screens are 
set at 4 ( 100 per cent), a ship can detect an 
enemy up to 4 sectors away, but can neither 
move nor attack. 



37 



If screen/detection is set at 1 (25 per 
cent), that leaves 3 sectors to move and/or 
attack. Each move costs attack energy 
points, one point for a one-sector move, 
two for a hypermove. 

Screens can be changed at any time, but 
after that the ship can only attack until the 
end of that move. A ship with half its 
energy allocated to screen/detect could 
move up to 4 sectors (on hypermove), 
change its screen from 2 to 0. and attack 
up to 4 sectors away. 

During an attack, the screen energy ot 
the prey is first affected on a one-to-one 
basis; its attack energy is drained two units 
for every unit with which you attack. For 
example, if a defending ship has 100 energy 
units divided between screens and attack 
energy, you would expend 50 units to burst 
the screens and 25 to drain its attack 
energy. 

Two other unusual features are the Plan 
Battle command and the Kill. Plan Battle 
gives the attacker a readout on the amount 
of power needed to destroy a defender 
with screens at the various settings. Kill 
lets a player clear the screen of the energy- 
drained husks of ships. There's also a Save 
Game feature. 

When two players are battling each other, 
there are some shortcomings. First, which- 
ever player is at the computer can attack 
without his opponent knowing which ship 
was hit until he returns to the keyboard. 
There is no defense except having screens 
on full. Then. too. a player can find out— by 
calling up the Galaxy summaries— how 
his fleet compares to the opponent's in 



Wars In Space, continued... 

terms of number of ships, blocks used, 
power, etc. (My opponent and I agreed 
not to look at that report or one another's 
ship reports.) The best strategy on the 
games I've played so far seems to be a very 
conservative one. That is. let your opponent 
use energy moving toward your galaxy. 
Then strike! 

The Galactic Saga line put out by 
Broderbund is a whole new concept in 
games, different from any I've seen until 
now. They consist of Galactic Empire. 
Galactic Trader, and Galactic Revolution. 
The fourth. Tawala's Last Redoubt, is in 
the works. All programs are by Douglas 
G. Carlston. and they're very good. All are 
available for the TRS-80 Level II 16K on 
cassette. 32K disk, and on disk for the 48K 
Apple II Plus, or Apple II with Applesoft 
in ROM. 



Your mission is to 

conquer and hold the 

20 inhabited worlds 

of the system. 



The story begins with you in command 
of Galactica's Imperial Forces. Your mission 
is to conquer and hold the 20 inhabited 
worlds of the system. Some worlds are 
primitive: others are equal in sophistication 
to Galactica. but many have larger or 
smaller populations; yet others may be 
technologically more advanced. You have 
1.000 years to accomplish your mission. 



......t.'itittioitiiriiiiiifim 



Galaxy War I 

When you begin, you only have infor- 
mation about one planet: Galactica. You 
must order Lieutenant Starbuck to send 
out scouts to investigate the other planets 
and return. Their reports will bring your 
computer up-to-date on their status. (That 
can change over the years, remember.) 

Computer Central will give you star maps 
of the local area and the galaxy, plus a 
rangefinder for the light years between 
two stars. If you'd rather have the planetary 



directory, that will relate information about 
the planets from which probes have 
returned. Status reports tell you when and 
where probes will return, or when fighters, 
transports, or probes you've ordered are 
due to arrive, and where. 

Besides Starbuck. other officers are 
Navigator Kirman. Lieutenant Bayliss 
( responsible for taxation . enlistments, and 
ordering ships), and Doctor Henderson 
(quick with a sleep needle). 

The sound and graphics are good, albeit 
simple. The planetsappear and disappear, 
star trails move toward you as your fleet 
travels through space. The battle scenes 
are simply readouts of the odds of 
winning. 

The entire game is one of logistics. First 
conquer weak planets near Galactica. then 
tax them to build your forces back up. 
Primitive planets can only supply troops, 
while more advanced planets can supply 
ships as well. You're forced to shuttle back 
and forth between the occupied planets to 
collect taxes (once per visit), buy ships, 
and enlist troops. When you're ready, you 
go on to the next target, and. upon arrival, 
attack. Depending upon circumstances, 
you either win or retreat when the odds 
are bad. 



Stardatai 18. « 




Galactic Empire 



As you expand the empire, you can gather 
more taxes to build more ships. Time, 
however, is not always on your side. After 
all. the galaxy takes 60 years to cross and 
there are 19 planets to conquer. 

Careful planning is the key to winning 
the game. Patience, too, is important. Each 
move deducts time from the 1 ,000 years 
you have. When you are not traveling or 
in suspended animation a year takes four 
minutes.) 

The game runs quite a while. It's lucky 
there's a Save Game feature. 

I wish there were a Save Game on 
Galactic Trader and Galactic Revolution. 
In Galactic Trader, the Emperor Tawala 
Mungo has removed you from your com- 
mand. He has also, it is rumored, set assassins 
on your trail. 

Computer Central has stayed true to 
you. as has your navigator. Kirman. Now 
you begin with a ship. 1 .000 credits and 
1.000 millits of fuel. 



38 



IHta la •*-• DIMjo. 



(Call <* 'ar nal» 



ftfrisasc 



sir. k-t*t tfOu »ot to tr 



Galactic Trader 

Unfortunately, you don't know where 
products originate, where they're most 
valuable, or the rates of barter (no trader 
will accept coin except on Galactica). By 
slow, cautious trading, you try to amass a 
fortune. Never retrace your steps, however, 
because if one of the trading companies 
discovers you've found a profitable route, 
it will steal it from you. 

Every time you return to Galactica. by 
the way . the chances are better an assassin 
will earn blood money. 

Computer Central will help you with 
star maps, trading records, and fuel use 
computations. You feed in the amount of 
cargo you have and where you want to go. 
and the computer shows how much fuel it 
will require. If you're forced to buy from 
the fuel cartel, however, you'll only get 
about half-price for your goods. You don't 
want to end up lost in space. You also 
don't want to make an error on a transaction 
with a trader. The results are very messy. 

Last is Galactic Revolution. By the time 
this scenario begins, you've made your 
fortune. Tawala Mungo has pretty well 
hashed up the Empire you earned for him 
and now you feel the time is right to make 
your move. Unfortunately, despite his 
cruelty, he still has a great deal of support 




Galactic Revolution 

from the peasantry, almost all the 
bureaucracy, and half the military. 

In additon to Tawala. you are faced 
with the trader leader. Jan Swart. His 
constituency is strong among manufacturers 
and traders, but he is disliked by peasants 
and bureaucrats both. 

Your only advantage is that no one hates 
you. You also have strong support from 
the military, and some from the traders. 

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in back of magazine. 




40 



Wars in Space, continued... 

Each of you is faced with 
the same problem: 

how to sway the public 

opinion on planets 

in your favor? 

Each of you is faced with the same 
problem: how to sway the public opinion 
on planets in your favor? 

Every planet has five power groups: 
manufacturers, military, peasants, traders, 
and bureaucrats. In the solitaire game, 
there are no alliances. In the two and 
three player games, there can be alliances. 
There can also be blockades against planets 
to prevent taxation by an opponent if you 
make the wrong diplomatic moves, and 
force it away from your camp. In some 
cases, you might even want to declare war 
as a last resort. 

When the game starts, there are seven 
independent planets, each with a different 
power structure. Each character also has 
a power base, with varying numbers of 
planets, troops, arms, and ships. 

The key to winning a planet is administra- 
tive action. You may implement land reform 
or collectivize farm and factory; reduce 
or increase tariffs; institute univeral con- 
scription or abolish the draft; or take any 
of four other actions. Each action will 
strengthen one or two groups and weaken 
others. 

Tawala. for instance, might increase 
tariffs because it would weaken traders. 
He might lose some points among the 
peasants because imported goods would 
cost more, but it would increase his popu- 
larity among the manufacturers and give 
more strength to the bureaucracy that would 
be collecting the taxes. 

DuBuque. the hero, might choose uni- 
versal conscription on one planet because 
it would strengthen the military, which is 
strongly for him. and at the same time 
weaken both the peasantry and the traders 
(they're fine pilots). 

This is a great wheeler-dealer game, 
with enough twists and turns to delight 
Machiavelli. The witty instruction book 
outlines strategies such as the Straw Man 
Maneuver. e.g. taking administrative actions 
to throw a planet to a very weak opponent, 
then declaring war against it. Win the planet 
back, change the administrative actions 
back— you're more popular than ever, and 
have "new credentials as a war hero." 

How do you win? As Gary Carlston 
writes in the manual. "Well, you win if you 
get control of all 18 worlds. You'll even 
get a score, based on the amount of time it 
took you to take control and the resources 
you preserved at the end. No bells and 
whistles though. Winning isn't everything." 
If only it would Save Game. □ 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



first personal computer 
far under $20tt 



The Sinclair ZX80. 
A complete computer- 
only $199.95 plus $5.00 shipping. 

Now, for just $199.95, you can get a 
complete, powerful, full-function computer, 
matching or surpassing other personal 
computers costing several times more. 

It's the Sinclair ZX80. The computer that 
"Personal Computer World" gave 5 stars 
for 'excellent value.' 

The ZX80 cuts away computer jargon 
and mystique. It takes you straight into 
BASIC, the most common, easy-to-use 
computer language. 

You simply take it out of the box, con- 
nect it to your TV, and turn it on. And if 
you want, you can use an ordinary cassette 
recorder to store programs. With the man- 
ual in your hand, you'll be running programs 
in an hour. Within a week, you'll be writing 
complex programs with confidence. 

All for under $200. 

Sophisticated design makes the 
ZX80 easy to learn, easy to use. 

We've packed the conventional computer 
onto fewer, more powerful LSI chips— 
including the Z80A microprocessor, the 
faster version of the famous Z80. This 
makes the ZX80 the world's first truly port- 
able computer (6V4" x 8Vi" x \W and a mere 
12 oz.). The ZX80 also features a touch 
sensitive, wipe-clean keyboard and a 
32-character by 24-line display. 

Yet, with all this power, the ZX80 is easy 
to use, even for beginners. 




Your .course in computing. 

The ZX80 comes complete with its own 
128-page guide to computing. The manual 
is perfect for both novice and expert. For 
every chapter of theory, there's a chapter 
of practice. So you learn by doing — not just 
by reading. It makes learning easy, exciting 
and enjoyable. 

You'll also receive a catalog packed with 
items that can make your ZX80 even more 
useful. Including 27 program cassettes, from 
games and home budgeting for just $6.95, 
to Sinclair's unique Computer Learning Lab 
(a workbook, sue cassettes with 100 lessons, 
and two cassettes for storing programs). 
ZX80's advanced design features. 

Sinclair's 4K integer BASIC has perfor- 
mance features you'd expect only on much 
larger and more expensive computers. 
■ Unique 'one touch' entry. Key words 

(RUN, PRINT. LIST, etc.) have their 

own single-key entry to reduce typing 

and save memory space. 




■ Automatic 
error detection. 
A cursor identifies errors 
immediately to prevent entering 
programs with faults. 

■ Powerful text editing facilities. 

■ Also programmable in machine code. 

■ Excellent string handling capability— up 
to 26 string variables of any length. 

■ Graphics, with 22 standard symbols. 

■ Built-in random number generator for 
games and simulations. 

Sinclair's BASIC places no arbitrary re- 
strictions on you— with many other flexible 
features, such as variable names of any 
length. 

And the computer that can do so much 
for you now will do even more in the fu- 
ture. Options will include expansion of IK 
user memory to 16K, a plug-in 8K floating- 
point BASIC chip, applications software, 
and other peripherals. 
Order your ZX80 now! 

The ZX80 is available only by mail from 
Sinclair, a leading manufacturer of con- 
sumer electronics worldwide. 

To order by mail, use the coupon below. 
But for fastest delivery, order by phone 
and charge to your Master Charge or VISA. 
The ZX80 is backed by a 10-day money- 
back guarantee, and a 90-day limited warranty 
which can be extended by 12 months under Sin- 
clair's extended service program for $25.00. 



Price includes TV and cassette connectors, 
AC adaptor, and 128-page manual. 

All you need to use your ZX80 is a standard TV 
(color Ot black and white). The ZX80 comes complete 
with conMCton that easily hook up to the antenna 
terminals of your TV. Also included is a connector for 
a portable cassette recorder, if you choose to store 
programs. (You use an ordinary blank cassette.) 




The ZX80 is a family learning aid. Children 10 and 
above will quickly understand the principles of 
computing— and have fun learning. 

To order call toll free: 800-543-3000. 
In Ohio call: 800-582-1364. 
Ask for operator #508. 
Phones open 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. 




Sinclair Research Ltd. 
Nashua. NH 03061. 



One Sinclair Plaza, 



To: Sinclair Research Lt«L, One Sinclair Plaza, Nashua, NH 03061. 

Please send me ZX80 personal computer^) at $199.95 each (US dollars), plus $5 

shipping. (Your ZX80 may be tax deductible.) 

Send me Computer Learning LaWs) at $49.95 each. 

Register me for extended service program(s) at $25.00 each. 

I enclose a check/money order payable to Sinclair Research Ltd. for $ 

Name — 

Address 

City 



. State . 



.Zip. 



Occupation 

Intended use of ZX80. 



Age. 



Have you ever used a computer? D Yes D No Do you own another personal computer? O Yes □ No 

CC-4-1 



The Ultimate Connection 



Frank H. Marz 




No. it wasn't love at the first sight, but 
after a few days with the Microconnection, 
it became a realistic and real affair. This is 
an unbiased evaluation of the Micro- 
connection from the Microperipheral 
People for which I also relied upon Compu- 
Serve's Information service (formerly called 
MicroNet). 

The basic computer arrangement used 
for the review, consisted of the TRS-80 
computer, Level II with 48K of RAM. 
three disk drives, Microline 80 and IP-125 
printers, using at various times TRSDOS 
2.2 and 2.3, followed by NEWDOS+ and 
the latest, most powerful NEWDOS 80 
from Apparat, Inc. 

For providing maximum support in 
computer communication for the hobbyist 
and general computerist, CompuServe 
Information Service (whose Director of 
Application Software, Mike Ward, was 
most understanding of my immediate needs 
and quickly supplied a special evaluation 
ID number) deserves all the thanks of the 
author. 

The Microconnection allows telecom- 



Frank H. Mara. Ri. 4. Box I, Delavan. Wl 531 15. 



munication for all TRS-80 computers, be 
it a $495 Level I, a Level II. or the new 
Model III. No interface is actually required 
for the connection to CompuServe. Forum 
80, or most other community bulletin 
boards. The Microconnection also has a 
serial I/O for a lineprinter. 

A serial I/O socket (female DB25) 
protrudes from the back of the Micro- 
connection along with other screw-terminal 
I/O arrangements, which permit the use 
of Ham communications or a tape 
recorder. Simplex/duplex mode is selectable 
at 300 or 1 10 baud. The basic package 
measures approximately 7.5" x 4" x 2". A 
cabled modular phone plug of approx- 
imately six feet is provided, allowing 
connection to your modular phone master 
box. Another wire connects to the power 
transformer, which is of sufficient watt 
rating to eliminate any possibility of over- 
heating or other overload problems. 

Two LEDs protrude from the top of the 
instrument package, one to indicate power- 
on condition and the other to indicate 
when the carrier has been established. 
Artwork describes the arrangements for 
voice/data and simplex/duplex modes. 




which are selected by two on/off front 
switches. The 40-pin ribbon connector to 
the TRS port comes from the front of the 
Microconnection. The author feels that 
this is a poor design as the connector cable 
must be bent at an angle, and causes wear 
and tear on the ribbon cable. 

Upon mentioning the above point in a 
recent conversation with the Micro- 
peripheral Corporation V.P. Don Stoner. 
I was advised that design changes have 
located the 40-pin connector port on the 
side, nicely blending in the cable connect 
functions. These units should be available 
soon. 

The Microconnection allows computer- 
to-computer communication over Ma Bell's 
wires, the transmission of electronic mail 
in the form of letters and messages, others), 
stock market data, news, bank services, 
main-frame computer networks, and also 
the ability to program in other computer 
languages. You can also swap programs 
over the phone, transmit data over Ham 
radio stations, and make TRS-80-to-TRS- 
80 communications if the other TRS-80 
also has a modem— a heck of a lot of 
ability for a $495 Level I computer! 



42 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



>ump Up Your TRS-80 with the ES/F Mass Storage System 



THESE FACTS SPEAK FOR THEMSELVES! 





i 


:assette 


ES/F 


MINI-DISK 




MEET 

THE WAFER 




SPEED 

(Seconds to 
load "Blackjack") 

CAPACITY 38 

(thousands (C-20) 
of bytes) 

RELIABILITY NO 

(Designed for 
digital data?) 


6 

(5' wafer) 

64 
(75' wafer) 

YES 


6tt 

59 

(TRSOOS) 

YES 




SYSTEM COST 

(First 
plus interface) 

MEDIA COST 

(in quantities 

of ten) 


$60 

S3. 10 

ca'iwtte 


S2S0 

$3.00 
wafer 


$800 


▲ Actual Size Actual Thickness V 


$3.20 




disk 



Let's face it. Cassette players were not 
designed to store digital data and pro- 
grams. That's why we designed a digital 
storage system using a continuous tape 
loop: the Exatron Stringy /Floppy 
(ES/F) and the Wafer, there's no ex- 
pensive interface to buy-the ES/F 
comes ready to pump up your TRS-80.* 

Once your TRS-80* is pumped up by 
our ES/F . . . you won't want to deflate 
it. We're so sure, that we offer an 
unconditional 3lVday money-back 
guarantee and a one-year limited war- 
ranty. Over 2.000 TRS-80* owners have 
met the wafer . . . why don't you? " 



' 






EXATRON 
STRINGY/FLOPP 

SPEED, CAPACITY 
AND RELIABILITY 
FOR ONLY $249.50 




virion 



CALL 

OUR HOTLINE 

(800)-538-8559 

IN CALIFORNIA. 
CALL(408)-737-7111 




exatron, inc. 

181 Commercial Street 
Sunnyvale. Calif. 94086 



"TRS 80 is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp 



ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Announcing 
'Hellfire 
Warrior", 
a fantastic 
new Dunjonquest 
computer game . 
that s really 
not for 
everybody: 
Beginners 
are likely to 
be gobbled up 
in the first 
room... and 
there are over 
200 rooms on 
four levels 



"Hellfire Warrior." Really not for everybody: newcomers to 
Dunjonquest should begin with something easier. Here the 
monsters are deadlier, the labyrinths more difficult, the levels 
far more challenging... 



TM 



But for the experienced Dunjonquest game player there are more 
command options, more potions (13!). more magical items (including — 
at last — magical armor), more special effects, more surprises. And an 
innkeeper, an armorer, apothecary and magic shops. 

In part a sequel to The Temple of Apshai. up until now the greatest 
of all the Dunjonquest games. Hellfire Warrior can also be played 
completely on its own. 

Now the character you've created, re- 
presenting the highest level of role- 
playing to date, can explore the four 
new lower levels.- 

Level S —"The Lower Reaches 
of Apshai." With the giant in- 
serts and other nasties that swarmed through the 
upper levels of Apshai. With rooms your hero can 
get into, but not out of. 

Level 6— "The Labyrinth." The only exit is hidden 
within the Labyrinth. And man-eating monsters can thwart 
your hero. 

Level 7 -"The Vault of the Dead."... And of the 
undead — skeletons, ghouls, mummies, specters... 
invisible ghosts— lurking in the rooms, doors, secret 
passages, ready to reduce your hero to a pale shadow of 
himself. Permanently. 

Level 8— "The plains of Hell." In an Underworld of 
lost souls and shades of dead, of dragons and fiery 
hounds, of bottomless pits and blasts of hellfire. our 
hero must rescue the beautiful warrior maiden lying 
in enchanted sleep within a wall of fire. And bring 

her past unbelievable dangers and monsters. . . 

even Death itself... to sun and air and life 

itself. 

Hellfire Warrior. The most exciting game yet 
from Automated Simulations, the leading producer of 
computer fantasy games. 

Guaranteed: If it's not the most exciting computer 
game you've played, return it within ten days for a 
complete refund. 

Available on disk for the Apple II and Radio 
Shack's TRS80. or on cassette for the TRS80 
and for the Commodore PET. The cassette or 
disk: S39.95. Boxed with a magnificent 
instruction manual. Some of the drawings in 
the manual are reproduced here (in greatly 
reduced scale). 





TRIPLE WARRANTY 

10 DAY FULL MONEV BACK GUARANTEE: 

If you don't like the game for any reason 
whatever, return it intact within 10 days 
of receipt for a complete refund. No ques- 
tions asked. 

30 DAY DEFECTIVE WARRANTY: Cassette 
or disk not functioning within 30 days of 
receipt: return it for exchange. No charge, 
of course. 

FOREVER-LIMITED LIFETIME WAR- 
RANTY: No matter what happens to your 
cassette or disk: the dog chewed it. . .you 
left it out in the rain... whatever. No 
matter whin it happens. Return the 
remains to us (with $5.00 to cover all 
handling and shipping) and we'll send you 
a brand new cassette or disk. 



Hellfire Warrior. From the people who design and make some of the very, very best 
computer games, games that thinkers play. Including the great role-playing Dunjon- 
quest series— The Temple of Apshai. Datestones of Ryn. Morloc's Tower, and now 
Hellfire Warrior. And Invasion Orion and Starfleet Orion. And more. 

Hellfire Warrior. Like every EPYX computer game from Automated Simulations, it has 
the unique EPYX triple no-questions-asked warranty. 

Hellfire Warrior. Now available on disk or cassette for TRS80. the Apple and the PET. At 
better computer stores everywhere. If you can't find it at your local friendly dealer, 
insist he order it for you. 

Or you may order directly from Automated Simulations. If you want to use your 
MasterCard or VISA, use our toll-free phones: In the United States: operator 861 (800) 
824-7888: In California: operator 861 (800) 852-7777: In Hawaii and Alaska: operator 
861 (800) 824-7919. Well also send you our new catalogue, hot off the press. 

Or write Department F1. P.O. Box 4247. 1988 Leghorn St.. 
Mountain View. CA 94040. 

Please specify if you wish the Disk for TRS80 (32K. TRSDOS) and 
Apple (48K with Applesoft in ROM or the Cassette for the .rfgl 

TRS80(16K. Level II) or the Commodore PET (32K. old or ^p^SSat 
new ROMs). Only $39.95. disk or cassette. it**i& 




CIRCLE 1 10 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






Ultimate Connection, continued... 

With the $249 Microconnection. a dumb 
(S-80) tape terminal program is supplied, 
which provides immediate access to a 
community bulletin board, time-sharing 
network, and the various networks available, 
one of which is CompuServe Information 
Service. Basically the program is dumb, 
but its simplicity and reliability make it 
perfect for the new addict to telecom- 
munications. Once loaded under the 
SYSTEM command, only one question 
must be answered, which is to select half 
or full mode (simplex/duplex). When this 
information is given, a prompt is displayed 
and you are ready to communicate with 
the outside world. 

For disk owners, the program can be 
transferred from tape to disk with the 
Tapedisk command. Use the following 
Tapedisk data to transfer to disk, assuming 
you use drive zero (0): F S80/CMD:0 6000 
6209 6000. One note of caution, however: 
the S-80 terminal program will not always 
work with NEWDOS80. so use TRSDOS 
2.2 or 2.3 or NEWDOS + . No tests were 
conducted with VTOS or other DOSes. 

The supplied Manual 1 .0 can satisfy most 
computerists, but certain sections could 
or should have been written with the 
beginner in mind. For instance, in the section 
'The RS-232 connection' it is mentioned 
that generally only pins 2 and 7 of the 
DB25 connector need to be connected to 
ensure serial interface to a printer. While 
the use of the printer manual is suggested, 
carefully check before you make any 
permanent connections. It would be very 
desirable to have a detailed circuit diagram 
of the Microconnection. 'Making the micro 
connection.' paragraph 2. doesn't apply to 
many of the telephones sold at various 
stores. The author's phone, for instance, is 
barely audible if not connected to Ma 
Bell's umbilical cord, and no keying tone 
change is noticed. 



If you follow 

the instructions in 

the manual, no 

unpleasant surprises 

should result 



Enough said about how to hook the 
Microconnection to the telephone 
terminals. Various stores have a selection 
of plugs for standard (old) terminals, not 
so old 4-pin plugs and converters, with 
which you can emulate your proper phone 
installation. Just inform Mama Bell that 
you have connected the Microconnection. 
ringer value 0.0. No charges can be rendered 
by Mama, except if you ask her to install a 
terminal jack should you lack the ability 
to do it yourself. You will be charged 



installation cost and a monthly jack fee. If 
you follow the instructions in the manual, 
no unpleasant surprises should result, as 
tone frequencies are permanently locked 
in. 

A few pages in the manual list networks 
which can be accessed using the Micro- 
connection. At the conclusion of this article, 
a list of active community bulletin boards 
and their phone numbers is given. Access 
is immediate and free— not counting Ma 
Bell's charge. 

Based on the experience the author 
gained from using the Microconnection 
for many hours (phone bills are the best 
proof) only one aggravating problem exists: 
for all practical purposes, the most 
unsophisticated part supplied with the unit. 
The ribbon cable connect should be termin- 
ated with more suitable connectors of the 
more gentle springy type. 

The connectors supplied with the author's 
unit are pressure-type, contact-to-contact 
devices, which means that every time you 
have to disconnect, you must yank on the 
cable itself. The connectors expand when 
pushed onto the PC board's mating con- 
nection, then their plastic memory permits 
them to return to their natural molded 
position, i.e. they seem to be welded to the 
PC board terminators. While this may be 
permissible under normal circumstances, 
the author's residence in the Dairy State 
includes murky, humid weather conditions. 
Under the slightest humidity, the connection 
between the Microconnection and the 
computer will deteriorate, oxide will form, 
and the reliability of an otherwise perfect 
connection will suffer. I am assured that 
the Microperipheral People, who created 
an otherwise sound product, will not stake 
their reputation on a troublesome connector 
cable. 

It is the author's opinion that the Micro- 
connection is of great value for the com- 
munication-minded computerist. For 
reasons of quality, simplicity and useability. 
the unit can be recommended without any 
hesitation. Constant use by the author over 
many hours did not produce a single 
problem with either the TRS-80 or the 
networks. Affordability should also he 
mentioned: $249 with a dumb terminal 
program, and S299 with an intelligent 
program and all the other goodies thrown 
in. 

It must be remembered, however, that 
Terminal programs specifically written for 
a standard TRS-80 setup (RS-232 interface, 
acoustical modem), will not work with the 
Microconnection. nor will CompuServe's 
Loader program (to retrieve the Executive 
Terminal program), if you selected Compu- 
Serve as your data base. While this may 
not be a consequential matter (many good 
Terminal programs exist for the Micro- 
connection), it is worth mentioning. For 
the electronically inclined. Radio Shack 
uses ports 240-241 for data and status. 
whereas ports 208 and 209 are used by the 
Microconnection for the same purpose. 



Once you're ready to communicate over 
the phone systems using your computer 
and the Microconnection. you can access 
networks with such services as the latest 
news, stock market results, banking service 
and credit card service with instant card 
verification. 
Using the Network 

With the data/voice switch in the out 
position (voice), dial the phone number 
which has been assigned by your network. 

The Microconnection 

provides a serial port 

for a lineprinter. 

You will hear the dial tone, then the connect 
tone. When this occurs, push the VOICE 
switch on the Unit into the DATA position, 
and the carrier-LED will come on. Hang 
up the phone.— don't worry, you're con- 
nected. A few seconds later you will be 
questioned about your ID number or 
assigned code. All the information will be 
displayed on the screen. If a printer is 
connected, and you used the code for printer 
activation (as prescribed in your terminal 
program), all your communications will 
result in hardcopy. The nice thing is that 
the Microconnection provides a serial port 
for a lineprinter. so even the TRS-80 Level 
I computer can use a printer without any 
interface or other optional gadgets. Type 
in your number or whatever information 
you are asked to supply. Figure 1 shows 
sample pages from CompuServe. 



CompuServe Information Service 
On at xx-xx-xx XX: XX (Date and EDT) 
CompuServe Pa6e 2 

1 News, Heather, SPorts 

2 Finance 

3 Entertainiient 

4 Electronic Hail 

5 CompuServe User Information 

6 Special Services 



9 MicroNET 

Enter sour selection number 
Or HELP for more information: 



Let's assume you selected 9 MicroNET. 
CompuServe's personal computing compo- 
nent. The following text will appear on 
your screen after your selection: 

CompuServe Pa6e 25 

If sou Proceed to the next Pa6e, 
sou will enter MicroNET. If sou 
don't have a MicroNET User's 



APRIL 1981 



45 



Ultimate Connection, continued. 



Guide, we surest sou return to 

the Previous nenu (Kes: M) 

Once in HicroNET, sou can return 

to the Kin »enu by enter ins 

RDISPLfl 

froN coHund node. 

The next fast Mill take sou into 

HicroNET. . . 

Kes <EHTER> for next Pa6e 



(you just press ENTER) 



Melcw* to HicroNET. 

fi new cceeand has been added to Make 

HicroQuote access easier 
For »ore inforMtion enter: NEWS 
For an index of the HicroNET Procra* 
Librars (H1CR0. NET), enter. R INDEX 
To access the CompuServe infomation 
service frot» HicroNEL enter: R DlSPlft 
OK 



From then on you select your choice 
from the information center residing within 
the network. Obviously it would be easy 
to write page upon page of how to. when 
to, and for what reason to access Compu- 
Serve or any other network or bulletin 
board, but those choices are up to you. As 
far as the author is concerned, the MicroNet 
component provides an excellent choice 
of services. Their rates are excellent. 

If you have the Microconnection, the 
Micro Peripheral People have a new 
program. The Dow Jones Connection, with 
which you can access Dow Jones & 
Company. It allows you to organize your 
stock portfolio, and update via the Dow 
Jones computer in Princeton, NJ. 

Available Services 

Telenet carries only digital telephone 
line signals but should be explored by the 
small entrepreneur. General Electric Infor- 
mation Services have tremendous MARK 
II data bases. The Micro Peripheral People 
have a software package called 'Mailgram 
Connection.' which allows you to send 
telegrams via your computer to U.S. and 
foreign recipients. 

Another useful service is the Telex 
Connection which uses Databridge, a 
service of ITT. By using the Microconnec- 
tion and your computer, you connect to 
ITT's Telex message center. 

Yet another service is provided by the 
Peripheral People: If you access Compu- 



Serve or the Source with the micro con- 
nection, you may also access their network - 
within-a-network. Once you have purchased 
their product they automatically initiate 
you into The Microconnection Users 
Group. It provides the latest information 
on the Microconnection itself, hardware 
and software; the Microconnection Owners 
Bulletin and message center. This is free 
with the compliments of The Peripheral 
People. You can leave messages, retrieve 
messages, and download written programs 
(record these on your own tape recorder) 
via the Bell wires. This in itself will justify 
part of the Microconnection 's purchase 
price. 

The latest update on the manual includes 
terminal programs and other utilities. All 
in all. the author is impressed with The 
Peripheral People's interest in supplying a 
reliable product within the price range of 
the average computerist, and with their 
dedication in giving the purchaser additional 
and free services once he is connected. 



The following are addresses of companies 
and services mentioned in this article: 
The Peripheral People 
P.O. Box 524 
Mercer Island. WA 98040 
Computer Information Service 
CompuServe Inc. 
5000 Arlington Centre Blvd. 
Columbus. OH 43220 

The Source 

Telecomputing Corp. of America 
1616 Anderson Rd. 
MacLean. VA 20102 

Telenet Communication Corp. 
8330 Old Courthouse Rd. 
Vienna. VA 22180 

General Electric Information Services 
401 N. Washington St. 
Rockville. MD 20850 

For listings of data bases contact: 

Cuadra Associates 

1523 6th St. Suite 12 

Santa Monica. CA 90401 □ 



YOU THINK YOU'VE SEEN WORD 
PROCESSING SOFTWARE? 



The 



MAGiC wand; 



Word Processing 



System offers you the best features of any system 
in the micro market 



FEATURES INCLUDE: 

Full-screen text editor 

Simple, control key operation 
Edit programs as well as text 

Assemble, compile or run programs 

without modification 
Files larger than memory 

Files up to 256K 
Library files 

Merge part or all of one file with 

another 
Spool printing 

Print a file while editing another 
Easy page formatting 

Simple commands set margins, page 

length, etc 
Override commands at run-time 

Give any command from the key- 
board as well as in file 
Variable pitch control 

Change pitch in mid-line, even 

mid-word 
Up to 128 user-defined variables 

String, numeric or dollar format 
Form letter generation from external 
data files 

Compatible with both sequential and 

fixed-record files 
Conditional commands 

Any command may be conditional 
Print to disk and/or printer 

Save all or part of output on disk 
Switch from specialty printer to CP/M 
list device 

Print the same file on either specialty 

or standard printer 



EASE OF OPERATION 

With all its power, the MAGIC WAND is 
remarkably easy to use This is no acci- 
dent The command structure is designed 
to be flexible and logical so that you can 
perform basic functions with a minimum of 
commands 

We have included in the manual a step- 
by-step instructional program, for the per- 
son who has ne'ver used a word-proces- 
sor before. The trainee uses sample files 
from the system disk and compares his 
work to simulated screens and printouts. 

In addition to the lessons, the manual 
has a complete documentation of the 
command structure, special notes for pro- 
grammers, an introduction to CP/M for 
non-programmers and a glossary The 
manual is typeset, rather than typewritten, 
for greater legibility 

We have written the manual in non- 
technical English, because we want you 
to read it We don't overload you with a 
bunch of jargon that could confuse even a 
PhD in Computer Sciences 

We send out newsletters so that users 
of the MAGIC WAND can learn special 
applications of the print commands. For 
example, we might show you how to cre- 
ate a mailing list or set up an index for 
a file 

In short, we've done everything we can 
to make things easy for you Because the 
best software in the world is just a bunch 
of code if you can't use it 



For more information , call or write: 

swvaU business aftftcfl&iofts. Viae. 

3220 Louisiana • Suite 205 • Houston. Texas 77006 • 713-528-5158 
CIRCLE 1 94 ON READER SERVICE CARD ■ ■■■ 



Lifelines. 

The serious publication 

for the serious 

software user. 




From the Software Evaluation Group: 
A Review of the Configurable Busi- 
ness System 

Osborne/McGraw-Hill's General 
Ledger, a Tutorial by One of Its 
Authors. 

BASIC Comparisons: An Introduction 
to SB ASIC* 

Details on Volume 48 from The CP/M 
Users Group.* 

Some Biting Comments on the Indus- 
try from the Mysterious Zoso. 



'SBASIC is a trademark ol Topaz Programming 
•CP/M is a trademark ol Digital Research, Inc. 
The CP/M Users Group is not attiliated with Digital Research, Inc. 



Lifelines is the publication 
dedicated to keeping you 
up-to-date on happenings 
in the explosive micro- 
computer world. 

Lifelines specializes in news about software for CP/M* 
and similar operating systems. 

Lifelines does it with a guarantee of high 
level, in-depth analysis of software uses and 
capabilities. 

Lifelines does it with valuable information 
necessary to make intelligent software buying 
decisions. 

Lifelines does it with the latest 
information on The CP/M Users Group. 

Lifelines does it with thought provoking 
discussions on many of the more controversial issues 
facing computer users. 

How can you live without Lifelines? 

Subscribe Now! 

$18.00 for twelve issues: U.S., Canada, and Mexico. 
$40.00 for twelve issues: all other countries. 
$2.50 for each back issue: U.S., Canada, and Mexico. 
$3.60 for each back issue: all other countries. 

All orders must be pre-paid by check to: LIFELINES, 
1651 Third Avenue, New York, NY. 10028— Checks 
must be in U.S. $, drawn on a U.S. bank. Or use your 
VISA or MASTERCARD. Call (212) 722-1700 



CIRCLE 235 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



. . . dateline : tomowow. . . 



IS THERE AN IBM IN YOUR FUTURE? 

Two low-end computer systems from IBM are 
manufacturing stage in a Paleigh, NC facility. 
home information system market (games, teleshoppi 
this market at 20 million households (one quarter 
than 1% penetration today. Target price of their 
printer. 

A second product is aimed at the very sma 
professionals (lawyers, doctors etc.). A line of 
are planned for departments of larger companies, 
stand-alone small systems for these users — no poi 
who buy the monsters. 

OSBORNE OVERLY OPTIMISTIC? 



David H. Ahl 



rumored to be already in the 
ne system is aimed squarely at the 
ng, hank-at-home, etc.). IBM sees 
of the total 80 million) with less 
product is under $900 including 

11 business market including 
"smart" user-programmable terminals 
IBM is specifically avoiding 

nt in upsetting the corporate DPers 



The Osborne I described elsewhere on these pages promises everything to 
everybody. The features are impressive--7-80, 64K, IEEE 488 and RS232 interfaces, 
modem electronics, 5" CRT, dual 5" floppy drives--all in a package which will fit 
under an airline seat. Lots of software too--CP/M, CBasic, WordStar, Mail /Merge and 
a VisiCalc-like package. All this for $1495. Not only that, but dealer margins are 
quoted in the 40% to 50% range. 

Vantage Research thinks it sounds too good to be true. At a 50% margin that 
means a $750 out-the-door price. With a skimpy 2X markup, that dictates a $375 fully 
burdened manufacturing cost. Sounds overly optimistic for a unit with two floppy 
drives, CRT, full keyboard, 64K, carrying case, software and documentation. 

Apparently Osborne had second thoughts about the $1495 price too. The 
projected retail price was upped in February to $1765. 

MATTEL KEYBOARD UNIT— LATE AND EXPENSIVE 

After much delay, Mattel has announced a $700 retail price tag for its 
Intellivision keyboard module. Coupled with the $300 price for the master (games) 
component, this brings the system price to $1000. 

"They snatched defeat out of the jaws of victory," said Charles Weddington, 
president of High Technology, in regard to the price. Two major retail chains of 
stores indicated that the price was excessive and they would not handle the unit. 

This pricing news follows close on the heels of yet another delivery slippage 
to April or May 1981 for the keyboard. Both Intellivision units were originally 
scheduled for introduction in October 1979. The game component finally reached some 
stores in February 1980. The keyboard was rescheduled for introduction in July 1980, 
then slipped to January 1981 and finally put into a test market in Fresno, California 
in February. 

APPLE PRICES UP TOO 

As of February, fpple computer raised prices of all Apple II and Apple 11 
Plus systems by $145. New prices are $1530 for a 48K unit, $1430 for 32K and $1330 
for 16K. The old prices were $1395, $1295 and $1195 respectively. The Silentype 
printer was raised $40 and disk drives $30. 

Not only that, but by altering margins, Apple is trying to discourage dealers 
from selling 16K units and adding "foreign" memory. The margin on the 48K unit is 
now 35% compared to only 29% on the 16K unit. The message is clear: Apple wants to 
sell only 48K units made 100% by Apple 



48 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



■MHB^HM 



■■ 



in-line s v ste 



ms 



IS PROUD TO ANNOUNCE A NEW ADDITION 

TO OUR FAMILY! 




wme 



(Formerly Superscript) 



Superscribe is the most powerful and easiest to use Word Processor available for your Apple II or II Plus 
computer. Besides leaping tall buildings in a single bound it: 



• Gives true upper/lower case text on your screen with no ad- 
ditional hardware whatsoever. 

• Works with documents larger than the amount of memory in 
your Apple - transparently to youl 

• Edit not only letters but also any text or binary file, or even 
basic programs! 

• Automatically generates up to 4 separate indices for your 
document! 

• Save typing time through a unique ability to designate specified 
keys as commonly used words, phrases or even commands! 

• Globally search for or replace character strings. 



• Superscribe has a built-in instruction capability such that if 
you forget how to use a command and the manual is not close 
by - you may simply ask Superscribe! 

• Supports multiple disk drives! 

• Will support alternate character sets. 

• Produces form letters using address files easily! 

• Supports the shift key modification if made to your Apple. 

• Lets you work with your text on a screen at a time basis - 
reducing typos and allowing you to see your document as you 
edit it. 

• Works with any printer! 

• Supports the language card or any 16K expansion Ram card 
to keep more of your document readily available in memory. 



Superscribe is 100% machine language and requires only a 48K Apple II or II Plus with a disk drive. It may be 
purchased through your local computer store or direct from us by sending $89.95 plus $2.50 to cover shipping 
to: 

ON-LINE SYSTEMS - 36575 Mudge Ranch Road - Coarsegold, CA 93614 • 209-683-6858 C O D . Master Charge or Visa accepted 

CIRCLE 249 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



J»V 






tr^ 





5* 










L < "«^ jjT 














H^ 




1 




^■P"' 1 




^ -— 1. ,1 



HRINTV0URJ1PPLI 



And don't spare any of the 21 vibrant colors 
provided with Datasoft's MICRO-PAINTER™ 
computer program. 

MICRO-PAINTER™ is a modestly priced soft- 
ware package that bridges the gap between Apple 
hardware and the artist in us all. 

Apple II* users can now heighten their 
creative and artistic IQs as they electronically paint 
extraordinary pictures. 

And since the MICRO-PAINTER™ uses state- 
of-the-art technology in its programming and 
implementation, anyone will find the program easy 
to use and the results — magnificent 

Children can ease their transition into a com- 
puterized society by familiarizing themselves with 
computer operations while they create beautiful 
pictures. 

Hobbyists can entertain friends with 
colorful designs and unusual color combinations, 

•Apple I is a registered trademark of Apple Computet Inc. 




Businessmen can enhance demonstrations, 
presentations or illustrations where the emphasis 
is on color. 

The MICRO-PAINTER™ even magnifies 
images for dot-by-dot coloring, inverts colors for 
various color combinations and saves or displays 
pictures automatically. 

So if you've been waiting to reveal your true 
artistic colors (or wishing you had more) call or 
write Datasoft, Inc., 16606 Schoenborn Street, 
Sepulveda, CA 91343, (213) 894-9154 or toll free 
(800) 423-5630 for details. Dealer inquiries invited. 

Ask your local dealer for Information on Datasoft Products. 



6M1CRO-RB1NTER 



COMPUTER PAIMTSET BY 

CIRCLE 182 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Dabtyoft Inc. 



hookm§ up 

ATARI 




George Blank 



Using Atari's Telellnk Cartridge to Access 
CompuServe 

Joining a club? Learn the ropes before- 
hand and it goes a great deal smoother. If 
you visit someone who has a computer, 
play a few games under your friend's 
supervision, and learn such simple tricks 
as the location of the ON/OFF switch and 
the use of the RETURN key. you are far 
ahead of the person who wins a computer 
as a doorprize at a convention, then takes 
it home and tries to use it with only the 
manual as a guide. 

For the personal computer owner who 
has never used a large computer or a 
terminal before, seeking to connect to a 
timesharing service may seem to be an 
overwhelming task. All of a sudden you 
have to cope with learning how to use a 
new program, an RS-232 interface, a 
modem, and a telephone in cooperation 
with your computer. It can be quite frus- 
trating, for if you overlook one switch 
setting or miss plugging in a single cable, 
the system won't work, and you might not 
be able to tell whether you made a mistake 
or whether one of the pieces of equipment 
is defective. 

Failure-prone equipment in this type of 
situation is a disaster. For example, the 
Radio Shack TRS-80 Model I RS-232 board 
is notoriously hard to use. primarily because 
Tandy used a cheap connector to attach 
it. Some owners actually disconnect the 
board, clean the contacts, and reinstall it 
every time they use it. A new user with a 
bad connection might become so frustrated 
as to give up all hope of timesharing. 

With the Atari Telelink cartridge, it took 
me several hours of work, accompanied 
by much frustration, to successfully hook 
up to CompuServe. I never did discover 
what I was doing wrong at first, but have 
come to the conclusion that the real problem 
was probably in our company telephone 

APRIL 1981 




The Atari K.W Mixlem 



switchboard, not in the Atari equipment. 
I hope that by a detailed sharing of the 
process that led to successful connection 
for me. I can make the same operation 
smoother for those of you who are con- 
sidering timesharing. 

Equipment Required 

The equipment I used was an Atari 800 
Computer (the Atari 400 should work just 
as well), the Atari 830 Interface Module, 
the Atari 830 Acoustic Modem, the Atari 
Telelink I program cartridge, a telephone, 
and a Texas Instruments 99/4 Color 
Monitor. The only difference in my unsuc- 
cessful attempts was that I used a Leedex 
Video 100 black and white monitor instead 
of the color monitor. The difference was 
significant, not for the color, but because 
the TI monitor has a speaker, and you 
need the speaker to hear whether the 
cartridge loads properly. An ordinary 
television set should work as well, but I do 
not recommend any monitor or TV set 
without a working speaker. I did not have 
a printer, but it would have helped signif- 
icantly. 

SYSTEM DIAGRAM 



cartridge comes with a six-page foldout 
instruction brochure, a registration card, 
an application for an account with Compu- 
Serve, an instruction card for hooking up 
to CompuServe Information Service, and 
a sealed envelope containing a CompuServe 
user identification number and a secret 
password allowing you one hour of free 
access to the network. 

Inscnini! the TELELINK cartridge 

( \KIKIIK.I ■■ ■■< \KimiH.I 




ATARI400' 



ATARI800' 




The Atari Telelink I (The I probably 
implies that a II is coming!) program 
cartridge is a typical Atari cartridge. You 
load it by simply plugging it into the slot 
on the computer, a task that my six-year 
old son has mastered with the Star Raiders 
and Basketball cartridges. The Telelink I 



51 



The Atari 850 Interface includes a 102- 
page instruction manual that also covers 
the Atari 830 Modem. However, who is 
willing to read 102 pages of heavily technical 
material just to learn how to use an add on 
device on a computer system? Fortunately, 
you can use the manual strictly for reference, 
finding what you want in the table of con- 
tents. 

Before you can use Telelink I to connect 
to CompuServe, you must have a local 
access telephone number. The card telling 
you how to access the timesharing service 
gives you Atari's toll free customer service 
number and tells you to call them for the 
access number closest to you. The customer 
service toll free number is very busy, and 
it took me about 20 calls over two days to 
get through. Once I did get connected, the 
representative gave me the names of cities 
in my area code with access numbers, and 
the telephone numbers. 

Setting Up Your System 

I will assume that you already know 
how to connect your Atari computer to a 
monitor or TV set. and only discuss the 
rest of the system. If you have a disk drive. 




HAVE WE 

GOT A PROGRAM 

FOR YOU IM 81 

Attend the biggest public computer shows in the country. 
Each show has 100,000 square feet of display space fea- 
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Don't miss the Coming Of The New Computers- 
- Show Up For The Show that mixes business with 
pleasure. Admission is $5 for adults and $2 for chil- 
dren under 12 when accompanied by an adult. 



Ticket Information 

Send $5 per person with the name of the show 
you will attend to National Computer Shows. 
824 Boylston Street. Chestnut Hill. Mass 02167 
Tel 617 739 2000 Tickets can also be purchased 
at the show 



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10 AM TO 7 PM 








OF COMPUTERS 



DALLAS 



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The show has 100,000 square feet of display 
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You'll see computers costing $150 to 
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puters, software, graphics, data and word 
processing equipment, telecommunica- 
tions, office machines, electronic type- 
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services. 

All the major names are there including; 
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Don't miss the Coming Of The New Computers - Show Up 
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$5 for adults and $2 for children under 12 when accompanied by an adult 



DALLAS 
Dallas Market Hall 

2200 STEMMONS FRWY 

AT INDUSTRIAL BLVD 

THURS-SUN 

APRIL 9-12 

10 AM TO 7 PM 



One of the five 1981 National Computer Shows produced by Northeast Expositions 
824 Boylston Street. Chestnut Hill, Mass. 02167. Tel. 617 739- 2000 



Hooking Up, continued... 
disconnect it, as the cartridge is not set up 
to work with the disk operating system, 
and the two conflict. 

If you place the Atari 850 Interface on 
the table in front of you so that the label 
faces you. you will see the following: 



Power Inpul ON 
Connector |.KI) 




OFF/ON Two I/O 

SWITCH rn—nuii 

Plug the power supply into the connector 
on the left and connect it to a wall outlet. 
Connect the I/O cable from the computer 
to the leftmost one of the two I/O con- 
nectors. If you have the printer that uses 
the I/O connectors, connect the printer to 
the right front connector. If you have the 
Atari 825 printer, there is a connector for 
this on the right end of the interface 
module. 

On the back of the interface module are 
four identical serial connectors, labeled 
from one to four. Plug the small connector 
on the cable that conies with the Atari 830 
modem into connector one on the interface, 
directly behind the power connector. Your 
interface is now connected. 

The connectors and switches on the 
Atari 830 modem are all on the same end. 
as follows: 





wm t Uv.v.v.v.v.-.*!v 



Originate/Answer) 
Switch 



I/O Connector 



Full/Half 
Duplet Switch 

Connect the other end of the modem cable 
from the expansion interface to the large 
connector on the modem. Then plug the 
power supply for the modem into the 
connector on the modem and into a wall 
outlet. If the power LED in the center of 
the modem should come on. set the originate 
answer switch to OFF. 

Bring your telephone over to the com- 
puter. Place the handset so that the cord 
hangs over the end of the modem that 
contains the connectors and switches. This 
is also plainly marked on the label in the 
top center of the modem. Your system is 
now connected and ready to go. 

Making the Connection 

Plug in your cartridge, and close the 
cartridge door. Turn on the television set 



or monitor. Then set the left switch on the 
modem to O (for originate) and the right 
switch to F (for full duplex). Both switches 
should be all the way to the left. The 
power LED on the modem should glow 
red. Next turn on the Atari 850 interface 
module using the switch on the front. The 
power LED next to this switch should come 
on. 

After the rest of these connections are 
made, turn on the computer. If you turn 
on the computer before the interface, or 
have the disk drive connected, the program 
to operate the interface will not load 
properly. You should now hear a series of 
beeps from the television speaker to indicate 
that the program is loading. After the 
program has initialized, the words Telelink 
I will appear on the screen. 

Now. dial the telephone access number 
for CompuServe that you obtained from 
Atari Customer Service. Unless the number 
is busy, it should ring a couple of times, 
then answer with a steady tone. When you 
get the tone, place the telephone handset 
in the cradle on top of the modem. Even 
before you finish placing the handset in 
the cradle, the two computers should 
recognize each other and the READY LED 
on the modem should come on. 

Type CONTROL C on your keyboard. 
The TV screen should go blank, then 
CompuServe will print the message: 

USER ID: 

Respond by typing in the identification 
number in the envelope that came with 
your Telelink cartridge. Now CompuServe 
will print another prompt on your screen : 



PASSWORD: 

Type in your password, exactly as it is 
given in the envelope. The letters will not 
appear on the screen, so that you can keep 
your password secret if someone is watching. 
If you get it wrong, the computer will 
prompt you to try again. 

CompuServe will now take a few seconds 
to log you in. It will recognize you as a new 
user and print a greeting message, plus 
give you instructions on using the system. 
It would be very helpful to have a printer 
turned on at this time to save the instructions 
for future reference. You will also be given 
an opportunity to open an account, either 
under Master Card or Visa or to be billed 
monthly, once your free hour is up. 

Most of the time using the CompuServe 
network is as easy as reading the message 
on your screen, typing a number or a letter, 
and pressing RETURN. A few commands 
require you to type three or four letters, 
but these are explained. 

My first time on the network. I read 
through the instructions for the various 
services, logged into the Atari Newsletter 
and sent a message to customer service, 
read several current stories from the New 
York Times, and looked through the other 
services. Then I typed EXIT and Compu- 
Serve logged me off the system and told 
me that I had been connected for 29 
minutes. 

There are literally hundreds of other 
computer services that you can connect 
to with Telelink or similar systems from 
other manufacturers. There are other 
timesharing services, including The Source 
and universities such as the Dartmouth 



General Use 
CBBS 

(Community Bulletin 
Board Service)" 

User ( .roups 

lorumHOlTRS-80) 

MM80(OCTUG-TRS80) 

ABBS I Apple I 

PET BBS 

NORTHSTAR 

Interest Groups 
Genealogy 

Amateur Radio 

Goftunoditief 

Avionics 

Computer Stores 

Program Store 
Peripheral People 



Pasadena CA 
Akron OH 
Cambridge MA 



Chica 

It. Worth 

CA 

Seattle 

New York 
Ypsilanti Ml 
Atlanta 



Fairfax VA 
Washington IX' 
Kansas Cit) 
Olathc KS 



Washington TX' 

Seattle WA 



(213)795-3788 
(216)745-7855 
1617)864-3819 



(312) 2h')-K<lH.1 

<8I7)42.V<XKN 

(7I4i 526-3687 

(206)244-5438 

1212(4-4*! 

(313)48443732 

(404)939-1520 



(703)978-7561 

(816)931-3135 
(913)782-5115 



1694 
(2061 723-DATA 



For more information about the two most popukr commercial tjrnesharing networks. 

use these numbers. They are not numbers for computer act 



CompuServe 
The Source 



Columbus OH 
McLean VA 



(61 1 1 W-HoOO 
1)821-6660 



■HHH 



54 



->■ 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Time Sharing Service. There are many 
free message services all over the country. 
While some of them emphasize a particular 
computer system, most welcome all comers. 
You may want to try some of the services 
listed in the table. After you dial the number 
and get the tone, place your handset in the 
cradle and press RETURN a couple of 
times. The various systems should take 
you from that point. Please note that some 
of these numbers may be out of date when 
this article appears. Once you log onto 
several of them, you can usually find out 
about many more. Some of these numbers 
are only in operation after normal business 
hours for timesharing, as they are owned 
by businesses that use the lines during the 
day. 



The 1 delink Program 

As timesharing programs go. Telelink I 
is very limited, but it is also one of the 
easiest such programs to use. It is per- 
manently set up for 300 baud (a rather 
slow rate of communication, especially 
when you are paying the phone bill), 
transmits even parity with one stop bit 
while receiving even parity or no parity, 
does not allow you to write files to disk. 
and has a fixed character set. If you try to 
access a computer system that does not 



accept any of these limitations, you will 
not be able to communicate. Actually, 
most timesharing systems are either set up 
this way or allow the user to specify his 
own configuration. 

Telelink stores print characters in a 
buffer, so that you do not always have to 
wait for the printer to read the screen. 
You can turn the printer on and off from 
the program. It can communicate either 
Full Duplex (both computers sending 
messages at the same time) or Half Duplex 
(the two computers must take turns.) 

Control characters that can be sent by 
Telelink I include TAB. ESCAPE. 
CONTROL A through CONTROL Z 
(including Linefeed. Bell. XON. and XOFF). 
RETURN. BACKSPACE, and RUB 
OUT. 

The Atari 850 Interface 

The 850 Interface module allows you to 
add four RS-232 serial ports and a parallel 
printer port to your Atari 800 or 400 
computer. This allows you to connect 
printers, modems, and other standard 
peripherals to your computer. Although 
you would probably have to write the 
software yourself, you should be able to 
use it to connect lab equipment, a graphics 
tablet, a plotter, or other special purpose 
devices. 



Atari does not currently offer any printer 
cables for use with the 850 Modem, except 
the one that comes with the 825 Printer. If 
you do not want to buy a $995 printer to 
get a $30 cable, you may be forced to 
create your own. To do that, you will need 
the part numbers and manufacturers of 
the appropriate connectors. The 25-pin 
parallel port uses an AMP connector, part 
number AMP 205-208-1 . The 15-pin parallel 
ports use either AMP or Cannon con- 
nectors, part number AMP 205-206-1 or 
Cannon DB-15-P. The RS-232 serial ports 
use either the AMP 17-20096-1 or the 
Cannon DB 9-P connectors. 

The Atari 830 Modem 

This modem is a standard acoustic 
modem, very similar to the Novation CAT. 
By buying it from Atari, you get the Atari 
name on the label, and a cable that you 
know will connect to your interface, and 
Atari service. □ 

Prices 

Telelink I $24.95 

Atari 850 Interface $219.95 

Atari 830 Modem $199.95 

Atari. Inc. 
Consumer Division 
1346 Bordeaux Dr. 
Sunnyvale. CA 94086 




computer 
products, 



4116's 



NEW LOCATION 
1198 E. Willow Street 
Signal Hill, CA 90806 

Toll Free (800) 421-7701 Outside Calif. 

(213) 595-6431 inside cam. 



CONNECTORS 



100 Pin IMSAI — Gold/Soldertail 
$2.40 ea. or 10/52.25 ea. 



(200 NS) 



(APPLE. TRS-80. HEATH. ETC ) 

8 for $26.00 

16-49 pes. 3.00 

50-99 pes. 2.85 

100-499 pes. 2.60 
500 Up 



COMPONENTS 



74LS240 1.35 ea. 

74LS241 1.25 ea. 

74LS244 1.25 ea. 

74LS373 1.50 ea. 

74LS374 1.50 ea. 

8T245 1.65 ea. 



LO-PRO SOCKETS 



MICROPROCESSORS! QUME DT-8 DISK DRIVE | 2 114 L-2/200 NS 



8080A 2.50 

Z80A 10.00 

Z80 CTC 8.95 





1-99 


100 Up 


14 PIN 


.10 


.09 


16 PIN 


.12 


.11 


18 PIN 


.15 


.13 


20 PIN 


.23 


.21 


24 PIN 


.26 


24 


28 PIN 
40 PIN 


.30 
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.28 

.38 



2708/450 NS 



$5.50 ea. 

or 
8/$42.00 



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$8.75 ea. 

450 NS./Major Mfg. 



RS-232 CONNECTORS 



• Doublesided/SingleDouble Density 

• IBM-eompatible/1 2 Mbytes/Disk 

• Fast — 3 ms. Track to Track 

• 154 Tracks/Daisy Chain 4 Drives 

• ISO Standard Write Protect 

• Programmable Door Lock 

CALL FOR PRICE & DELIVERY 



CALIFORNIA COMPUTER 



1-16 

17-49 

50-99 

100-499 

500 Up 



S3. 60 ea. 
$3.40 ea. 
$3.25 ea. 
$3 00 ea. 
$2.85 ea. 



1-9 

DB25P 2.90 
DB25S 3.80 
Data Phone 



10-24 25 Up 

2.75 2.40 

3.70 3.60 

Hood 1.00 



(BURNDY/TIN SOLDERTAIL) 



REGULATORS 



320T5 80 

320T12 80 

340T5 70 

340T12 75 

78L12 25 



SYSTEMS 



MODEL 
2016 16K STATIC RAM BRD 
2032 32K STATIC RAM BRD 
2065 64K DYNAMIC RAM BD 
2116 16K STATIC RAM BD 
2200 MAINFRAME 
2400 MINI 8100S 
2422 DISK CONTROLLER 
2501 MOTHERBOARD 
2710 4-PORT SERIAL I/O 
2718 2 SER PORT & 2 PAR 
2720 4-PORT PARALLEL I/O 
2802 6502 CPU BOARD 
2810 Z-80 CPU BOARD 
5400 MINI 8100 
5416 THE-8100 

CALL FOR PRICE & DELIVERY 



ORDERING INFO 



Nam*, address, phon 

Ship By: UPS or Mall 

Shipping Chrg Add $2 SO up to 

5 lbs (UPS Blue) 

U.S. Mall Add $1 50 (U.S. Only) 

($25 00 Minimum Ordar) 



See us at the West Coast Computer Faire 



cm s£owmw 



DER SERVICE CARD 



CAPACITORS 



<8 12 Volts Ceramic 
9c ea. 

OR 
100/8.00 



S.D. SYSTEMS 



EXPANDORAMI 16K $249 00 

2MHz DYNAMIC 32K $275.00 

RAM BOARD 48K $299.00 

KITS 64K $32500 

EXPANDORAMII 16K $260 00 

4 MHz DYNAMIC 32K $285.00 

RAM BOARD 48K $310.00 

KITS 64 K $335.00 



TERMS 



We Accapt Cash. Check. Money 

Orders. Visa a Master Charge 

(US Funds Only) 

Tax: 8% Calif. Res. 

COO's A Terms Available on 

Approval (School PO'a Accepted) 



CIRCLE 109 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



A Guide to 
Data Banks 



CompuServe Network 

5000 Arlington Centre Blvd. 
Columbus. OH 4.1220 
(614)457-8600 

The Computer Co. 

1905 Westmoreland St 
Richmond. VA 232:10 
(804):i 58-2171 

Data Resources. Inc. 

29HartwellAve. 
Lexington. MA 02 1 7.1 
(617)861-0165 



Dow (ones News/Retrieval 
Service 

22CortlandtSt. 
New York, NY 10007 
(212)285-5000 



The growing trend in data banks is for the industry to divide into produc- 
ers (assemblers) and distributors (vendors). The producers are usually 
small companies that don't have the capacity to sell and service their 
products; they make agreements with distributors, who are better 
equipped to handle the marketing and installation of the equipment. 
The following chart lists alphabetically major distributors of data 
banks with a wide selection of subject matter. Pricing information is not 
included because it depends on variables that are too numerous to place 
in a chart. For example, the Value Line data bank, containing stock-mar- 
ket and related financial data on more than 1,500 companies, is available 
from producer Arnold Bernhard and Co. for a $5,000 annual subscription 
fee. Value Line is also available from seven different distributors; these 
distributors charge the $5,000 fee plus their own fees for frequency of use 
and length of time used. Some distributors charge by the minute, others 
by 15-minute slots; and still others have minimum-time requirements. 
Sometimes more than one data bank is offered for the price of one sub- 
scription fee. To illustrate, the distributor Rapidata offers both the Flow 
of Funds data bank (on the money flow through various sectors of the 
United States economy) and the RAPIDQUOTE data bank (of price and 
volume data on 14,000 securities) to subscribers of its other data banks at 
no extra charge. 



Reprinted With Permission of Output* magazine. 'Copyright by TECHNICAL PUBLISHING 
COMPANY. A DUN & BRADSTRFF T COMPANY. I<M0. all hunts reserved. 



ADP Network Services, Inc. 
P.O. Box 2 190 
1 75 Jackson Plaza 
Ann Arbor. MI 48106 
(3 13). 169-6800 

Bibliographic Retrieval Services, Inc. 

Corporation Park 

Building 702 

Scotia. NY 12303 

(518)374-5011 



General Electric Information Services Co. 

401 N.Washington St. 
Rockville.MD 20850 
(301)340-4000 



A large distributor offering computational data banks in: Agriculture. Autos. 
Commodities, Demographics, Economics. Finance, Insurance, and International 
Business. Its main suppliers are Chase Econometric Associates and Standard 
& Poor's. 



A large distributor offering bibliographic data banks in: Agriculture. Business. 
Education. Environment. General News Publications, Science, and Social Science. 
Its suppliers are various trade associations and governmental groups. 



A distributor offering statistical data banks in: Demographics, Economics, and 
Finance. Its suppliers include Citibank. Value Line (Arnold Bernhard and Co.). 
and Standard & Poor's. 



A statistical data-bank vendor specializing in the Airline Industry. Its main sup- 
plier is the Civil Aeronautics Board. 



A large vendor offering data banks in: Agriculture. Banking. Commodities, Con- 
struction, Economics, Energy. Finance, Insurance, International Business, Securi- 
ties, and the Steel and Transportation Industries. In addition, detailed U.S. regional, 
national, and international economic, demographic, and financial indicators are 
tracked. Compustat, Value Line, and Standard & Poor's are sources. 



A bibliographic data bank compiling The Wall Street Journal. Barron s. and the 
Dow Jones News Service. Dow Jones compiles its own data bank, which is updated 
immediately after appearing on the ticker and then maintained for ninety days. 



A computational data-bank vendor covering: Economics, Energy. Finance, and 
International Business. Its suppliers include the University of California and 
Value Line. 



56 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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Infomart 

OneYongeSt. 
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(201)575-2800 



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(617)890-12:14 



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3251 Hanover St. 
Palo Alto. CA 94304 
(415)493-4411 



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Courthouse Place, N.E. 
Dayton, OH 45^)' 
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542 Westport Ave. 
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Canada M5H 1)8 
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777NorthernBlvd. 
Creat Neck. NY 11022 
(516)487-0101 



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3401 Science Center 
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58 



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59 



ii 



*■ S 



■ J 




Apple as 

Time-Sharing 

User 

James Parr 



This is a mite specialized, hut for our 
many Apple readers, it's a helping hand 
into the world of time-sharing. Ed. 



Introduction 

A properly equipped personal com- 
puter (such as the Apple 1 1) can not only do 
computations of its own; it can be used as a 
terminal to a time-sharing system, and can 
communicate with the time-sharing system 
even when not acting as a terminal. This 
allows such applications as: transmitting 
your data or programs to the time-sharing 
system; transferring time-sharing files to 
your disk or tape, where they can be used 
by your computer as programs or data, or 
just saved as an archive to be restored to 
the time-sharing system later; having 
programs in your computer reference data 
from the time-sharing system or use time- 
sharing programs as subroutines. In short, 
almost all of the facilities of the time- 
sharing system are made available to the 
personal computer, and vice-versa. 

This article presents some examples of 
techniques and programs for communica- 
tion between an Apple II microcomputer 
and the Educational Computing Network 
(ECN), a CDC-based time-sharing net- 
work for some state universities in Illinois. 
With small modifications, these techniques 
should work on other time-sharing 
systems. Adaptation to other personal 
computers is more difficult, since the 
Apple programs are tailored to the 
peculiarities of Applesoft Basic and the 
Apple operating system. 

To make use of these techniques, you 
need an Apple II computer with Applesoft 

J. T. Parr. Mathematics Department. Illinois State 
University. Normal. IL 61761. 



Basic, and either a modem and modem 
card, such as the Apple communications 
card and modem, or the D.C. Hayes 
Micromodem II (total retail about SI600. 
if you already have a TV or monitor). The 
last program uses a disk drive, but it could 
be adapted for cassette storage, or to use 
data directly instead of storing it on a file. 

Making Contact: Apple As Terminal 

Terminals and time-sharing systems 
operate in either full duplex or half duplex 
mode. A time-sharing system operating 
full duplex sends back ("echoes") to the 
terminal for every character it receives; the 
terminal in full duplex mode doesn't print 

Almost all of the facilities 
of the time-sharing 
system are available to 
the personal computer. 

the character when it is typed at the 
keyboard, but only when it is sent back by 
the system. In half duplex mode, the 
terminal prints each character, and the 
system does not echo it back. If the duplex 
modes of the terminal and the system do 
not match, each letter typed will be printed 
twice, or not at all. On ECN, the command 
FULL or HALF can be entered to change 
the system from one duplex mode to the 
other. The extra input to the Apple from 
the echoing makes it a little more difficult 
to write programs to communicate with a 
full duplex system, so we shall want the 
system in half duplex mode for all of this 
work. 

The following series of commands 
turns your Apple into a half-duplex 
terminal, ready to dial up a time-sharing 
system. Replace MSLOT with the number 
of the Apple slot your modem card is in. 
This procedure is for the Apple communi- 
cations card and modem. (For more detail 
or a different modem, consult your modem 
manual.) 



]PR# MSLOT 

3PRINT 

]PR# 

jPOKE 2040 + MSLOT, 9 

jIN» MSLOT 

3ctrl-A ctrl-H 
The switches on the CAT modem should 
be set to O and F. The POKE sets the data 
format; different systems use different 
formats, so consult your manuals. 

The Apple has a few peculiarities as a 
terminal: Its screen is only forty characters 
wide. The keyboard has no underscore, left 
bracket, or backslash, although these 
characters will be printed on the screen if 
sent by the system, and can be transmitted 
by an Apple program using the CHR$ 
function. Sending the break character is 
done by pressing ctrl-A ctrl-S, and 
cancelled by pressing any key. 

Once in half-duplex terminal mode, 
the Apple responds to a keypress only by 
printing it on the screen and sending it out 
through the modem, with two exceptions: 
RESET and control sequences starting 
with ctrl-A. Pressing ctrl-A ctrl-X takes the 
Apple out of terminal mode and back to 
normal functioning ("local mode" or "local 
control"). So does RESET, but sometimes 
with undesirable side effects. If this isdone 
without logging off from ECN, ECN will 
wait on the line up to its usual time limit 
while you use the Apple to run Applesoft, 
save or load programs, etc. Then you can 
reenter terminal mode with the sequence 

JPOKE 2040 + MSLOT. 9 

jIN» MSLOT 

Jctrl-A ctrl-H 
and resume working with the Apple as a 
terminal; ECN will still be on the line. If the 
system has sent anything while the Apple 
was in local mode, some characters or 
blank lines may appear on the screen as 
soon as you enter IN# MSLOT. Some- 
times the IN command undoes the POKE. 



60 



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Time Sharing, continued. 

If you can't get any response from the 
system but ILLEGAL COMMAND, go 
back to local mode and repeat the sequence 
starting with the POKE. 

While the Apple is in local mode, a 
PRff MS LOT command causes all subse- 
quent output to be sent through the 
modem as well as to the screen, until a 
PRff O or RESET cancels it. An INff 
MSLOT causes the Apple to ignore 
keyboard input except for RESET and 
ctrl-A sequences, and listen only to the 
modem until the next INff O or RESET. 
These commands can be used directly or in 
programs to communicate with ECN while 
the Apple remains under local control, 
running Applesoft programs or respond- 
ing to direct commands from the key- 
board. 

If you use the IN and PR commands 
in a program running under DOS, they can 
disconnect the disk I/O. This can be 
corrected by following each PRff O with 
POKE 54, 189: POKE 55, 158, and each 
INff O with POKE 56, 1 29: POKE 57. 1 58. 
The DOS manual recommends putting the 
PR and IN commands in PRINT state- 
ments. Then the POKEs aren't necessary, 
but the program will work only under 
DOS. and you must be sure NOMON C is 
in effect before each PRff MSLOT, or you 
may send those commands as output 
through the modem. There is no difficulty 
with INff and PRff as direct commands, 
since direct commands are all handled 
through DOS anyway. 

Sending Program Output 

Here is a program which sends its 
output to the time-sharing system: 



too 

102 
104 

no 

120 
130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 
200 
210 
220 

225 
230 
235 
240 

245 

250 
255 
260 
290 
300 



RFM TIME-SHARING 
REM GRADEBOOK 

REM 

LET MSLOT • 2 

POKE 2040 + MSLOT. 9 

PR* MSLOT 



NAME't 
TAB( 20) S 'SCORES' i 
TAB( 30) { 'AVERAGE' 
1 TO lOOtNEXT 



PRINT 

PRINT 

PRINT 

FOR T 

PRINT 

PR* O 

REM 

FOR N = 1 TO 200 
t INPUT 'NAME. SCORES? 
"SNS.S1.S2 

.• IF N* - " THEN 290 
t LET AV = .5 * (SI + S2> 
: PR* MSLOT 

t PRINT Nt TAB< 4>»N*» 
: PRINT TAB( 20>;S1( 
TAB< 25)»S2i 
: PRINT TAB< 30>»AV 

: pr* o 

t NEXT N 
REM 
END 



When this program is run with the Apple in 
half duplex mode, everything that appears 
on the screen while PRff MSLOT is in 
effect will also be sent through the modem 
to the time-sharing system. Commas in 
PRINT statements do not provide auto- 
matic tabbing as they do on the screen, but 



list 




80/03/24. 15.48.22. 


PROGRAM ASEND 


1000 


REM ********************** 


1001 


REM ASEND « 


1002 


REM COPIES ANY TEXT FILE * 


1003 


REM TO AN ECN TEXT FILE. * 


1004 


REM ECN MUST BE IN TEXT * 


1005 


REM MODE TO USE IT. « 


1006 


REN « 


1007 


REM J. T. PARR « 


1008 


REM MATHEMATICS DEPT * 


1009 


REM ILL. ST. UNIV. * 


1010 


REM VERSION 3/13/80 * 


1011 


REM It********************* 


1080 


t 


1110 


LET MSLOT - 2 


1120 


LET DFMT - 9 


1130 


LET D* > CHR« (4> 


1140 


LET CA» - CHR* <1> + CHRf <1) 


1150 


INPUT 'FILE TO BE COPIED? '»F« 


1190 


S 


1200 


REM —DOS COMMANDS 


1210 


PRINT 


1220 


PRINT D»)'N0M0N C.I.O' 


1230 


PRINT D*('0PEN "IF* 


1240 


PRINT D«**READ 'IF* 


1250 


SPEED' 255 


1260 


ONERR GOTO 1400 


1290 


: 


1300 


REM —COPY 


1310 


FOR C - 1 TO 1E30 


1320 


t OET C« 


1330 


: PRINT CA*> 


1340 


1 POKE 2040 ♦ MSLOT t DFMT 


1350 


: PR* MSLOT 


1360 


: PRINT C«( 


1370 


: pr* o 


1375 


t POKE 54.189: POKE 55.158 


1380 


! IF ASC <C*> - 13 THEN FOR 




T - 1 TO 500t NEXT 


1390 


t NEXT C 


1395 


t 


1400 


REM —CLOSE UP 


1410 


PR* MSLOT 


1420 


POKE 2040 + MSLOT. DFMT 


1430 


PRINT CHR* (3)1 


1440 


PR* 


1445 


POKE 54.189: POKE 55.158 


1450 


PRINT 


1460 


PRINT D«» 'CLOSE 'IF* 


1470 


PRINT 'EXITED TEXT MODE.' 


1480 


PRINT 'DON'T FORGET TO PACK.' 


9999 


END 


READY 


1 



Latin* I 

semicolons, TAB and SPC give their usual 
results. Notice that the INPUT statement 
is not within the scope of a PRff MSLOT; 
if it were, its prompt and the user's 
response would also be sent through the 
modem. ECN requires a pause after a 
carriage return (a PRINT that does not 
end in a comma or semicolon) before it is 
ready to receive more output from the 
Apple; for FOR-loop in line 170 provides 
the necessary delay before the following 
PRINT statement, and the INPUT 
command inside the loop assures a pause 
before the next PRINT. 

To prepare ECN to receive the output, 
we use ECN's TEXT mode, which causes it 
to put all characters it receives into the 
primary file. While addressing ECN as a 
half-duplex terminal, enter 

NEU.name of file to receive output 

TEXT 

ctrl-A ctrl-X 

JRUN 

62 



Since the Apple has been left in half duplex 
mode, the program output will now be seen 
on the screen, along with the INPUT 
prompts and responses, while the output 
without the prompts and responses is also 
being sent into the ECN file. When you get 
the Applesoft prompt again, enter 

3P0KE 2040 t MSLOT. 9 
JIN* MSLOT 
"Ictrl-A ctrl-H 
ctrl-C 

The ctrl-C takes ECN out of TEXT mode, 
and gets you the message EXIT TEXT 
MODE. In TEXT mode several invisible 
"end-of-record marks'* will have been 
inserted in the file. They are removed by 
entering the PACK command. Enter 
NOSORTand LNH to see the results. You 
can then SAVE or XEDIT the file. 

Listing A Program To ECN 

Suppose you have a program in Apple 
memory which you would like to send to 
an ECN file, and that it has no line 
numbers less than 10. Then add these lines 
to the program. Replace MSLOT with 
your modem slot number. 

1 SPEED - 80: POKE 33.33 

2 POKE 2040 + MSLOT. 9 

3 PR* MSLOT 

4 LIST 10. 

5 FOR T » 1 TO 100 : NEXT 

6 PRINT CHR«(3> 

7 PR* 

8 SPEED = 255: POKE 33.40 

9 END (or. DEL 1.9) 

Now get in contact with ECN as a half- 
duplex terminal, and enter 

NEW. name of file to receive listing 

TEXT 

ctrl-A ctrl-X 

1RUN 

This runs lines 1-9. When line 4 lists your 
program, PRff MSLOT is in effect, so the 
listing goes out through the modem to 
ECN. The POKE 33,33 sets the Apple 
screen width to 33, which keeps the listing 
routine from inserting extra carriage 
returns into the listing. (They can also be 
avoided by using ctrl-A ctrl-F to put the 
Apple, but not ECN, into full duplex 
mode; but then the listing will not show oin 
the Apple screen.) SPEED = 80 is to help 
keep ECN from dropping a character after 
each carriage return. The listing will take 
quite a while: two and half minutes for a 
program of eighty-five short lines. Even- 
tually, you will get the Applesoft prompt 
back. Line 6 sent a ctrl-C to ECN, so it will 
be out of TEXT mode already. Enter 

3P0KE 2040 + MSLOT. 9 
3 IN* MSLOT 
Jctrl-A ctrl-H 
PACK 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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1 he small businessman has never had it so good, or 

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ii t of youi business a< i ountii 

A Full System 

While it's extreme! use, IBMS is a full 

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modules can gen' erything from the 

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Menu includes: System Start-up. Accounts Re- 
ints Payable. Perpetual Inventory 
ill. Fixed Assets. General 1 edger. Plus Mailing 
Labels, and an Appointments Calendar. 

Save Maximum Time 

totally interat tive system, multiple- 
entering of data is eliminated. Make an entry in 
iie^ and it automatically updati 

No duplication of effort, no vt 
time, no probli 

Proven. And then some. 

It took i years to develop IBMS, including shake- 
down and on-site testing. As a result, it's reliable 
and versatile and its documentation is thorough 
and easily understandable. No wo 
sidei it 5 years ahead ol anything else available to 
the Apple II u 

Introductory Offer 

The complete IBMS software package, on mini- 
floppy disks, documentation, and the backing of 
Hrogramma International. Inc is offered 
limited time at the Introductory Price of $1495.00. 
You'll be amazed how it i an satisfy vou . . . by 
saving you time, effort, money and employee 
vth. 

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Hu-Kt-v toBwineu M.. 



PROGRAMMA 

PROCRAMMA INTERNATIONAL, INC. 
3400 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, Ca 90010 
(213) 384-0579 



CIRCLE 230 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MARCH 1981 



Time sharing cont'd. 



1 iMin| 2 



180/03/24. 15.30.04. 
PROGRAM RECEIVE 

100 REN 

110 REM RECEIVES TEXT FILE 

120 REM FROM CDC BASIC PGM 

130 REM BSEND. 

140 REM 

150 REM J T PARR 

160 REM MATHEMATICS PEPT 

170 REM ILLINOIS STATE UNIV. 

180 REM VERSION 3/14/80 

199 REM 

200 REM CONSTANTS 

205 REM 

210 LET DUMMY* - '*' 

220 LET D* - CHR* <4> 

230 PRINT 'NAME OF FILE TO COPY TOM 

240 INPUT F* 

250 LET MSLOT - 2 

240 LET DFMT - 9 

290 REM 

300 REM DOS COMDS 

310 REM 

320 PRINT D* a 'MON C.I.O' 

330 PRINT D»»'OPEN 'IF* 

340 PRINT D»» 'DELETE 'IF* 

350 PRINT Dtl'OPEN 'IF! 

390 REM 

400 REM INPUT LOOP 

410 REM 

420 ONERR GOTO 900 

430 FOR L - 1 TO 1E20 

440 : LET L* - " 

445 REM -- GIVE GOAHEAD 

450 i PR* MSLOT 

460 : POKE 2040 + MSLOT , DFMT 

470 t PRINT 1 

480 : PR* 

490 ! POKE 54,189! POKE 55 . 158 

500 REM 

501 REM LOAD L* 

502 REM 

SOS ! IN* MSLOT 

510 : FOR C - 1 TO 1E20 

520 IS GET C* 

530 :: IF ASC <C*> - 13 THEN 560 

540 it LET L« ■ I ♦ t C* 

550 !! NEXT C 

560 I REM GET PROMPT 

565 t GET P»: IF P» • •■ THEN 565 

570 : PRINT 

580 ! IN* 

590 : 

600 REM 

601 REM PRINT I » 

602 REM 

640 1 PRINT D«» "WRITE 'IF* 

650 i PRINT L* 

660 ! PRINT D* 

675 : IF P* - DUMMY* THEN L - 1E30 

680 : NEXT L 

690 i 

7O0- «EH 

710 REM CLOSE UP 

720 REM 

725 POKE 216f0 

730 IN* 

740 PR* 

7S0 POKE 54 t 189* POKE 55 » 158 

755 PRINT 

770 PRINT D*« "CLOSE* 

780 END 

799 REN 

900 REN ERROR 

909 REM 

910 PRINT 

920 PRINT 'ERROR • '» PEEK (222) 

930 PRINT '(FOR TABLES OF 

ERROR NUMBERS' 

935 PRINT 'SEE APPLESOFT 

t DOS MANUALS)* 

940 POKE 216,0 
930 PR* MSLOT 
960 PRINT 'STOP' 
990 GOTO 700 

995 : 
READY. 



There will be a blank line at the top of the 
listing, and if ECN was not able to keep up 
after the carriage returns, first digits of 
some line numbers will be missing. These 
problems can be corrected with the editing 
package, giving a good copy of the 
program on an ECN file to save, print, edit, 
etc. Lines of more than 150 characters are 
not accepted by ECN. 

If you put lines 1-9 above on a disk 
text file, you can EXEC the file. If you have 
included the line numbers on the file, those 
lines will be appended to the beginning of 
your program. If you left the line numbers 
off the file, the commands will be executed 
directly: in that ease, some of them may be 
printed on the file along with the program 
listing. 

There is a more roundabout way 
which you might prefer if you have a disk. 
List your program to a disk file, making 
sure that POKE 33,33 or NOMON O is in 
effect to avoid those extra carriage returns. 
This listing won't take so long, at SPEED = 
255. Then use the Apple ASEND program 
to send the text file with the listing on it to 
ECN. With the Apple in half duplex mode. 

If the duplex modes of the 
terminal and the system 
do not match, each letter 
typed will be printed 
twice, or not at all. 

the listing will be displayed on the screen as 
it is being sent. The ASEND program uses 
a delay loop after each carriage return, so it 
can send each line at SPEED = 255 without 
ECN missing any characters, and without 
taking so long to send the listing. 

Copying Disk Text Files To ECN 

The Applesoft program ASEND 
(Listing I) can be used to transfer any 
Apple disk text file to an ECN file. The 
following steps will accomplish the move. 
Get DOS operating and connect with ECN 
as a half-duplex terminal. 

NEUrnane of file to writ* to 

TEXT 

ctrl-A ctrl-X 

Insert disk with ASEND. 

3L0AD ASEND 

Insert disk with text file. 

3RUN 

Enter nasi* of file to be copied. 

UN* MSLOT 

3ctrl-A ctrl-H 

ctrl-C 

PACK 

SAVE 

64 



100 REM»**«***********»********* 


110 REM 


BSEND : CDC BASIC PGM * 


120 REM 


SEND TEXT FILE TO * 


130 REM 


APPLE II MICROCPTR * 


140 REM 


FROM ECN. * 


150 REM 


* 


181 REM 


J T PARR * 


182 REM 


MATHEMATICS * 


183 REM 


ILLINOIS STATE UNIV. * 


184 REM 


VERSION 6/11/80 * 


190 REM************************* 


200 REM 


SET UP 


210 FILE *1 » 'TEXT' 


220 


[lELIMIT *1. <CR) 


230 RESTORE *1 


240 


"IARGIN 


300 REM 


TRANSMIT 


310 


"OR L=l TO 1E30 


315 


IF END *1 THEN 400 


320 


INPUT G 


330 


INPUT *1, L» 


340 


PRINT L* 


350 


NEXT L 


400 REM 


SIGN OFF 


410 


PRINT '*' 


999 


END 


READY. 





Listing J 

Copying Files To Apple Disk 

Since the Apple lacks the equivalent 
of the ECN TEXT mode, we use an Apple 
program RECEIVE (Listing 2) to receive 
text being sent by ECN and write it onto a 
disk file. If you don't have a disk, u 
program including some of the techniques 
of RECEIVE could receive the data and 
use it directly or STORE it on a cassette. 
The sending is done by a CDC Basic 
program BSEND (Listing 3), which sends 
a line of the file each time RECM\ I 
signals that it is ready. BSEND is very 
simple and straightforward, while the 
idiosyncracics of Apple DOS and the 
communications card makethe RECEIVE 
program more complicated. 

The following sequence shows how to 
use the BSEND and RECEIVE programs. 
We assume that DOS is in effect and that 
the Apple is connected to ECN as a half- 
duplex terminal. 

OLD, BSEND 

GETrTEXT-nane of file to be copied 

RNH 

wait for T proe.pt, then press 
ctrl-A ctrl-X 

Insert the disk contsinins RECEIVE. 

3L0AD RECEIVE 

Insert the disk wou want the file 
copied to. 

1RUN 

Answer the prompt with the name you 
wish the disk copy of the file to have. When 
you get the Applesoft prompt again, the 
copy is complete. You may then return to 
terminal mode and log off. Most errors 
that occur will be intercepted by an error- 
handling routine in RECEIVE, but if 
somehow the Apple should "hang" so that 
it is necessary to RESET, be sure to enter a 
CLOSE command to safeguard the file 
and your disk. 

If the file you have copied contains a 
Basic program and you want to use it as 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



such instead of as data, the command 
EXEC filename will enter it into the Apple 
memory as a program, where you can edit 
it. run it. and save it. 



Notes On The Program 

In order to be able to deal with all 
characters, including commas and quote 
marks, the Apple programs ASEND and 
RECEIVE use the GET command instead 
of INPUT. The GET command causes the 
next PRINT command to lose characters; 
hence the extra PRINT statements 
following each series of GET commands. 
Not only may some output be lost, but if it 
happens to be the CHR$(4) preceding a 
DOS command, then DOS will not receive 
the command. The manual recommends 
printing an ext ra CH R$( I ) character as the 
one to be lost, but in some cases that seems 
not to be sufficient, so ASEND uses two 
before each PRINT to the modem, and a 
carriage return before the CLOSE com- 
mand. You can use INPUT instead of 
GET. if your application is compatible 
with INPUT'S treatment of blanks, 
commas, and quotes. 

In BSEND, the DELIMIT statement 
cancels commas and quote marks as 
delimiters, allowing the INPUT statement 
to read into L$ the entire next line of the 
file, no matter what it contains. MARGIN 
O allows BSEND to transmit lines of 
arbitrary length without inserting carriage 
returns. The sequence of events in the loop 
in BSEND is critical for correct synchroni- 
zation with RECEIVE. RECEIVE has to 
intercept the BSEND prompt right after it 
has received a line. If it were to do so later, 
the prompt might already have been sent 
by the time the GET is executed, and it 
would wait indefinitely for a prompt. If 
ECN is responding quickly, getting PS 
could be skipped, and the prompt would 
just be lost while the Apple writes L$ to the 
file; but a delay on the part of ECN could 
then cause the '.' to be got as part of the next 
L$. The loop for getting the prompt flushes 
out null characters sent by ECN after each 
carriage return. n 



„u UU> 





THE SAGA CONTINUES . 

IV TfilUfiLfi'S LfiST R6DOUBT 

The cruel Emperor Tawala has been forced from 
his throne on the world of Galactica and has fled 
for his life to the planet of Farside. where he and 
a small bank of adherents prepare to make their 
last stand. Extreme solar conditions have 
isolated Farside from the rest of the galaxy, and 
so it remains to Benthi. leader of the local insur- 
rectionists, to press the final assault on Tawala 
and his minions. 

TAWALA'S LAST REDOUBT puts you in the 
position of rebel leader. You must intercept and 
decipher Tawala's secret messages to his sup- 
porters, form alliances with local chiefs, detect 
Tawala's spies in your midst, separate hard intel- 
ligence from enemy disinformation, avoid Ta- 
wala's military forays against you and, finally, 
lead the assault against the Prince's stronghold. 

Minimum Configuration: 

TRS-80 Cassette. 16K. Level II. $19 95 

TRS-80 Disk, 32K. $24 95 

APPLE Disk. 48K with APPLESOFT. $29.95 



m™ 



Apple Galaxian — In brilliantly colored array, the 
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dazzlingly swift attacks to do battle upon the 
lone defender This faithful rendition of that most 
popular of all bar games may drive you around 
the bend, but think of all the quarters you'll be 
saving! Apple II Integer or Plus. 48K disk. $24 95 



How to order : Ask your dealer or send check or 
money order for the exact retail price to: 
hi ki 
hi 

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Call (503) 343-9024 to order. NO CHARGE 
FOR SHIPPING AND HANDLING' 
Visa and Mastercard accepted. 

We've got morel Send for our free catetogf 



Apple and Applesoft are trademarks of Apple Computer Co 
TRS-80 is a trademark of Radio Shack 



CIRCLE 129 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



abVNOWTEVE 

We figure the more innovative we are, 
the more you'll benefit We work hard 
at providing you with more in-depth 
software and hardware analyses, inter- 
views, industry news and trends. 

It's all there, every other week, in In- 
foVVorld. If you have a special interest in 
personal computing, you can't afford to 
miss another issue of lilL' microcom- 
puter newspaper InfoWorkL 

Mail this form or facsimile to: 
InfoWorld, 530 Lytton Avenue, 
"^ Palo Alto, California 94301 

Attn: Allison 

! Please start tin subscription to InfoWorld, the microcomputer newspaper. 

J n $18 one year (surface mail) U $28 one year first class 

I □ $35 one year Canada &. Mexico □ $65 Airmail to Rest of World 

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I Charge my: D Mastercharge □ BankAmericard/Visa □ AmEx 

I (MC only list 4 digits above your name ) 

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APRIL 1981 



65 



CIRCLE 208 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



A Manager and His Machine 




Robert Heltman 



The heartwarming story of a small computer that finds 
a home in big business. 



Reflections after eight months: a 
report from a middle manager in a large 
corporation, who has recently incor- 
porated an Apple into his office work 
life both to improve productivity and 
continue his education. Did it work? 
Let's see . . . . 



This article fulfills an unwritten promise 
to myself and the colleagues who blessed 
my purchase of a portable computer at 
company expense. I hope it will help other 
executives to decide if they should take 
such a step and. if they do. how such a 
computer might be used to their advan- 
tage. 

These days most executives in large 
organizations have access to large compu- 
ters for business reports. Our paychecks 
arrive with the unmistakable imprint of 
computer preparation. More and more tasks 
in all areas of business are being tackled 
and improved by the computer. 

In our Human Resources Department 
at General Electric in Erie. PA. we have 
large-scale computer systems for general 
employee information, equal employment 
opportunity tracking, payroll and exempt 
annual manpower review data. Many 
standard and special reports can be obtained 
periodically or overnight. The manpower 
data is also on-line searchable and is used 
to generate candidate slates and to per- 
form various analyses. 

But in my role in human resource man- 
agement—and, I believe, in many other 
areas— there has been a sort of no man's 
land where certain needs and ideas just 
don't quite get the attention or budget 
priority that does, and should, go to larger 
projects tackled by larger computers. 



Robert F. Heltman. Manager-Organization and 
Manpower Transportation Systemi Businea Dm 
sum. General Electric Co.. I rie, I'A ih.s.il. 



In addition, on some approved computer 
projects, there seem to be difficulties 
involved in translating the general concepts 
of what is needed into fully usable output. 
Have you ever noticed that when you meet 
with your systems analyst or programmer, 
the conversation goes something like this: 
Analyst/programmer: "What do you want 
to be able to do?" 

You, after some general statements: "What 
can be done? 

While users need to do a better job of 
defining what they need it is also true that 
the programmer should be expected to 
"bring something to the party." This is 
most often possible when he has worked 
on similar applications before. However, 
if you are in a unique field or are developing 
a new application, you are often on your 
own. 



I'm not an electronics 

expert, nor am I a 

computer "nut" or 

hobbyist. I'm a 

businessman pursuing 

productivity and better 

ways of doing things. 



As a new computer project gets under- 
way, you may find that when the first output 
is delivered you get new ideas about what 
you'd really like to have? This goes through 
several cycles, while time goes by. costs 
rise and your programmer sincerely wishes 
he'd undertaken a different career— maybe 
milking goats in a monastery? 



What these situations boil down to is 
this: it seems that defining and developing 
a new application has an interactive quality. 
That is. you outline what you think you 
want, then see the output results, which in 
turn triggers thoughts on what else you'd 
like to have. This cycles several times until 
you either get what you want or reach an 
acceptable compromise. 

Last November this situation was bother- 
ing me more than usual, but so was some- 
thing else. That was the growing realization 
that we live in the age of the "micropro- 
cessor"— that tiny computer on a thin 
quarter-inch-square chip that is putting 
"brains" into games our children get at 
Christmas, and products like microwave- 
ovens, as well as into the manufacturing 
processess and machines that make those 
products. Business magazines, as well as 
enlishtened managers everywhere, talk 
about America— our country! — being far 
behind in productivity, while Japan and 
other nations are far ahead in robots and 
computers. 

In the middle of all this I said to myself. 
"What am I doing about my own education 
in this new microprocessor revolution?" 
The answer then was. "Not enough!" 

These two factors— productivity and my 
educational gap— concerned me so much 
that during last Thanksgiving vacation I 
dropped into my nearest computer stores, 
talked to the managers, and bought three 
books on digital electronics and small 
portable computers. While a lot of it was 
over my head. I began to get a feel for 
microelectronics and what could be done. 
For an economics/business administration 
major, it was at least a start. 

As you can tell. I'm not an electronics 
expert, nor am I a computer "nut" or 
hobbyist. I'm a businessman pursuing 
productivity and better ways of doing things. 



66 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Professional Color & B/W Monitors 



NEW 13" COLOR 

The Amdek 13" Color Video 
Monitor is ideal for all personal 
and business computing applica- 
tions. Bright jitter-free text allows 
viewing over extended periods 
without causing eye fatigue, 
especially in word processing 
applications. The low resolution 
display provides 40 characters 
wide by 24 characters deep with 
260 horizontal lines and 300 ver- 
tical lines. 

This compact, lightweight 
monitor (only 25 lbs.) has a 
molded-in carrying handle, 
making it easy to move. Its 
industrial grade construction and 
shatter resistant case provide 
reliable service in both office and 
industrial environments. All 
front mounted controls make 
it easily adjustable at a a 

glance without the loss 
of a single keystroke. 





{ 




VIDEO 100 12" B/W MONITOR VIDEO 100-80 12" B/W MONITOR 



This highly reliable 12" black and white 
monitor features a 12MHz band width and 
80 character by 24 line display. Plug-in com- 
patibility with Apple, Atari, Radio Shack, 
O.S.I. , Micro-Term and Exidy make this the 
perfect text display for almost any system. 

Amdek Corp • 2420 E. Oakton Street, Suite "E" 



The model 80 features an industrial grade 
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capability and space for an 11 " x 14" PC board 
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mounted controls include power, contrast, 
horizontal hold, vertical hold, and brightness. 

Arlington Heights, IL 60005 • (312) 364-1180 TLX: 25-4786 



Amdek Corp. the new name for Leedex . . . Expanding for the future, growing with success. 



CIRCLE 104 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




ALL 

NEW 



GUIDES 

from OSBORNE/McGraw-Hill 



The Apple II User's Guld* by Lon Poole. Martin McNilf. and Steven Cook M6-2. US D 

This Guide is the key to unlocking the full power ot your Apple II or Apple II plus computer The Apple II User's Guide brings together m 
one place a wealth ot information tor Apple computer users. It will tell you more about your Apple than any other single source. This book 
will save you both time and effort. No longer will you have to search endlessly for useful information It's all here, inthe Apple II User's Guide, 
thoughtfully organized and easy to use Topics include: 



'Applesoft and Integer BASIC pro- 
giamming - especially how to 
make the best use of Apple's 
sound, color and graphics capabi- 
lities The book presents a 
thorough description ot every 
BASIC statement, command and 
function 



'Advanced programming - special 
sections describe High Resolution 
graphics techniques and other ad- 
vanced applications 



•Haidware features - the disk drive 
and printer are covered in sepa- 
rate chapters 



'Machine level programming - al- 
though not a machine language 
programming guide, this book 
covers the Machine Language 
Monitor in detail 



'Apple is a trademark ot the Apple Computer Corporation 



PET/CBM Personal Computer Guide Second Edition by Adam Osborne and Carroll Donahue #55-1. $15 a 

The PET/CBM Personal Computer Guide is a step-by-step guide that assumes no prior knowledge ot computers It you can read En- 
glish, you can use this book This revised second edition provides even more useful material than the popular first edition It covers the 
most recent CBM products: the CBM 8000 and 4000 series computers, the 2040 and 8050 disk drives, and programmable printers Adam 
Osborne co-authored this new edition He has re-written it to be a step- by-step BASIC tutorial So if you don't know BASIC, don't worry This 
book will teach you both BASIC and CBM BASIC If you're thinking about buying any personal computer, this book will show you what the 
PET can do for you If you've |ust bought a PET or CBM. this is the book you must have to really understand your computer By using the ex- 
amples found in this book you II quickly get your PET/CBM up and running These examples are thoroughly documented so you can learn 
how and why the programs work It's the "how" and "why" that are important in learning to make the PET work efficiently for you The PET 
Personal Computer Guide covers everything you'll need to be master ot your PET 

'PET and CBM are both trademarks of Commodore Business Machines 



> 



* 



■o 
m 
H 

O 

co 



CP/M User's Guide by Thorn Hogan M4 6 $12 99 □ 

If you haven't yet purchased CP/M for your system, the CP/M User s Guide will make your first use of CP/M 
easy It you already have CP/M. this book will help you modify your system and let you "lockey your disks" like an 
expert The CP/M Users Guide describes types of CP/M and their compatibility It includes a discussion ot 
conventions used to create tile names and command lines Numerous sample screen displays tor each version of 
CP/M graphically explain each operator command and computer response CP /Ms Assembly Language Utilities 
are described for the non-technical reader who wants maximum use ot CP/M s capabilities The book also 
discusses how application packages, high level languages, solution programs, and other support programs 
combine with CP/M to answer a user's individual needs You'll also find an explanation of MP/M and CP/NET as 
well as the technical aspects of CP / Ms internal structure which will permit you to make simple modifications A full 
glossary and several useful appendices are included 'CP/M is a trademark ot Digital Research Corporation 

The Business System Buyer's Guide by Adam Osborne «</o$/95D 

When you enter the marketplace of small business computers you face a bewilder- 
ing array of products, prices, features, and tables This guide cuts through the largon 
and unravels the task of buying the right computer system Or Osborne is the foremost 
authority on the use ot computers in small businesses Mere, he helps you to analyze 
your computer needs by applying the same know-how that made your business a 
success This book provides solid information on how to determine your needs, how to 
choose software and hardware for all business applications, what to expect from 
vendors, what to avoid, and what questions you must ask It also provides a wealth of 
detailed information on products, manufacturers, retailers, and the whole micro- 
computer marketplace Purchasing a computer system for any business is a complex 
process, but it need not be a frustrating one This book will help Before you buy any 
computer, read this book You'll never make a better investment 

Make check payable to f't OSBORNE/McOraw-HM 

630 Bancroft Way. Berkeley. CA 94710 Oepl. L9 Phone Orders (415) 5482805 



City/Slate/Zip 

Plus D 75/item 4th class D$1 25/item UPS D$2 50/item Air Mail D$4 00/nem Overseas 
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CIRCLE 251 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






■■via 



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tm 






Manager, continued. 

Portable computers interest me as would 
any superior tool or method. If factual 
data proved that lop-eared kangaroos 
improved office productivity, this article 
would have a report on eight months of 
progress in that field! 

Next I began talking to associates at 
work, including old friends and new contacts 
at a number of company locations. My 
research convinced me that if I had a 
small portable computer, and could learn 
to program it. I might move toward solving 
both problems— component productivity 
readiness-to-serve, and my own educational 
shortfall. A portable computer was neces- 
sary because I had to get most of my 
learning and project application develop- 
ment work done at home. The normal 
tasks had to continue during regular business 
hours. 

After several passes at writing a proposal. 

I was ready to spend the equivalent of two 
days talking with my division experts and 
management associates, who would have 
to approve the purchase of a computer. It 
was a good two days, for I continued to 
learn as I answered their questions. 

I was fortunate in having an open-minded 
boss, along with reasonable and considerate 
associates, who were willing to listen to 
my story, give useful advice, and in the 
end, approve my purchase. In fact I became 
the first manager to be involved in one of 
several experimental pilot projects with 
small portable computers now under eval- 
uation. In keeping with my plan. I purchased 
locally— "don't forget service!"— an Apple 

II with clock card, two disk drives, a 9" 
black and white TV monitor. Micromodem 
for telephone connection, and a dot/matrix 
printer, along with a carrying case, some 
mini-floppy disks, and a few more books 
on programming. Soon I added the Apple- 
soft floating point Basic language card, 
and an 80-column card due to growing 
word processing use. With company consent 
I carried the above home, and spent most 
of Christmas and New Year's vacation going 
to my own self-conducted school. My 
understanding wife began to wonder about 
the "electronic mistress" who kept me up 
late nights, but 1 knew I was a novice, and 
wanted to have some proficiency before 
installing the computer in my office. 

Slowly, with plenty of mistakes. I learned 
how to operate my Apple and began writing 
and experimenting with simple programs. 
The owner and staff at the local computer 
store — Erie Computer Co. — were just great. 
As I think back about the really simple 
questions that had me stuck. I am amazed 
at how understanding and helpful they 
were every step of the way— even if I 
called at night. 

Learning to make the computer work 
for me has been like taking a person who 
played beginner music on the piano years 
ago and giving him an organ for the task of 
playing Bach and Beethoven, and expecting 

APRIL 1981 



him to compose additional music as well. 
I found that it takes some time to learn 
the mental and manual habits of "playing" 
the computer. Each piece of software 
"music" requires learning and practice to 
remain proficient. In addition it can become 
frustrating to find that with every new 
piece of software comesanof/i«?rinstruction 
manual. ^^^. 

I've found programming a bit like 
learning a foreign language; it is easier if 
you immerse yourself in the culture, in 
this case by writing short job-related 
programs yourself. 

Frankly, I look forward to the day when 
we will have even higher level computer 
languages, and "smarter" computers that 
will take verbal instructions to do what 
one wants done. 

It took me about a month of evenings 
and weekends before I felt confident enough 
to bring the Apple to my office, and have 
it work for me without my spending office 
time getting it to work. Over the following 
months I added one application after 
another. 

At this point the computer is an essential 
part of my office life. It has proven itself 
invaluable, and in some ways I couldn't 
forecast. I'd feel lost without it. I've found 
it to be a practical way to "do more with 
less"— a situation very familiar to busi- 
nessmen everywhere who are fighting off 
the ravages of inflation and America's rather 
shoddy productivity standing. 

Now let's examine actual applications 
by looking at what I said I planned to do 
with the Apple in my purchase authorization 
last December and comparing that with 
actual use. 

Purchase Proposal Item 1 : As a "dumb" 
terminal, to access the manpower review 
data on the mainframe computer in Schen- 
ectady, via modem /telephone. 

Results: This has worked out better than 
I originally thought due to a short "auto- 
dial" software program an Apple-using 
colleague helped me work out one Saturday 
at the office. 

The old way was for a colleague to 
telephone, requesting candidates for a 
specific job he would describe. I would 
make notes on a pad, give them to an 
associate to search on the time-share 
terminal, or do so myself, then call the 
requesting party back, often to find him at 
a meeting. Usually a day or two of missed 
calls would pass, and if either of us had to 
travel, a week or so might be lost. 

Now. with the special auto-dial software, 
when the call comes, I slip the program 
disk into drive #1. boot the system and it 
automatically dials the mainframe com- 
puter. The auto-dial program goes through 
six secret, and periodically changed, access 
codes and puts the Schenectady computer 
on line in about the amount of time it 
takes to cover the conversational pleasan- 
tries. With the phone tucked in my ear I 
can discuss candidate specifications and 
qualifications while I input the necessary 

69 



search questions via Apple and modem. It 
prints out the list of candidates that most 
closely match the requestor's needs and I 
then turn the list over to an associate who 
pulls resumes and mails them off. 

The matches of candidates to specifica- 
tions are a little better because the caller 
and I interacted with the data base at the 
time of the request. The matter is settled 
at the time of the call. There are no return 
calls, no lost time, no notes lying around 
or misplaced and no delays. This initially 
unforseen auto-dial program has been a 
real gem. It represents an increase in 
productivity: readiness-to-serve is greatly 
improved and quality of results is higher. 

However. I had also wanted to do an 
even more automated job by tying in the 
clock card to make end-of-month calls to 
the mainframe. During plant shutdown, 
the same associate, Lyn Brawn, who helped 
me develop the auto-dial program earlier 
in the year, helped me put this together. 
We call it TAP. for Time Auto-dial Pro- 
gram. 

There were two reasons for not getting 
TAP finished several months earlier. First 
was a bad experience, when I left my 
computer to finish a long printout one 
evening, the output appearing to be neatly 
piling up on the floor as I locked the door 
and turned out the lights. The next morning. 
I found a terrible mess! Because the paper 
holders on the printer were set with too 
much lateral tension, the print head impact 
stretched the paper causing it to form a 
vertical column four feet high that looped 
back over the printer, caught on the paper 
feeding in. and got bound up. The print 
head merrily continued to bang away, totally 
disintegrating paper one line high and about 
80 columns wide, and spreading blackened 
paper dust in the process. 

Was I ever peeved and upset when that 
greeted me the next morning! "Try not 
pulling the paper too tight horizontally 
with the feed rollers," my computer store 
expert told me. That has cured the problem 
ever since— I think. But, it has left me a bit 
gun-shy. 

The second reason is that earlier pro- 
gramming attempts showed there was 
considerable complexity in developing the 
program. As one indication, we finally 
solved a problem of lost characters in the 
tenth column of each incoming message 
by moving a subroutine to the front of the 
program. The time required for the TAP 
program to function had been interfering 
with the responses from the big computer! 
TAP now runs successfully, and here is 
what it does: 

1 ) Friendly instructions on the TV screen 
show the user how to enter the time the 
call to the mainframe computer is to be 
made. This can be hours or days in the 
future, which is nice if you are leaving 
town. 

2) At the appointed time, the Apple will 
call the mainframe and get it on line. 

3) Next, it will go through the six secret 



^^M 



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CIRCLE 159 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Manager, continued. 

codes to access the manpower information 
files. 

4) It then asks a series of end-of-period 
human resource questions, getting answers 
and storing them to disk. I've got about 24 
such questions that can be changed and 
are loaded in advance of running the TAP 
program. 

5) Following that. TAP electronically 
hangs up the telephone. 

6) Finally, if I have preselected the 
automatic print option, the Apple will print 
out the results which were stored on its 
disk. With fear in my heart, and a more 
relaxed setting on the printer's paper feed 
rollers. I've done it this way to save me 
time the next day. 

This program is generally set to run at 
the end of each month, around 8:30 p.m. 
with no one in attendance. Previously, the 
process involved someone at the terminal 
during work hours or on casual overtime, 
when telephone rates and computer charges 
are higher. Productivity improvement is 
evident. 

Purchase Proposal Item 2: Tracking 
analysis and reporting of recruiting activities, 
trainees, courses, etc. 

Results: Okay to "okay minus." I later 
learned that this activity was called "elec- 
tronic filing." 

Supplied with the Apple was a free piece 
of software called "File Cabinet." After 
reading the short write-up I thought. "Oh 
boy, this is just what I want!" I typed in all 
manner of data that was stockpiled just 
for this event. But strange wipeouts occurred 
when I tried to manipulate the data. "It 
must be me." I thought. Only later, after 
repeated attempts and a couple of ruined 
weekends, did I learn there really were 
bugs in this "free" program! 

Since then. I've tried other electronic 
filing software with a "once bitten, twice 
shy" approach. Some of my electronic filing 
information is conveniently stored in letter 
or memo form on word processing diskettes. 
I find myself drifting away from letterbooks 
and some other filing of paper, but I wish 
this area was in better shape. Perhaps some 
reader has had more favorable and time- 
tested experience he or she would be willing 
to share. 

Purchase Proposal Item 3: Specific 
Analyses: 

Results : Use in th is area has been exten- 
sive, particularly in manpower modeling. 
Through a friend at corporate headquarters 
we unearthed a model done by Hal Hayes, 
who retired from GE a few years ago. It 

. j. -i. -i a_-r 



was written in Basic for timesharing. Starting 
with it. I made some minor math modifica- 
tions in the program logic and translated it 
into Applesoft with helpful video instruc- 
tions and sounds. This has been used in 
internal manpower studies showing pro- 
jected impacts of different levels of business 
on numbers of employees by level. 

Another friend visited with me for a half 
day a few months ago then went back and 
designed an even more precise model which 
I hope to translate to Applesoft for the 
next organization planning study. 

As a virgin effort, I wrote a model that 
shows the number of people by layer in 
the organization. It differentiates managers, 
foremen/supervisors and individual con- 
tributors, and prints a "half a Christmas 
tree" pictogram at the bottom of the one- 
page printout, below the calculation/infor- 
mation lines. This was used in a special 
organization planning study. 

A commercially available software pack- 
age based on the Troll language — for Time- 
share Reactive On Line Laboratory— has 
been used both to plot comparative curves 
of various manpower data and to do multiple 
regression analyses for internal studies. 
Apple-Plot software just arrived and I'm 
looking forward to using it soon for bar 
charts and graphs. 

Purchase Proposal Item 4: Mini-studies 

Results: Through Erie Computer Com- 
pany, a human resources software package 
was developed that allows a comprehensive 
and flexible manipulation of employee data. 
This is a powerful package that will enjoy 
continued use. 

It has been used for analysis of our 
advanced manufacturing engineering talent 
and in defining and tracking our key 
technologists, primarily in the engineering 
function. 

Purchase Proposal Item 5: Report 
updates/word processing/office manage- 
ment. 

Results: Word processing use has grown 
considerably beyond what I had first 
anticipated. To put it in perspective it 
helps to look at an executive's communica- 
tion options. In addition to handwritten 
memos, notes on the incoming letter 
photocopied and sent as reply, phone calls, 
and personal visits, he can dictate, give 
handwritten copy to the secretary or steno 
pool, use centralized word processing or, 
as in my case, use the computer for some 
tasks. 

There are variables associated with this 
issue, such as how much travel the executive 
does, what internal mail delays exist between 
one's office and the central word processing 



unit if it is not in the same work area and, 
of course, personal habits and status 
concerns. These include whether the 
executive can or will learn new office work 
habits, can type, use portable or other 
dictation devices, writes drafts longhand, 
uses the secretary to administer more 
important projects, and ego ("I'd never be 
caught typing my own report"— to name a 
few highlights. 

Without debating or justifying my position 
endlessly, here are a few observations: 
Author Alvin Toffler. in his latest book. 
The Third Wave, advises readers that as 
he learned more about the microelectronics 
revolution, which is one of the four key 
technologies of the future, he went out 
and bought a simple computer, used it as a 
word processor, learned to operate it in a 
few hours and finished the last half of his 
book that way. He says, "After more than 
a year at the keyboard I am still amazed by 
its speed and power .... This eliminates 
erasing, 'whiting out,' cutting, pasting, 
stripping, Xeroxing, or typing successive 
drafts". I concur, based on my portable 
computer experiences these past eight 
months. 

Toffler also describes a futuristic adver- 
tisement for a group vice-president. After 
the normal requirements for such a position 
he adds the phrase "Typing Required." 
Get the point? Frankly, the executive who 
can type and use a small portable computer 
has a competitive advantage today'. 

What has rather naturally evolved for 
me is the increasing use of the word 
processing software. I simply find that of 
all the options available, I can do those 
letters requiring my thoughtful composition, 
reports, interview write-ups and speeches 
quicker and better myself. By way of 
example. I used portions of one talk already 
stored on a disk to draft a thirty-minute 
speech for my boss. It was ready for his 
review in a few hours. This included three 
printouts and rewrites. The "old way" would 
have meant at least a day later, to allow 
typing time for the secretary after getting 
a photocopy of old material, cutting, pasting 
and writing in the margins first. Talk about 
savings and readiness-to-serve! 

While one can become familiar with the 
40-column width on small computer video 
screens, it means mentally remembering 
that what is on the video tube is half as 
wide and twice as long as what will be 
printed. The difference is annoying at first, 
takes getting used to, and is a hindrance 
when you want to lay out a complex page 
with columns. To solve this problem. 1 
bought the 80-column card and am now 



a-X *- 



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When your banker asks you for: 

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do you and your accountant spend days or weeks 
trying to provide this information in a clear, concise 
manner, only to find that some of the information is 
impossible to generate manually? 

The Analyzer can help you solve these problems 
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The Analyzer takes the financial information 
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CIRCLE 1 20 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Special editions for Apple, 
Atari and TRS-80 Computers. 




Hey kids, are the folks out of the room? 
Good, cause I've got a secret to tell you 
You know that computer they fuss over? 
Well. kid. between you and me. this whole 
programming thing is a lot simpler than 
they realize. 

What s that? Sure, you can learn Just 
get a copy of Computers For Kids. It's a 
super book, and it tells you everything you 
need to know. Huh? You have an Apple? 
No problem There's a version just for the 
Apple One for the TRS-80 and one for the 
Atari too. with complete instructions for 
operating and programming. 

The book will take you through every- 
thing programmers learn Its easy to 
understand and the large type makes it 
easy to read. You'll find out how to put 
together a flowchart, and how to get your 
computer to do what you want it to do 
There s a lot to learn, but Computers For 
Kids has 12 chapters full of information 
You II even learn how to write your own 
games and draw pictures that move 

Just so the folks and your teachers wont 
feel left out. there s a special section for 
them It gives detailed lesson ideas and 
tells them how to fix a lot of the small 
problems that might pop up Hey. this 
oook is just right for you But you don t 



have to take my word on that. Just listen to 
what these top educators have to say 
about it: 

Donald T. Piele, Professor of Mathe- 
matics at the University of Wisconsin- 
Parkside says, Computers For Kids is the 
best material available for introducing stu- 
dents to their new computer. It is a perfect 
tool for teachers who are learning about 
computers and programming with their 
students. Highly recommended " 

Robert Taylor, Director of the Program 
in Computing and Education at Teachers 
College. Columbia University states, "it's a 
good idea to have a book forchidren." 

Not bad. huh? Okay, you can let the 
adults back in the room. Don't forget to tell 
them Computers For Kids by Sally 
Greenwood Larsen cost only $3 95 And 
tell them you might share it with them, if 
they're good. Specify edition on your 
order: TRS-80 (12H); Apple (12G); Atari 
(12J). 

Your local computer shop should carry 
Computers For Kids. If they don t ask 
them to get it or order by mail. Send $3.95 
payment plus $2 00 for one, $3.00 for two 
or more for shipping and handling to 
Creative Computing Press. P O Box 789- 
M. Morristown, NJ 07960 



Great! ve computing press 

CIRCLE 350 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Solution, continued... 

awaiting the arrival of its associated word 
processing software— and another instruc- 
tion manual. 

You may initially respond to do-it-yourself 
word processing with: What, me type?!" 
All I can do is report the foregoing facts, 
and advise you that I try to approach my 
job as though I were selling my services as 
an independent businessman. That is the 
acid test for deciding what is really efficient 
in a specific situation. 

This article was done on my computer a 
bit at a time, often over the weekends 
when I frequently take the Apple home in 
its travel case. 

As a further step toward better office 
management I obtained inexpensive com- 
mercial software which replaces the old 
hand-written "To Do" list. Many such 
software packages exist for under $50. While 
only a month into using it, and still adjusting 
my habits, it seems to be practical and 
helpful. It also allows one to enter advance 
dates such as quarterly reviews, employee 
service dates, birthdates, salary increase 
dates, etc., and provides early notice of 
same. 

Another inexpensive commercial pro- 
gram stores several hundred names and 
telephone numbers, places and times calls, 
and prints a log of calls and a short telephone 
book. I group most of my outbound calls 
and find this program very helpful. A study 
of the log also shows a quarter of the calls 
were to parties not then present, which 
whets my appetite for electronic mail in 
the near future. 

Summary 

At the beginning of this commentary 
two objectives were mentioned— improving 
my component's productivity and readiness- 
to-serve and expanding my knowledge of 
computer applications. 

While such evaluation is in part subjective, 
progress has been made on both fronts. I 
have no regrets and am pleased with the 
overall results. Objectives stated in the 
purchase authorization have generally been 
met, with some areas better and some a 
little short of the initial plan. And, there is 
still room for new and better applications. 

As far as my education goes, you can 
conclude something about that from the 
above. Ill also tell you a little story. A 
couple of months ago I took a short Basic 
course taught by and for engineers here at 
the plant. I was able to not only keep up 
with the class, but could do the homework 
on the Apple. Some of the engineers came 
over and looked at my Apple set-up. 
That was a nice experience. I think I talk 
their language a little better and am a 
better human resource manager for tech- 
nical associates as well. 

I would appreciate letters from readers 
expressing questions, contrary findings or 
opinions, advice or ideas. I'm still learning. 

D 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



happened to 
eenie, meenie, 
miney, mo? 



I could he 
another 
^Solomon . 



the Uoctjather 
^mt of business. 

Hfonly 
my heart 
would stop} 

gracing. 



It must use 

Bayesian, 

weighted factor 

^analysis, and.. 



Brilliant! 
Like a window 
into the future. 



Maybe this 'II 
help me choose 
a career... 



i 



Would! 
rather have 
Winston's millions ' 
or Billy Joe's 
. love? 



I could 
use it to 
select my staff. 



Hmmmm . 

could be 

my ticket 

to the Boardroom. 



Should I 

buy stock 

or commodities 

in this economy? 




i / 



Can't any 

of these people 

afford$29.95? 




When Decision Master speaks everybody listens 

Let's face it We .ill have to make decisions Decisions thai can change our lives. Decisions that can 
make us happ> or unhapp) Decisions that could v. m us fame or fortune Sou. DecisionMaster 



l Ise Bayesian theory in peei into the future even it you've never heard ol the Bayes' Rule 
Do .1 complete weighted factor analysis u ithoul knowing what one is I Ise discounted 
<.ish lion 10 compare investment alternatives \«. ithoul bothering with present value a 

i.ihlcs 1 hese and othei sophisticated theories thai were once the exclusive domain ol ^^ 

ssors .mil lop business exec utives are hmh into De< isionMaster's algorithms 
so you cm use l hem .it the touch ol .1 kc> ' 
>ecisionMasteriseasy louse It features 

• \ fully do< umented manual developed In an authority in the field 

• A unique program controlled cross reference ssstem 

• A powerful formatted screen data entry system 

You'll use DecisionMaster in hundreds ol routine decisions. 
.is well .is more important ones such .is- Buy ing .1 house 

• Changing jobs" Selecting investment" Evaluating nwir 
ance policies- Expanding product lines- I c.ism<j \s 

asing. 
H you buy only one computer program this V 

make n DecisionMaster \nd when il speaks. 







9 <<>> 






* 






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$> 






CIRCLE 267 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



The system is 

the solution 

- or is it? 



Archie McGill 

In the 1970s there has been an explosive 
growth in the use of small computers in 
homes and businesses. Most of these 
computers, used with add on devices and 
appropriate programs, can converse with 
another computer at a remote location. 
Initially, the telephone network provided 
a convenient means for exchanging infor- 
mation between two remote machines using 
a modem at each end. All such connections. 
however, were point-to-point. Further, since 
the telephone network is designed for low 
cost speech communication it did not meet 
all the needs of the Data Communications 
User. A proper data communications system 
should be more flexible, offer higher 
performance and be designed to do this 
economically. 

Bell System was one of the first in the 
world to introduce a digital communication 
network service. Dataphone Digital Service 
(DDS)*. exclusively for the Data User. 
The DDS network improves upon the voice 
communication system for data transmission 
by offering network-wide timing, routing, 
maintenance and administration capability. 
This network, even though physically linked 
with the telephone network, is functionally 
separate. Before DDS. no end-to-end digital 
transmission facility existed. Portions of 
the voice network have been digitized since 
the early sixties. The gradual development 
of demand for digital transmission on the 
network made the complete digitizing of 
the voice network impractical. 

•Dataphone Digital Service isa Renislered Trademark 
of AT&T 

Archie J. McGill. Vice Premlem. liusiness Markelinn. 
AT & T. Baskim; Kiduc. NJ 1)7420. 



DDS offers only private line point-to- 
point and private line multi-point services. 
It is only economic and for relatively large 
users with a fair amount of traffic between 
two or more fixed points. This is a rapidly 
growing market. But what about the smaller 
user who does not need such a high powered 
full time capability? 



Networking will be sold 

by the ton or the ounce 

with optional 

easy-to-use features 

that allow the user to 

make intelligent choices 

between different 

modes of operation, 

equipment and 

applications. 



The question of providing a network 
for the smaller user has attracted our 
attention and indeed that of other vendors 
for some time. Such a network should be 
as easy to use as the DDD network. 
However, it must support a variety of 
terminals and computers operating at a 
number of speeds and using different 
protocols. Unless a network could operate 
satisfactorily with a number of machines 
all using different protocols, its common 
user characteristics could be lost. More 



76 



work is needed to simplify user interfaces. 
Further, since the user of such a network 
wants to pay only for what he gets out of it . 
a really responsive price would charge 
largely on the basis of the number of bits 
transported, or network processing 
resources consumed rather than on the 
basis of the connection time. 

Network vs. Machines 

I am often asked whether intelligence 
should reside in the network or in the 
terminal equipment in the future. There is 
no simple clear answer to this question. 
While trends of technology are generally 
known and predictable, how they will 
actually affect a user's way of doing business 
is not as easy to predict, even for the 
relatively near term. We can make some 
realistic and reasonable projections. I 
happen to believe that the intelligence of 
both the terminals and the network will 
grow in the future simultaneously. At any 
given time, a trade-off will exist for most 
applications, and the relative usage of 
network or terminal intelligence for a given 
application will depend upon the tech- 
nological and market forces. We feel that 
having the Bell System in the marketplace 
gives the customer a choice of feasible 
ways to meet business and personal needs. 

Private and Public Networks 

The debate over the relative superiority 
of private and public or common user 
networks has been going on for several 
years. The truth is that neither one of 
these is or can be a replacement for the 
other. The Bell System is largely known 
for its common user telephone network. 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



but we have been a major supplier of private 
networks as well. Private networks would 
be extremely limited if they had no means 
of communicating with each other. The 
public networks thus support the growth 
of private and special purpose networks. 
There are overlapping areas between private 
and public networks. This overlap is natural 
and desirable as it provides the users with 
alternatives. 

Integrated and Segregated Networks 

The Bell System is committed to serving 
the entire information market, not merely 
a piece or a segment of it. It is legitimate 
for the user to ask whether we will provide 
the entire spectrum of network-based 
services through one or many networks. 
From an engineering point of view, the 
question of one versus many networks is 
dictated by underlying costs of realizing 
applications in the different ways. That is 
our problem, not yours. From the market 
view, however, it is entirely possible to 
make the underlying network and its 
capabilities fully transparent to the user at 
the application level. This is the approach 
we intend to take for serving the users of 
our network services in the future. The 
use of this approach will be even more 
important in the future since it will permit 
the Bell System to introduce and use the 
most efficient technology at any given time 
without causing any disruption at the user's 
application level. 

Future Directions 

We see a variety of interconnection 
possibilities geared to the size, speed, 
sophistication and complexity of user needs. 
Networking will be sold by the ton or the 
ounce with optional easy-to-use features 
that allow the user to make intelligent 
choices between different modes of opera- 
tion, equipment and applications. Most 
important, the 80's will bring a dazzling 
variety of choices to the computer user, 
and we intend to be one of the best. □ 




"I'm on line, therefore I am. 
APRIL 1981 



Why would anyone spend S59.95 for a joystick? 



Super 
Joystick 



High-quality construction 

The sturdy metal case of the Super Joystick 
matches that of the Apple computer Every 
component used is the very highest quality 
available. The Super Joystick even uses a 
full 16-conductor ribbon cable so you can 
add a second joystick if you wish. The first 
Super Joystick replaces Paddles and 1. 
You may not realize it. but the Apple can 
support four paddle controls A second Super 
Joystick would replace Paddles 2 and 3 




Star Wars. Played with paddles, its difficult 
at best and frustrating at worst. But with 
a joystick it becomes an entirely new 
experience. It's still challenging. It's also 
fun. And very addictive. 

Have you ever used a drawing program 
in which one paddle controls the horizontal 
movement of the brush'' and the other 
paddle the vertical? It's slow, tedious work. 
But with a joystick, drawing is an absolute 
joy. 

Exceptional Precision 

The Apple high-resolution screen is divided 
into a matrix of 160 by 280 pixels. To do 
precise work on this screen, you need a 
precise device. Most potentiometers used 
in paddle controls are not quite linear. If 
you rotate a paddle control at a constant 
speed, you II notice that the cursor speeds 
up slightly at the beginning and end of the 
paddle rotation. 

The Super Joystick has a pure resistive 
circuit which is absolutely linear within one 
tenth of one percent. In other words it would 
give you precise control over an image of 
1000 by 1000 pixels, were such resolution 
available. Thus it is suitable for high precision 
professional applications as well as educa- 
tional and hobbyist ones. 

Matched to your application 

The Super Joystick also has two external 
trim adjustments, one for each direction. 
This allows you to perfectly match the unit 
to your application and computer. Say you 
want to work in a square area instead of the 
rectangular screen. Just reduce the horizontal 
size with the trim control. 

How many times have you played Space 
Invader and had your thumb ache for hours 
from the repeated button pressing? This 
won't happen with the Super Joystick. It's 
two pushbuttons are big. Moreover, they 
use massive contact surfaces with a life of 
well over 1 ,000.000 contacts. A few games 
of Super Invader using these big buttons 
will justify the purchase of the Super Joy- 
stick. 

The Super Joystick is self-centering in 
both directions. That means when you take 
your hand off it, the control will return to the 
center. However, if you want it to stay where 
you leave it, self-centering may be easily 
disabled. 

The Super Joystick plugs right into the 
paddle control socket and doesn't require 
an I/O slot. 




By removing two springs, self-centering 
can be defeated. 

We invite your comparison of the Super 
Joystick with any other unit available Order 
it and use it for 30 days. If you re not 
completely satisfied, return it for a prompt 
and courteous refund plus your return 
postage. You can't lose. 

The Super Joystick consists of a self- 
centering, linear joystick, two trim controls, 
and two pushbuttons mounted in an attractive 
case. It comes complete with an instruction 
booklet and 90-day limited warranty Cost 
is $59.95. 

Unique paddle extension unit 

If you anticipate changing between the 
Super Joystick and paddle controls, you'll 
want our paddle extension unit. One end 
plugs into the paddle input in the computer 
and the other has a heavy-duty socket that 
mounts on the outside of the computer. It 
can mount on the back or side, whichever 
you prefer. Price of this extension unit is 
just $9.95. 

To order the Super Joystick send $59.95 
plus $2.00 postage and handling (NJ 
residents add $3.00 sales tax) to our address 
below. For the extension unit, send an 
additional $9.95. 

Experience the joys of using the world s 
finest joystick. Order your Super Joystick 
at no obligation today. 

39 East Hanover Ave. 
Morris Plains, NJ 07950 
Toll-free 800-631-81 12 

(In NJ 201-540-0445) 



77 



CIRCLE 239 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Reprinted with permission from The Boston 
Computer Update. Copyright 1981 The Boston 
Computer Society. 




Calling Information: 
Telecomputing with Personal Computers 



Tracy R. Licklider 



Is there really a vast world of 
information just waiting to be accessed 
from your personal computer keyboard as 
soon as you add a telephone interface? Is 
there really something at the other end of 
those phone lines worth calling up? 

Well, the answer is basically yes. With 
just a phone call from your personal 
computer, a broad range of information 
and services is available today from the 
two major "information utilities" — 
MicroNET and The Source, from Dow 
(ones' News and Quotes Reporter service, 
and from local computerized bulletin 
boards. For example, you can get the latest 
news, sports, and weather from Associ- 
ated Press. United Press, the Columbus 
(Ohio) Dispatch, or the Wall Street 
(ournal. You can also get point spreads on 
NFL football games, recipes and their 
nutritional analysis from Better Homes 
and Gardens, personal astrology reports, 
advice on wines, movie reviews, guides to 
restaurants. US government publications, 
items from the New York Times Consumer 
Information Database, tips from Radio 
Shack and Atari about using their 
computers, and stock and commodities 
prices. 

Besides access to the above information 
bases, the utilities and computer bulletin 
boards also offer electronic mail, electron- 
ic shopping, user-to-user "chatting." 
games, programs that you can "down- 
load" into your computer, and the oppor- 
tunity to try programming in a dozen lang- 
uages. 

Response 

Yes. this world of information and 
services exists today. The real question, 
however, is how useable and useful is it 
all? One aspect of useability is perform- 
ance. How fast do these systems respond 
to your requests for information? The 
information utilities — The Source and 
MicroNET — are thinly disguised big com- 
puter timesharing systems. These systems 
can process simulataneous connections 
from scores of personal computer users, 
but. as more and more users log onto a 
system, its response to each user deterior- 



ates. During 

peak useage hours 

in the early evening, these 

systems often become overloaded; 

they may allow more users onto the 

system than they can actually keep up 

with. It takes longer and longer to retrieve 

and display the information you want. 

The system may even start pausing 

noticeably in the middle of typing out 

individual words! 

Besides a one-time sign-up fee. you pay a 
fixed amount per hour to use an informa- 
tion utility. The amount per hour is 
independent of how much computer 
service you really get. You pay the same | 
amount when you are logged in with nine 
other users and getting one tenth of the 
system's attention as you do when you are 
logged in with ninety-nine other user$ and 
getting only one one-hundredth ofj th^ 
system. You are not guaranteq 
minimum amount of service fc 
dollar. So. as long as users do nc 
frustrated that they hang up ;mc 
call back, it makes moneysensej 
utility to load as many users oi| 
system as possible. 

However, it is not just the profit niof 
that tends to overload these systems. The'' 
consumer demand for these services is 
growing faster than the utilities can add 
computers. More and more people have 
personal computers; more and more of 
them are adding telephone interface capa- 
bility. These people want to experience 
the future today and get access tc 
promised vast world of information on 
these systems. However, the information 
utility companies just do not have the 
money, organization, or technical 
expertise to grow at the pace that the 
demand grows. 

These growing pains are very real. The 
Source, perhaps because it only charges 
$2.75 per hour, has suffered them far 
more severely than MicroNET. which 
charges $5 per hour. Still today response 



78 




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CIRCLE 264 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Telecomputing, continue 

on The Source is noticeably worse than on 
MicroNET. 

Ease of Use 

But system response time is just one 
factor in overall useability. It does not do 
you much good to log onto a fast, respons- 
ive system if you cannot find the informa- 
tion you want or if you cannot figure out 
how to play a game or get started program- 
ming in Pascal. How easy do these systems 
make it to do what you want to do? 

The Source and MicroNET have taken 
quite different approaches to making it 
easy for the user to find his way. The 
Source has not really tried to present a 
consistent interface to the user. It does 
have "DATA" files that provide user 
documenation on how to use the major 
features and data bases. You type "DATA 
X" to get user information on X displayed 
on your screen. The trick is to figure out 
the right X for what you want. The 
command "DAT LIBALL" lists out a 
library of most DATA files. For example, it 
turns out that "DATA DANEWS" gets you 
instructions on how to access the UPI 
News database. 

On The Source most databases (such as 
UPI News) have their own idiosyncratic 
conventions for accessing things. The way 
you find out the final score in the Dallas- 
LA game is totally different from how you 
find out about good restaurants in New 
York. Simply put. there has been no effort 
to homogenize the access methods to these 
various databases. While there are some 
arguably good reasons for this approach, 
it does mean that the user has to learn new- 
access rules for each database he uses. 

MicroNET started out much like The 
Source. Originally. MicroNET offered 
fewer and weaker services than The 
Source in the same kind of hodge podge 
access environment. However, for some- 
time now. MicroNET has been building an 
outer layer — its CompuServe Information 
Service — of databases and services with a 
consistent set of access rules. Now when 
you log into MicroNET you start at this 
outer layer. You still have to leave this 
layer and jump into MicroNET to get at 
some databases and services, but most of 
the newer ones are accessible in this outer 
layer where the interface is consistent, 
simple, and friendlier to the information 
consumer. 

Menus 

The MicroNET outer layer is divided 
into lots and lots of very small pages. Each 
page is formatted into a dozen or so lines 
of about 32 characters. The starting page 
and many other pages are organized as 
menus of lists of choices. For example, the 
first page you see presents you with eight 



choices. One choice jumps into the wilds 
of unpaged, old-style MicroNET. The 
other seven choices lead you into broad 
general areas such as news, finances, 
games, electronic mail, and special 
features. Making any of these seven 
possible choices gets you a new page with 
a list of choices appropriate to the general 
area you picked. 

Successively you make choices from 
menus and sub-menus until you get down 
to the specific information you are 
seeking. For example, to get the point 
spread on the Giants-Redskins football 
game, you pick the special features choice 
at the top menu, then the pro football 
choice on the special features menu, and 
then the pro football menu. At this point, 
the point spread feature menu would 
present you with a list of the National 
Football League divisions and ask you to 
choose the one you wanted. You would 
have to know what division the Giants or 
Redskins were in and choose that option. 
Finally you would be shown a page of 
information — not a menu page. 

Descending through the successive 
menus can be tedious, but at least it is 




simple and consistent. You use the same 
access method to get the news, recipes, 
financial reports, tips from Tandy and 
Atari, how to adapt MicroNET to interface 
to your computer, and a wide variety of 
other information. A menu never has 
more than ten choices, and you only have 
to key one character to make your choice. 
The digits 0-9 choose the displayed 
options 0-9 (usually, however, there are 
fewer than ten choices). The letter T jumps 
back to the top (log-on) menu of choices. 
The letter M jumps you back to the last 
menu you descended from. The letter P re- 
displays the last page displayed before the 
current one. Pressing the letter N or the 
RETURN key shows you the next page 
following the current one. The letter G 
followed by a page number goes directly 
to that page. 

Originally. MicroNET's page numbers 
were just that, numbers. For example, 

80 



page 28 used to be the jump off point into 
unpaged MicroNET. If you proceeded to 
the next page from this point, you left the 
simple, consistent world of page numbers. 
To eliminate the tediousness of 
descending down through the menus to 
find certain databases and features, 
MicroNET has recently added a new kind 
of mnemonic page number for many of its 
features. For example, page "number" 
ATR-1 is the first page of the current Atari 
newsletter. BHG-1 is the first page of the 
current Better Homes & Garden features. 
By typing the letter G and the page number 
ATR-1 at the top menu page, you can jump 
directly to reading the Atari newsletter. It 
is still paged as before: the only thing that 
is different is how you get there. 

While there are still many features and 
databases that you cannot access in this 
paged way and while MicroNET's 
approach is far from perfect, such efforts 
in providing a simple, consistent access 
mechanism are crucial to having a 
worthwhile and useable information 
utility. 

Information Indexing Schemes 

In spite of the niceness of MicroNET's 
menu-sub-menu approach, trying to find a 
news story on a particular topic will 
readily convince you that there is still a 
long way to go before the access mechan- 
isms are satisfactory. For example, to find 
the latest news story on developments in 
F.I Salvador, you descend down the menus 
until you pick national and international 
news from the Associated Press wire 
service. From this point, you are presented 
menus — usually full with 10 choices — of 
news stories. Each line of the menu, 
representing a story you might choose, has 
a one or two word title. Some are as 
definitive as "War" or "Earthquake". 
Other titles provide a bit more of a clue 
such as "Polish Strike" or "Linowitz." 
With such meager titles or descriptions of 
your choices, it is easy to miss stories 
about the particular topic you are 
searching for. 

The UPI News Service on The Source 
offers a much more powerful retrieval 
capability and demonstrates how some 
kind of indexing or keyword scheme for 
accessing specific information is 
essential. UPI news stories are categorized 
by the UPI when they are entered into its 
computer system (which feeds into The 
Source). The categorization scheme is not 
very rich, but it does divide national news 
from local news and news from sports. To 
get news from the UPI offering on The 
Source, you specifiy one of UPl's broad 
categories, a range of dates, and keywords 
you want to find. Continuing the earlier 
example, you might specify the keyword 
EL SALVADOR to get news about the 
situation there. You can specify multiple 

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CIRCLE 253 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



systems 




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MISSION: ASTEROID it on introduction to the HI-RES ADVENTURE 
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detigned to acquaint beginning Adventure playert to the wonderful 
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$32.95 Ditk 

CIRCLE 248 ON READER SERVICE CARD 
All of thete Hi-Ret Adventures are available now at your local computer ttore. They will run on any 48K Apple II or II Plut with a ditk drive. To order 
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Telecomputing, continued... 

keywords, in which case all of the 
specified keywords must occur in the 
news stories found. 

The UPI system then scans all stories in 
the specified category and in the date 
range. It tells you how many stories were 
found containing your keywords and lets 
you scan or read through them either 
latest first or earliest first. With this 
approach, you are far less likely to miss a 
news story about El Salvador. Neverthe- 
less, this approach has its drawbacks. 
Since the stories about El Salvador are not 
really stored in the database under the 
keyword "EL SALVADOR", the system 
has to do a lot of work to scan the full text 
of all news stories within the broad 
category and the date range to see whether 
the words "El Salvador" occur in them. 
This burdens the information utility 
computer and slows reponse. 

Access Intelligence in the Micro 

The Dow Jones News and Quotes 
Reporter service is another information 
utility — but one with a much more limited 
scope. It offers stock quotes and news 
about particular stocks and business 
sectors. The Dow (ones service seems to 
guard better against system overloading 
and maintains a reasonable response 
level. Moreover, it takes an interestingly 
different approach to the problems of 
database access. To use the service you 
have to run a special program in your 
personal computer: currently this News 
and Quotes Reporter program is only 
available for the Apple II. 

The program provides intelligence at 
the personal computer end: the program 
knows how to phrase requests for 
information from the Dow (ones 
databases. Because the program in the 
Apple has this knowledge, what the user 
has to type to access particular 
information can be simplified. Basically, 
all you have to type in is a six or fewer 
letter code for the stock or business sector 
that you want quotes or news about. The 
program running in the Apple converts 
this code into a request for information 
and sends the request to the Dow Jones 
computer. Like CompuServe. Dow Jones 
returns pages of information. Some pages 
are menu pages which give two letter 
codes and two line headlines for specific 
news stories or stock quotes; other non- 
menu pages dieplay the quotes and news 
stories. 

News on the Dow Jones system comes 
from the Wall Street Journal and from 
Barons. With this system you will still have 
a hard time finding the latest news about 
El Salvador, but you will never miss the 
stories about IBM or AT&T. 

It is perhaps somewhat unfair to 
compare the Dow Jones service to The 
Source and MicroNET. No one is playing 



Adventure or compiling a Pascal program 
on it. Nevertheless, their approach — 
based on their indexing scheme with their 
own stock and business sector codes, their 
simplified and consistent method for re- 
questing information, and their putting 
intelligence into the personal computer — 
is a model for other would-be information 
providers to consider seriously. 

Programming & Games— On What? 

A lot of people think that by signing up 
with an information utility they will be 
able to access games and programming 
languages to be used on their own 
personal computers. This is largely .1 
misconception and cm be the cause of big 
disappointments. Virtually all of the 
games (such as Adventure) and program- 
ming languages (such as COBOL) 
available on a utility can only run on the 
utility's big computer. There is no way to 
copy these onto your computer, then 
hangup, and play or program away. Even 
if you could copy them, they would not 
execute on your computer since they 
generally exist only in machine language 
native to the utiltiy's big computer. 

Generally speaking, it does not make 
sense for the information utility to offer 
things for you to copy into your computer 
and then hangup. The utility makes 
money while you are connected and may 
be secretly happy when you stay logged in 
longer because you are lost in an 
Adventure maze or because your COBOL 
program is stuck in an infinite loop. While 
the rule is that games and programs are to 
be run on the utility's computer, there are 
a few exceptions. MicroNET has a 
"software exchange" — you exchange 
money for this software that will run on 
your personal computer. 

Unfortunately, the offerings are rather 
meager. There are a few public domain 
programs that you can copy for free, but 
they are not very useful. You can skim 
through rather short descriptions of the 
for-sale programs. If you choose to copy 
one. your account gets billed the stated 
amount. The real problem is that copying 
a program over a phone line is not all that 
reliable. To do it without transmission 
errors, both the utility and your computer 
have to use the same error-detecting/error- 
correcting transmission protocol. Micro- 
NET sells such a program that runs on 
Apples. TRS-80, and CP/M systems for 
essentially the cost of the media and 
handling. The Videotex software that 
Radio Shack sells for its computers and 
for Apples will eventually also support the 
MicroNET protocols for "downloading" 
programs and data into your personal 
computer. While this area of download- 
able programs is rather undeveloped now. 
it is likely to develop significantly over the 
next couple of years. Wouldn't you be 



willing to pay a small fee to download a 
copy of the programs you see printed in 
the microcomputer magazines rather than 
have to type them in yourself? 

Computerized Bulletin Boards 

Up till now the focus here has been on 
commercial Ipay-lor-ai < ess) information 
utilities, hut also out there at the oilier end 
of the phone lines are loo or so free-access 
computerized bulletin board systems 
ICBBS). Virtually all of the CBBS run on 

single-user microcomputers mainly 
TRS-80S. Apples. NorthStars. These 
systems have been set up In individuals 
and computer clubs, anil a few are 
operated by stores. Accessing some of the 
more popular CBBS can be very frustrat- 
ing — the one phone number to call is 
almost always busy. On the other hand, if 
viiu do get through, response on these 

systems is generally better than on the 
commercial utilties — you are the only 

user! 

The CBBS do not offer the same broad 
range of databases and services that the 
commercial utilities do for most of these 
systems, their oulv database is the current 
"bulletin board" of messages posted by 
other callers. Typically vim can get a 
summary of the current messages as well 
as read anil write messages. Most 
messages are readable by anyone, but 
some systems lei von protect a message 
you post with a password. This way vim 
can leave a private message for someone 
provided that you and the intended 
recipient have previously agreed upon the 
password to he used. 

Because the CBBS run on microcomput- 
ers, they often have limited disk capacity 
to hold messages. The average capacity 
runs around 200 active messages. Usually 
messages are forced to he 1 (> or fewer lines 
— roughly a maximum of 1 000 characters 
per message. Each CUBS establishes its 
own audience over time. The TRS-80- 
based boards generally attract TRS-80 
enthusiasts and carry the latest bug 
reports, patches, news and information 
about TRS-80 hardware and software. 
Similarly the Apple hoards attract Apple 
aficiandos. Other CBBS are fin used on 
particular topics, clubs, or products; there 
is a genealogy CBBS in Virginia and one 
for engineers in Kansas. 

The CBBS pre-dateil the arrival of the 
commercial utilities, and when tliev 
started up, The Source and MicroNET 
both capitalized on the popularity ol these 
CBBS by offering what they hilled as 
national bulletin boards. While bulletin 
hoards have offered the personal com- 
puter user a limited kind of electronic 
mail, the Source and M.croNET have 
added real electronic mail services with 
unlimited message length, better message 
editing, composition, and filing capabili- 



APRIL 1981 



83 






Telecomputing, continued... 
lies, private mailboxes, and notification 
when the recipient h.is read the mail you 
sent. ()l course, the people to whom you 
semi electron!) mail have to be- 
subscribers to the utility too. 

Programmed Calling 

Another drawback is th;it. as the 
number ol CBBS and utilities grows, von 
have to Ion into more and more systems 

just to make sure that Mill pick up all the 
electronic mail and bulletin hoard mes- 
sages posted to von. There is no inter- 
utility mail consolidation arrangement 
now. hut eventually there may have to be. 
In the near future, there will probably he 

an in< lease in the number ol people 
adding auto-dial capability to their 
personal computers. These people will 
program their personal computers to < all 
the assorted utilities and local CBBS and 
pick up the mail. The computers will do 
the calling unattended in the middle of the 
night or when rates are c heapesl. 

Unattended calling by the personal 
computer points out another important 
area that the utilities and CBBS have 
seriously neglected. They have not made it 
easv to write programs to perforin unat- 
tended access to their databases and 
services. Tor example, you might want to 
give your personal computer a list of 
things to check or look upon the utilities to 

=in i n n c =i m a m ; 



which you subscribe. While you are asleep the night, the utility would call your 

vim might want it to call The Source, personal computer, go through some 

Mil XoNET, and local CBBSs to pick up any handshake, download into your personal 

mail posted for you. In addition, you might computer the stuff it had collected, and 

want to scan the MicroNKT Software Ex- then hangup. This assumes that your 

change to see whether there have been any personal computer can answer the phone 

program additions and if so have your by itself. When you wake up. you have 

computer pick up the descriptions. You your mail and personally clipped news 

might also want to have the computer file to read over breakfast, 
"clip out" any news stories about some 

specified set of topics. Be a Pioneer 

While some people already have their While they are still in the pioneer stages 

personal computers set up to do this and while they still are experiencing 

today, the utilities are not currently set up growing pains, the information utilities 

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night programs easy. The prompt and worthwhile to many personal computer 

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readers not for programs. Nevertheless, buying the New York Times or listening to 

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computers will become commonplace in follow the major news items, but they can 

time. It will mean building knowledge be worthwhile for tracking more obscure 

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protocols into the personal computer it into print or into the five minutes every 

programs, and it will require improved, hour on the hour. The utilities still have a 

computer-understandabale prompts and good way to go to improve performance 

error codes from the utilities. and ease; of use; nevertheless, the range? of 

their existing services and those' of the 

Auto-Answer CBBSs — especially databases about 

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may also develop in time is for the utility decade to buy that telephone interlace' 

to collect up your mail and clip the news board and telephone coupler. And once 

stories of interest to you— based on some vim have made; that investment, you may 

profile that you maintain about your find your personal computer asking for a 

interests on the utility. Then, in the dark of phoneol Its own. 

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The networks in use today are bringing us ever-closer 
to the total home information system. Home banking— 
perhaps as described here— will undoubtedly be a part 
of this system of the future. 



Tfia Future is Hara 




...and it's ui 




BillStreeter 



It's mid-October, 1980. We're in 
the kitchen of a modest split-level 
somewhere in Columbus, Ohio, 
watching a housewife try out a new 
product. She's explaining what the 
little device is she's holding. . . . 

"It looks a lot like a hand-held 
calculator except for the cord stick- 
ing out of the top of it. And some of 
these keys are a little unusual like, 
JUMP, and DO IT. The box with 
the phone receiver attached to it is 
some sort of decoding device. 

"According to the users manual, 
if I press these buttons, like that, 
look what comes on the television 
screen: 



"Okay, I'll enter my personal 
identification number — that 's my 
secret code; now let's see what hap- 
pens . . . 



'I M Nl N 

.■ I -. 

2 »>■■ 

MONTH 

jj CURRENT (Nil*.. 

'•'IS » Bit. 
ENTIl A | 1N[ NU-M " «* PRI 

I '•'■ '■ DISPLAY 01 

TH5 • 



■ 






". . . which it does. If I want to see 
the bills the bank is holding for me, 
I push 5 and DO IT . . . 



"First. I'd like to see my bal- 
ances, so I push 1 and DO IT . . . 




0717 75 
0/31 I 



1 LAZARU', 

2 OHIO 8EIL 

3 SOUTHERN 
k SEARS 

5 JCPEMNi Y 

6 FIRESIONE 

7 CRIMSON 

8 DUSTER IN 



TO MAAE A PAYMENT, ENTIR A I INI 
NUMBIR AND PRESS DO I I ' 



"I'll pay the Lazarus bill first. I 
push 1 and DO IT . . . 



Reprinted hy special permission from the 
November I9H0 issue of the ABA Banking 
Journal. Copyright I4N<) by American Bankers 
AsMviation. 



Bill Streetcr. 350 Broadway. New York. NY 
10013. 



"Good, that's about what I 
thought was in my checking ac- 
count. Now. I'd like to pay a few 
bills, so I push JUMP and DO IT 
and that should bring back the 
index . . . 



- 



MmMH 



86 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Future on TV, continued. 



"/ want to pay $100. so I enter I 
— there's no decimal point — 
and DO IT. and we get . . . 




". . . this picture. It's just con- 
firming what I want to pay. If I push 
NO. it starts over, but it's okay, so 
I'll push YES. and . . . 




• ■■■ 5 . 



' 



"Well, that was easy. Let's do 
another one. ..." 



Welcome to the world of banking 
from home. The numbers we just 
showed were all hypothetical. But if 
you were one of 1 00 volunteer fami- 
lies in the Columbus area, you could 
be running through that sequence 
for real right now — in your living 
room, your den, or wherever you had 
a telephone and a television set. 

Is your curiosity piqued? If the 
people at Banc One Corp. in Colum- 
bus are any gauge of the future, it 
ought to be. 

Says John F. Fisher, senior vice 
president of the S2.6-billion-asset 
bank holding company: "Home 
banking represents the most signifi- 
cant change in banking delivery sys- 
tems, and the greatest opportunity to 
be responsive to market needs and to 
impact the economics of delivering 
banking services." 
Show mo. To bankers still waiting to 
install their first automated teller 
machines, that may seem a bit ex- 



treme. After all, point-of-sale bank- 
ing, another highly touted retail 
electronic banking service, has prov- 
en difficult to implement profitably; 
at least the way several banks have 
structured it, not least Bank One of 
Columbus, the lead bank in the hold- 
ing company. What makes banking 
from home any different? 

Good question. Here's what Fish- 
er says: 

"It's a question of convenience 
and lower cost. Look at the Detroit 
automakers; they didn't protect the 
American car buyer from the high 
cost of fuel so buyers turned to the 
high-mileage imports. Likewise, go- 
ing to the bank is an expensive way 
to do one's financial business," Fish- 
er observes, "and society is becoming 
attuned both to sophisticated de- 
livery systems — ATMs are one ex- 
ample — and sophisticated financial 
services — such as money market 
funds." 

Granted, he says, there remain a 
lot of people who don't want to 
change — at least not yet. 

Given all that, when will the 
demand for home banking services 
materialize? 

"We're really quite early in the 
process," Fisher reflects. "Remem- 
ber, it took 20 years for credit cards 
to mature. It also took 10 years for 
ATMs to mature. Certainly it will 
take most of the '80s for home bank- 
ing to develop. 

"We're at the same point with this 
new service right now as we were 
with credit cards in 1965-66, or with 
ATMs in 1970-71." 
What now? Given that timetable, 
some banks may wonder what they 
could do now to be ready for home 
banking. 

"They need to have their back 
rooms automated to an advanced 
state," advises Fisher. "And if they 
haven't installed ATM's, they had 
better catch up." 

Before too long, he adds, a bank 
could begin to make commitments 
with some of the players in the home 
banking field. There arc essentially 
three: 

(1) Vendors — the manufacturers 
of televisions, special function termi- 
nals, and related devices; 

(2) Communications companies 
— Ma Bell possibly, but more likely 
the private leased-line networks; 
and 

(3) Software developers. 
Fisher is concerned that banking 

won't get its share of computer 
brains who are now in short supply. 
That could come to pass if bank- 
ing as an industry adopts a wait-and- 



see attitude while a few institutions 
do the pioneering work. 

"Everybody ought to lead," re- 
sponds Fisher. "But banking is not a 
courageous industry, and this has 
contributed to its loss of market 
share to other types of institutions. 
In fact, banking is looking more and 
more like a railroad." 
Contorpioco. Banking from home is 
just one part of a much larger devel- 
opment: home information systems. 
No one function — such as bank- 
ing — can create sufficient demand 
to spur the development of home 
information systems, according to 
Fisher. It requires the commingling 
of multiple services and data bases. 

But, he says, transaction applica- 
tions can be the centerpiece of this 
emerging industry, and banks could 
be the ones to get it going. 

So could retailers. 

Whoever did the leading would be 
in a better position to shape the 
infrastructure than those who came 
in later as an add-on to an estab- 
lished system. 

Right now, the infant home infor- 
mation industry is bustling with pilot 
projects, studies, and conferences 
both here and in Europe. 

In the U.S., however, Channel 
2000 — the name for the Columbus 
project — is the furthest advanced of 
any home information project that 
involves banking applications. 
Joint effort. Banc One did not create 
Channel 2000 on its own. The proj- 
ect is a joint effort between the hold- 
ing company and a library services 
company called OCLC, Inc., which 
is also based in Columbus. Of its 21 
affiliate banks, only Banc One 
Corp.'s lead bank is participating in 
the Channel 2000 test. 

OCLC (the name was originally 
Ohio College Library Center) oper- 
ates an on-line computer network 
used by over 2,000 libraries in the 
U.S. and Canada. Terminals in these 
libraries access a large data base in 
Columbus containing information on 
books and other library materials. 

Channel 2000 will operate on a 
"strip file" basis (also called memo 
posting) in which home banking 
transactions are accumulated until 
the end of the day when they are 
transmitted to the bank to update its 
master files. At the beginning of 
each day, customer balance informa- 
tion is transmitted back to the Chan- 
nel 2000 computer. The balances 
customers see on their tv screens, 
therefore, are the posted balances 
from the night before. 
How bill paying works. The bill-pay- 
ing function of Channel 2000 is a bit 



APRIL 1981 



87 



Future on TV, continued. 



of a jury rig for the purposes of the 
three-month test. It can be handled 
two ways. 

(1) The customer can batch to- 
gether bills he receives and mail 
them to Bank One where they are 
entered into the bank's computers. 
When the customer decides to pay 
these bills, they appear on the tv 
screen (as illustrated at the begin- 
ning of the story). 

(2) A customer who elects to hold 
onto certain bills may enter them 
into the home banking system and 
instruct the bank to pay them. (The 
screen will list those bills that can be 
paid this way; some bills must be 
paid by check.) 

Back at the bank, bill paying 
instructions from Channel 2000 us- 
ers result either in a check being 
written for merchants which do not 
have accounts with the bank, or, for 
those that do, a transfer of funds 
from the customer's account to the 
merchant's account. 

"Eventually," says Fisher, "we 
must have an automated way to send 
and receive data to and from billers. 
I'm hopeful the automated clearing 
house network will provide the miss- 
ing link." 

At the household end of Channel 
2000, a user's telephone provides the 
link with the system's computer. It, 
in turn, is connected to the television 
with a device called a decoder. Es- 
sentially, it is a telecommunications 
device with computing capabilities. 

To use Channel 2000, the custom- 
er dials a special number, waits for a 
high-pitched tone, then inserts the 
phone receiver into a coupling on top 
of the decoder (see photo). With the 
connection made, the customer 
controls the process using a hand- 
held key pad. 

Phone vs. cable. Banc One has been 
working towards a home banking 
system since 1975. For a long while 
it focused on a cable-tv-based system 
rather than one that relies on a tele- 
phone link. But negotiations with 
Warner Communications, whose 
two-way cable system called QUBE 
has been operating in Columbus for 
several years, never clicked, so Banc 
One shifted its strategy. 

Fisher thinks cable could be used 
as a home banking mechanism in 
certain areas although he points out 
that not all metropolitan areas are 
wired for cable yet. Also, not all the 
cable that is in place is capable of 
interactive or even limited two-way 
communication. In any case, who the 
communications supplier turns out 
to be, or what the vehicle will be, is 




not that important, according to 
Fisher.- However, he doesn't think 
banks will be providing this func- 
tion. 

What he sees as banks' key role is 
to establish switching and processing 
centers which would act as clearing 
houses for home banking transac- 
tions in a given area. These would 
operate much the way the so-called 



Were at the same point 

with home banking now 

as we were with credit 

cards in 1965—66. 



computer switches operate in shared 
ATM networks, routing transactions 
to the appropriate financial institu- 
tion and maintaining certain finan- 
cial data in its own computer. 

The link between these switch and 
processing centers and individual 
homes, says Fisher, would be pro- 
vided by communications suppliers 
which would also be able to access 
other data bases so that the customer 
has access to a full range of ser- 
vices. 

"I hope," says Fisher, "that the 
financial industry extends itself to 
become the principle operator of 
these switch and processing centers 
rather than a third party. It would 
require the same sort of coordinated 
effort as was needed to set up the 



national card associations." 

Fisher doesn't believe the card as- 
sociations will be the vehicles to 
establish home banking. "They're 
having a tough enough time estab- 
lishing the debit card." Neither will 
it be the ACH network, although 
that will be involved. Something new 
will be invented, Fisher speculates. 
Other features. Channel 2000 is a 
testing ground for more than home 
banking functions. Other services in- 
clude: 

(1) The first electronic library 
card catalog which allows users to 
select books from the television 
screen, check them out electronical- 
ly, and have them delivered to their 
homes. 

(2) A video encyclopedia pub- 
lished by Arete Co., Princeton, N.J. 
It contains 32,000 articles in elec- 
tronic form, of which one third (in 
an ongoing program) will be updated 
annually. 

(3) Public information about 
city, state, and private organizations 
assembled by Com-tility, a local 
non-profit organization. 

(4) Columbus regional informa- 
tion — a calendar of events — assem- 
bled by the Chamber of Com- 
merce. 

(5) Math That Counts — basic 
mathematics for children. This and 
the following item were prepared co- 
operatively by the Ohio State Uni- 
versity and the Columbus Teacher 
Corps Project. 

(6) Early Reader — aimed at pre- 
schoolers. 

(7) Deaf Community Bulletin 
Board provides educational and 



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CIRCLE 146 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Alternatives for Home-Terminal Folk 

The Channel 2000 pilot is using standard television sets for its in-home termi- 
nals, but that isnt the only alternative customers will have. Banc One Corp. 
Senior Vice President John Fisher predicts three levels will evolve: 

( 1 1 Personal computers for upper-income households with needs for large 
amounts of computing power. These units will of course be able to communi- 
cate with home information systems as well as between themselves (this is 
already happening). 

(2l Stand-alone videotex! devices. These are essentially video terminals with 
some computing power and communications capability. They can be attached 
directly to a phone line. Already popular in Europe (particularly in France), 
these units will become the most popular home information terminal in this 
country too, Fisher believes. (Radio Shack recently announced a videotext 
model that retails for $399.) 

(3) Standard television sets as used in the Channel 2000 test. "We're starting 
with this now." Fisher says, "but eventually I see this alternative as being used 
by households with more limited information needs." It's possible, he adds, that 
tv manufacturers will begin to build in the necessary communications devices as 
demand increases. 

All this will take time. Fisher admits. Right now. "we're toe'd up to the 
threshhold." 



community messages for the deaf. 

The Channel 2000 project began 
operating the beginning of October 
and will run through the end of the 
year. Then OCLC and Bank One 
will evaluate the results and decide 
what to do next. 

Fisher declined to speculate exact- 
ly what the next step will be, or when 
it will come, but he intimated that a 
second pilot will begin at some point 
incorporating changes suggested by 
the first. 

Wanted: ucers. Altogether, 200 
households are participating in the 
present test. Half were selected by 
Bank One from its customers, half 
by OCLC. 

According to Fisher, all those se- 
lected by the bank had volunteered 
to participate. "We weren't inter- 
ested in demographics," he says. 
"We wanted to get users; to find out 
what they liked or disliked about the 
system as it was designed. We 
weren't interested in trying to coax 
people into using it. Maybe three or 
four years from now we'll go after 
those people who are not inclined to 
use such a service now." 

There is no doubt a home banking 
service will start out as an upscale 
offering, Fisher says, but it will work 
its way down quickly. 

"That's been true of every de- 
livery service — including checks." 
Fisher notes. "I see it eventually as a 
mass delivery system." 
What and whan. From Bank One's 
viewpoint the Channel 2000 test is a 
chance to get "root understandings" 
verified. For example: 

When will the customer perform 



these home banking transactions; 
what are high-traffic times? 

What other banking services 
should be offered as part of Channel 
2000? (One idea is a budgeting func- 
tion that would allow comparisons 
with other households of comparable 
income levels.) 

What is the customer willing to 
pay for this service? 



Home banking will 

stretch to the limit 

existing security and 

privacy measures. 



How much will it cost the bank to 
offer this service? 

What are users' reactions to secu- 
rity and privacy considerations? 
How secure? That last point is par- 
ticularly significant. A lot of finan- 
cial data is being sent into people's 
homes with this service, says Fisher: 
"We want to find out how much con- 
cern there is about inappropriate ac- 
cess to this data." 

Channel 2000's banking functions 
are protected two ways. 

First, each member of a participa- 
ting household has a PIN which 
must be entered before any financial 
data is displayed. One user cannot 
access his banking records from an- 
other user's decoder. The decoder is 
portable, however. 

90 



Second, all data travelling over 
the phone lines between the decoder 
and the system's computer is en- 
crypted. 

Nevertheless, Fisher believes that 
Channel 2000, and other home 
banking services, will stretch to the 
limit existing security and privacy 
measures. Fisher himself has long 
advocated a replacement for the 
PIN systems which he feels are inad- 
equate. 

Regulatory issues. Is Channel 2000 
clear of all federal and state regula- 
tory and legal hurdles? The bank 
sees no problems on that front and 
has received no challenge to date. 

Leaving nothing to chance, how- 
ever, Banc One and OCLC people 
trekked to Washington in September 
and set up a hands-on demonstration 
of Channel 2000 for the members 
and staff of both the House and Sen- 
ate banking committees. 

The purpose was simple: To avoid 
getting into an adversary situation, it 
would be helpful if legislators had 
first-hand experience of a concept 
that will undoubtably come under 
legislative scrutiny at some point. By 
most accounts, the legislators 
reacted favorably to the new ser- 
vice. 

Clearly, banking at home is a ser- 
vice that transcends geographic re- 
strictions. Since no deposit-taking is 
involved in the Channel 2000 pro- 
ject, the bank sees no reason it can- 
not offer it to customers across state 
lines. Community Affairs officer 
Mike Van Buskirk points out that 
one of Banc One's affiliates in Ports- 
mouth, Ohio has 20% of its custom- 
ers in Kentucky. "I don't see why we 
can't use Channel 2000 there," he 
says. 

And what of the competitive im- 
pact on the country's small banks? 
Home banking is "one more demon- 
stration of a technology-driven ser- 
vice that forces banks to consolidate 
their resources," comments Fisher. 
"Each small bank will find it neces- 
sary to provide this service eventual- 
ly — on their own or in conjunction 
with others." Bottom line, that 
means merger with a larger bank, 
help from a correspondent, or an 
amalgamation of many financial in- 
stitutions; like the TYME network 
in Wisconsin and others. 

Therefore, in between planning 
for NOW accounts, watching the 
discount rate, converting to on-line 
teller terminals, and truncating 
checks, bankers better keep an eye 
on home banking. Welcome to the 
'80s. □ 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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CIRCLE 254 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




A Minimal Message System 



MCCCCBBS 



Terrence Ryan 



On January 19. 1980, the Community 
Bulletin Board System of the Montgomery 
County Community College of Blue Bell, 
Pennsylvania, was put into service. This 
electronic bulletin board, representing the 
culmination of several months of effort, is 
intended to be a medium for corres- 
pondence between hobbyists in the 
microcomputing and related electronics 
fields. Any user with access to a tele- 
computing terminal may call in to the 
college and make use of the system. This 
individual is then free to communicate 
with the system, and may examine 
bulletins and messages left by others, or 
enter messages of his own, addressed to 
either a specific second party or to all users 
of the system. This system is truly a 
"community" bulletin board: no fees or 
charges are made, and no password or 
access code is required. 

Hardware 

The costs of implementing this system 
were kept to a minimum by making use of 
equipment already owned by the school. 
Specifically, an Apple II computer 
equipped with 48K of RAM and a mini- 
floppy disk, owned by the Mathematics 
Department of the College, was used. This 
computer was available for use with the 
CBBS during evenings and weekends. To 
this computer it was necessary to add a 
modem (or MOdulator-DEModulator, a 
device which enables the computer to be 
used over the telephone lines), and a Real- 
Time Clock. 

Software 

The program was written primarily in 
Apple Integer Basic, with some 6502 

Terrence Ryan. 135 East Third Si.. Apl. E. lansdalc. 
PA 19446 



machine language routines. Although 
writing the program exclusively in 
machine language would have offered an 
increase in execution speed, it was decided 
that a program written in Basic could be 
more easily serviced and expanded, 
especially by future students of the 
College. Surprisingly, through the use of 
efficient programming practices, this 
Basic-language program runs almost as 
fast as comparable machine language 
programs. 

The CBBS is an active, 
dynamic project which 
will present a challenge 
and a continuing learning 
experience for students 
at the College for many 
years to come. 



A primary consideration durfng the 
writing of this program was "system 
security." Since the system would be 
available to all. it was necessary to insure 
that no individual would be able to "crash" 
the system, or gain access greater than 
intended without specific consent of the 
system operator.* To this end, two major 
precautions were taken. First, a machine- 
language "interceptor" program was 
written which would block out illegal 
(control) characters, translate lower case 
characters into their upper case equiva- 
lents, and eliminate the chance of illegal 
length or value errors. 

•With special permission, students and faculty of the 
college have the ability to gain total access to the 
Apple computer through the CBBS. and can write 
their own programs on the Apple from their homes. 



94 



A second precaution included in the 
system is a software timer which limits the 
maximum permissible time for any 
response to 255 seconds. This is accom- 
plished by making use of the one second 
interrupt pulse generated by the Mountain 
Hardware clock card. Each time a 
response is requested by the program, the 
following sequence of events occurs: 
control is passed from the Basic language 
program to the machine language input 
routine. This routine enables the interrupt 
pulse, sets a specific byte of memory to the 
value of 255 (Hex "FF"). and waits to 
receive a character from the modem. Then 
once a second, as an interrupt pulse is 
generated, control is passed from the input 
routine to a machine-language interrupt 
routine. This routine decrements the 
specified byte of memory, and examines 
this byte to see if 255 seconds have passed. 
If this is the case, the phone is hung up, and 
the entire CBBS program is reloaded from 
the disk. If 255 seconds have not elapsed, 
an RTI (return-from-interrupt) is per- 
formed, and the program returns to the 
input routine. This process continues until 
the user completes his response, at which 
time control is passed back from the input 
routine to the Basic program. 

Extensions of Integer Basic 

Two Basic functions not included in 
Apple Integer Basic, the VAL function and 
the ON ERROR command, were neces- 
sary for the program, and therefore 
routines had to be written to simulate these 
functions. 

Our VAL subroutine, written by Rich 
Hoi stall, examines a character string, and 
returns the numeric value of the string in a 
variable. If the string contained any invalid 
characters, a logical variable, ERR, is set 
equal to "TRUE" or I. This provides a 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



10 AM to 6 PM 
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The Six 

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April 25 & 26, 1981 
at TRENTON STATE COLLEGE 
Trenton, New Jersey 



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Sponsored by: 

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convenient check of numeric entries to the 
program, and helps prevent the occurrence 
of an error condition. (Should such a 
condition occur, the program would be 
exited, and the user would have complete 
access to the system, a potential disaster!) 
The ON-DOS-ERROR routine, based on 
techniques described by Andy Herzfeld in 

This system is truly a 
"community" bulletin 
board: no fees or charges 
are made, and no pass- 
word or access code is 
required. 



Micro Magazine, causes any disk-associ- 
ated error disk full. I/O ERROR, etc. 
to be fatal. It was felt that no disk error 
could be tolerated, and the program 
therefore hangs up and shuts down after 
such an error. 

Accessing The CBBS 

To insure that even first-time callers 
could use the system easily and efficiently 
the CBBS was written to be self-prompt- 
ing. All responses are clearly explained, 
and the user is offered assistance at many 
points throughout the program. When a 



user logs on to the system, he is asked to 
give his name. This is used only for the 
signing of messages, and is not saved on 
disk as in other systems. The user is then 
given the option of viewing the system 
bulletins. "Bulletins" are items of general 
interest such as system hours, meetings of 
computer hobbyists' clubs, and new 
features of the system. (The viewing of 
these bulletins was made optional in an 
attempt to reduce the time an experienced 
user must spend on the system.) 

The menu of permissible functions is 
then displayed, and the user is asked to 
specify which function he wishes to 
perform. These routines are as follows: 

Quick Summary Lists valid mes- 
sage numbers and their subjects. 

Summary — Lists the above, as well 
as the date the message was entered, who it 
is intended for, and who it was written by. 

Read A Message 

New Message — For those who wish 
to leave a message on the system. 

Full/ Half Duplex Toggles between 
these two modes. 

Help A quick description of the 
features of the system. 

Bulletins — Reviews System Bulletins 

Delete — Delete a message. 

Time — Gives current date and time, 
as well as elapsed time (for budget-minded 
long distance callers). 

End Terminate Session. 



Future Goals 

The second phase of the system, 
currently in the planning stage, will allow 
amateur radio operators with ASCII 
terminals soon to be allowed by the 
FCC — to access the CBBS over the air. 
Hams with an interest in computers will 
then be able to communicate with 
computer hobbyists not involved in 
Amateur Radio. This would also give the 
radio operators access to other technical 
services provided by the school, such as 
satellite tracking and monitoring. 

Another future application of the 
CBBS will be controlling equipment at the 
school (such as radios, apparatus tor 
experiments, or computers) from long 
distances, or during evenings or weekends 
when the school is not open. 

The response to the system so far has 
been overwhelming. In only a few weeks of 
operation, hundreds of callers have used 
the CBBS, leaving messages ranging from 
"articles for sale" to the formation of 
special interest groups. Many users have 
left suggestions for improvements to the 
system, most of which have been imple- 
mented as quickly as possible. It can be 
seen that the CBBS is certainly not a 
"static" facility, but rather an active, 
dynamic project which will present a 
challenge and a continuing learning 
experience for students at the College for 
many years to come. □ 




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96 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Liquidation 
Giveaway 



Byte magazine. You ve seen it. It's the fat 
technical one. 

Back when Byte was first publishing 
independently. Creative Computing and Byte 
cooperated in many areas. We ran joint 
promotions, directed articles to each other 
and the like. 

In 1976. Creative published The Best of 
Creative Computing, Volume 1 I proposed 
to Virginia Londoner, publisher of Byte, that 
we also publish articles from Byte in book 
form. She agreed, and so we published The 
Best of Byte, Volume 1. It's a huge book of 
386 pages with articles on hardware, software, 
technical tutorials, how-to materials and even 
some philosophy. 

Although some of the technical material 
in The Best of Byte is out of date today, it 
nevertheless provides a good historical 
framework for the personal computing field. 
Not at all out of date are most of the software 
articles and tutorials. Similar books of other 
publishers are selling for $20 and up. so at 
$11.95, this one is quite a bargain. 

Big Hearted 

About the same time we were preparing 
The Best of Byte for publication, Nat 
Wadsworth of Scelbi approached Byte about 
doing a similar book. Virginia wanted to be 
nice to everyone, so she gave permission. 
Thus was born the Scelbi-Byte Primer. 

Unfortunately, about half of the content 
of the two books was identical. Thus Byte 
was faced with a dilemma of which book to 
endorse and sell through their magazine. 
Inexplicably, they chose the Scelbi book. 
Thus we were left with twelve skids of The 
Best of Byte. 

Hidden Away 

In the next three years we sold a lot of 
these books. In fact, after we ran a special 
in 1979, we thought we had sold out. 



However, we just moved to new quarters. 
In the move we found, lurking away in the 
back of our old garage, four skids of The 
Best of Byte. After some fitting words, the 
boss said for 2«. id give them away." So 
that's what we're doing. 

Our Ridiculous Offer 

The original price of The Best of Byte 
was $11.95. If you order $11.95 worth of 
any of our other books or records, we'll 
throw in The Best of Byte for 2<t. 

Thus you could order The Best of Creative 
Computing, Vol. 3 ($8.95) and Computer 
Coin Games ( $3.95). The toal price is $ 1 2.90 
For $12.92 you also get The Best of Byte. 
Shipping and handling on all book orders is 
$2.00. 

Here are the books you can use to come 
up with an $1 1 .95 or greater total: 



Best of Creative Computing, Vol. 1 $8.95 

Best of Creative Computing, Vol. 2 8.95 

Best of Creative Computing, Vol. 3 8.95 

Basic Computer Games 7.50 

More Basic Games (Microsoft) 7.95 

More Basic Games (TRS-80) 7.95 

Computer Coin Games 3.95 

Be A Computer Literate 3.95 

Computers in Mathematics 1 5.95 
Problems for Computer Solution 

(Student) 4 g 5 

(Teacher) 995 

Computers in Society Bibliography 1 7.95 

Katie and the Computer 6 95 

Computers For Kids (TRS-80) 3.95 

Computers For Kids (Apple) 3.95 

Tales of the Marvelous Machine 8.95 

Colossal Computer Cartoon Book 4.95 

Computer Rage Game 8.95 

Computer Music Record 6.00 




Limited Supply 

We expect a heavy response to this offer, 
so order today to be sure of getting The 
Best of Byte for just 2 cents. 

Send us your order for books of $1 1 .95 
or greater plus 2« for The Best of Byte and 
$2.00 postage handling. Send payment or 
Visa, MasterCard or American Express 
number and expiration date to the address 
below or call our toll-free number 

Don't delay; order today. 

creative 
computing 

P.O Box 789-M 
Morristown. NJ 07960 

Toll-free 800-631-81 12 

(In NJ 201-540-0445) 



J 



APRIL 1981 



97 



CIRCLE 350 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CONFER Connection 




Karl L Zinn 




Users of the Michigan Terminal System (MTS) based at the 
University of Michigan have easy access to an electronic- 
bulletin board which goes well beyond the capabilities of the 
typical micro-based community bulletin board system (CBBS). 
For three years users of microcomputers have been sharing 
information about new products, software, and trends, and 
sometimes solving problems or scheduling meetings. Using 
microcomputers as terminals on the timesharing system also 
allows transferring files, downloading programs, and similar 
activites. 

Origins of CONFER 

The first version of CONFER was put together in the spring 
of 1975 to experiment with computer-based conferencing at 
the University of Michigan. One motivation was research on 
university governance, for example, to assist communication 
among members of a faculty committee and with their 
constituents. The program was also used to explore information 
systems in teaching and learning, including the communication, 
organization and reporting of information in seminars, group 
projects, and curriculum planning. 

CONFER was programmed in Fortran by Robert Pames. 
and draws heavily on the system subroutines of MTS (the host 
operating system) in a way which reduces the cost and raises 
the reliability of operation. CONFER is available to users 
whenever MTS is. usually 24 hours a day. seven days a week. 
(MTS has a few hours of scheduled hardware maintenance, 
and runs in "unattended mode" during late night hours on 
weekends: after midnight Saturday and Sunday, no operator is 
present to restart the system if something goes wrong. I 

The software has continued to evolve over six years, and 
now offers excellent services for a variety of users. Within the 
University. CONFER is used by faculty committees, attendees 
at project staff meetings, and service groups as well as participants 
in seminars, courses, and other student groups. 

Availability and Costs 

CONFER provides an electronic bulletin board, messages, 
reminders, notices, and personal notes. It is easy to learn and 
economical to use. The cost of MTS is less than $2 per hour, 
including all processing and storage charges. Communication 
from outside the local Ann Arbor area costs nothing additional 
for users calling from Detroit. Lansing or Kalamazoo. The 
MERIT Computer Network connects the academic computing 
facilities of the four largest universities in the state, and the 
communications computer for the Network at each site costs 
about the same as the front-end computer on each of the hosts. 
From other major cities in the state or nation, communications 
costs are about $6 per hour (via Telenet). The cost is expected 
to drop with more favorable Telenet rates obtained through 
the participation of MERIT in a network serving higher education 
in North Ameri ca (Edunet). The typical user of the micro- 

Karl Zinn. University "i Michigan, tenter for Research on Learning and 
Teaching. I(N E. Madiaon St., Ann Arbor. Ml 4HIO-4. 



computer "conference" averages under one hour per week: 
under SKK) per year. 

Present users of this "electronic bulletin board" on micro- 
computers in education include researchers, professors, 
administrators, college students, high school students, teachers, 
service staff, vendors and publishers. All seem to enjoy the 
"democracy" of this electronic communication: it is not 
dominated by professors: students and staff also have the 
opportunity to be heard. (Often they are the ones who solve 
my problems with various microcomputers and software pack- 
ages!) 

Electronic communications are qualitatively different in 
this setting. The factors include: 

•rapid communication. 

•serendipity of useful information from unexpected 
sources. 

•efficient communications involving busy experts. 

•storage of useful information otherwise lost. 

•organization through written expression and revision, and 

•extension of face-to-face meetings Ifollowup. second 
opinion). 

Availability to Others 

The University of Michigan limits computer access to faculty, 
staff, students and outside projects working with the University 
on research and instruction programs. In the last category I 
can include advisors on my research projects and consultants, 
but I still can't include everyone I would like to see using our 
microcomputer "bulletin board." There are many other groups 
that would like to use CONFER. However the University can't 
increase access when it can hardly expand its Amdahl 470/V8 
fast enough to keep up with on-campus demands. 

Happily. CONFER is now available to others through the 
Wayne State University Computer Systems Center. Anyone 
can purchase time on the system. Bob Parnes will set up new 
conferences for special groups of users. Use by Wayne State 
groups is increasing rapidly . and special services are offered to 
schools and other educational groups in the Detroit area. 

Current Uses 

Users are sharing information, posting notices (meetings, 
workshops, job opportunities, used equipment I. coordinating 
purchases (disks, software, peripherals), and consulting with 
educational users of microcomputers. The list of categories 
("agenda") in Figure 1 gives some idea of the content. However, 
one cannot appreciate the dynamics without actually partici- 
pating. The sample session reproduced in Figure 2 just doesn't 
convey the impact on one's work. 

In addition to my regular consultation with University faculty 
members through computer-aided communications. I have in 
the last month collected information for two articles, scheduled 
half a dozen meetings, reviewed parts of reports for a development 
project, gained expert advice on some communication problems. 

98 CREATIVE COMPUTING 






anal 



NATIONAL TRS-80" 

MICROCOMPUTER SHOW 



New York Statler 

Exposition Hall 

(opposite Pennsylvania Railroad Station 

and Madison Square Garden) 

7th Ave. & 33rd Street 



May 21, 22, 23, 1981 

Thursday Noon to 6 PM 

Friday 11 AM to 6 PM 

Saturday 10 AM to 4 PM 



For the Businessman, Educator, Professional and Hobbyist. 

• Commercial Exhibits and Sales of Microcomputers, 
Software, Books, Magazines, Supplies, 

Parts, Printers, Etc. 

• Free Seminars 

• Famous Name Guest Speakers. 

• User Groups. 

(Mod I, II, III, Color and Pocket Computers). 

• Door Prizes - A TRS-80" Computer will be given 
away free each day, plus other prizes. 

Avoid standing on line - Send in your registration today! 

Radio Shack and TRS-80 are registered trademarks of Tandy Corporation, which has 
no relationship to Kengore Corporation or The National TRS-80 Microcomputer Show. 



REGISTRATION FOR TRS-80® MICROCOMPUTER SHOW 

May 21. 22. 23. 1981 New York Stat|er Hote| 

Name _____ Title 

Company Name 

Address 



City. State, Zip 



Please send 



registrations at $10.00 each. 



Send To: 

Kengore Corporation, Dept 80 

3001 Route 27 

Franklin Park. N.J. 08823 



(Registration Badge will be sent to you on May 1st ) 

Co-sponsored By 



jtjfj micracompjting n 



(Be sure to enclose 
check or money order.) 




for 
TRS-80 Models I & III 

SuperSoft LISP allows the TRS-80 to become 
a complete Artificial Intelligence laboratory! It 
is the tool that takes you to the frontier of Com- 
puter Science. 

The SuperSoft LISP is a complete and full im- 
plementation. (It is NOT a subset!) It contains 
an efficient garbage collector which optimizes 
the usage of user RAM, and supports the 
TRS-80 graphics. Below are some features: 

• Runs in 16k level II (with only 6K overhead) 

• Fully implements atom property list structure. 

• PROG is supported. 

• FUNARG device is implemented. 

• Efficient garbage collection. 

• Complete with LISP editor and trace. 
Allows complete range of single precision 
numeric data. 

Works with old as well as new ROMs. 
Contains 97 functions. 
Sample Programs. 



The LISP package is supplied on tape or 
discette and with a complete user manual. 



cassette version: 
(requires 16K level II) 

Disk version: 
(requires 16K disk) 

(manual only: $15.00) 



$75.00 
$100.00 





All Orders and General Information: 

SUPERSOFT ASSOCIATES 

P.O. BOX 1628 

CHAMPAIGN, IL 61820 

(217)359-2112 

Technical Hot Line: (217) 359-2691 

(answered only when technician is available) 

CIRCLE 266 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SuperSoft 

First in Software Technology 



TRS-80 TRADEMARK TANDY CORP 



CONFER, continued... 

learned of new software, communicated with staff while traveling, 
been reminded (by my "tickler file") to post notices for meetings 
and job openings as they become timely, heard first impressions 
of new products such as the Radio Shack Color Computer. 
NEC 800 1, and the Commodore VIC. and so on. 



Small, personal computers 

are great, but 

communicating with other users 

makes them even nicer. 



Small, personal computers are great, but communicating 
with other users makes them even nicer. Urge computer 
systems have a role. The Source and Micronet have made a 
nice start with commercial services, but for a look at some 
really nice communication aids, try CONFER on MTS some 
time. '-' 



AGENDA FOR CRLT: MICROS 

speech (input, output, conmunioatlon aids, ...) 

data collection and real tine analysis 

decision and management aids (including accounting) 

publications of special interest to educators 

video used with micros (disc, tape, ...) 

S-100 bus, peripherals, ... 

CP/M and other operating systems 

funding (planning, proposals, sources, ...) 

applications (sources, review, evaluation, ...) 

software selection (criteria, review, sources 

hardware selection (criteria, guidelines, advice) 

cross assemblers and such on large systems 

AMTS (Apple to MTS communications) 

AMIE (Apple to MTS information exchange) 

cluster support (disk, printer, plotter, communications) 

formats, standards, translations, ... 

Z80/Z8000 characteristics and systems 

TI (Texas Instruments) 99/1, ... 

Apple programs, applications 

Apple characteristics, peripherals, prices 

Atari 800, 100 

Compucolor, Intercolor, ... 

Exidy Sorcerer 

Interact home computers (not producing) 

Mattel home computers 

Monroe educational computer 

DEC (Digital Equipment Corp) 

OSI (Ohio Scientific, Inc.) 

PET/CBM/VIC (Commodore) 

Radio Shack (Tandy) TRS-80, ... 

Zenith Data Systems (Heath) 

music and arts applications 

word processing, text handling, data entry 

information retrieval and management 

statistical packages on micros (Tor education) 

graphics and animation for education with micros 

CBBS (community bulletin board systems) 

communications with central systems and among micros 

langages tor education (Basic, Logo, Smalltalk, ...) 

Pascal language, system, applications 

used equipment for sale 

Job notices, opportunities, availability 

people (activities, background, interests, ...) 

projects, offices, service programs 

clubs, special interest groups, associations 

news items (stores, sales, ...) 

workshops, institutes, seminars on micros in ed 

meetings of micro users in education (SE Michigan) 

conferences with implications for micros in ed 

procedures, agenda, membership of this conference 

retired and updated items 



Fitture 1. 



100 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



1 6K MEMORY — *24.00 

FOR APPLE - TRS-80 - EXIDY - S100 



4116 EQUIVALENT 

NATIONAL MM5290N-3 200ns 



8for$ 24.00 NATIONAL 



2114300ns 

MM2114N-3L 



8for$ 26.00 



£glMSAI COMPATIBLE PRODUCTS S 



I 8080 S-100 
ENCLOSURE 
Sheet Metal 
Kit 



Just like THE ORIGINAL IMSAI: Mainframe 
with blue cover, cardguides and hardware 
spaced for PS-28D Power Supply, up to 22 slot 
motherboard. 

Kit of all metal parts and hardware with 

documentation $115.00 

Thinker Toys WunderBuss 20 for above w/o 

conn $ 79.00 

AMP S-100Connectors— each ... $ 3.50 
80 15 Blank jump-start panel w/3 s witches 

5 32 50 

8035 Jump start panel for 2 SA-400S 78.50 

PS-28D Mounts in the I-8080 enclosure, supplies + 8V 

Power Supply ® 28A, +/- 16V @ 3A, kit includes board, 



DIOC/D 
CPM- 2.2 
CPA 

MPU-A 
MPU-B 

RAM III 64K 
MEMORY 



Parts Kit: 



PI0 4-4 
SI0 2-2 



1-8080 
SYSTEM 



1-8015 

Complete 

System 

w/MPU-B 



transformer, documentation, and all com- 
ponents. Improved from original. 

K " $ 95.50 

4 parallel inputs and outputs (8212). . $160.00 
2 serial I/O ports, good to 19,200 baud . $175.00 



1KB 1 
MOX 
DE8 



COMPLETE SYSTEMS 



2boarddiskcontrollerfor8"or5V4" . $350.00 

For DIO including documentation $175.00 

Improved Imsai style front panel works with 

Z80 - e,c $225.00 

8080 processor board— requires CPA . $100.00 
8085 3MHz processor SBC w/serial plus 

parallel port, monitor $250.00 

64K byte dynamic RAM board— Utilizes the In- 
tel 3242 refresh controller and a single delay 
line for totally internal refresh. Uses time pro- 
ven 4116 RAMS. Memory mapped I/O boards 
are allowed to coexist by the use of A16 buss 
pin 16. 

Assembled & Tested $350.00 

Bare Board w/docs $ 40.00 

Intelligent keyboard uses 8035 $149.50 

DualSA400driveenclosure $ 75.00 

Dual 800R/801R horizontal style enclosure 

w/power supply and fan $240.00 

Case Only ' sioo'oo 



The basic 8080 based S-100 system. Includes 
CPA front panel, 22 slsot motherboard (with all 
22 connectors), MPU-A 8080 CPU board PS- 
28D power supply ( + 8V @ 28A, + / - 16V @ 
3A), and chassis. COMPLETELY ASSEMBLED 
& TESTED. 

WithMPUA $650.00 

Without MPU-A $600.00 

Thinker Toys 10MHz WunderBuss add 
$ 75.00 

The complete 8085 system, includes MPU-B, 
RAM III, 10 slot terminated motherboard, 
PS-28D, and jump start front panel. A complete 
64K system! 

Assembled & Tested $1250.00 



1-8035 



VDP-40 



DS-8 



The complete 8085 system w/2 each TANDON 
TM-100, DIO-D, MPU-B, RAM III, chassis, 
10 slot motherboard and power supply In- 
cludes CPM* 2.2. 

Assembled & Tested $2295.00 

Desk-top 8085 micro-computer system with 
keyboard, 9" CRT display, 10 slot S-100 board 
disk controller, 64K dynamic RAM, 2 each 
TANDON 5V4" disk drives, 28 amp power 
supply. 

Assembled & Tested $2895.00 

Dual 801 R horizontal style 8" disk enclosure 
w/power supply, fan, and 2 Shugart 801 R 
drives. 

Assembled & Tested $1100 00 

Above w/DIOC & CPM 2.2 $1500.00 



Ask about documentation, repair service, firmware and software tor your system 



component supply, inc 

VA/VA/ 



1771 Junction Avenue 
San Jose, California 951 12 

(408) 295-7171 



TERMS l ^SSSH^H?^"= , ^» ,he sh,pp,nfl • s on * 



APRIL 1981 



CIRCLE 2690N READER SERVICE CARD 



101 



CONFER, continued... 



I inure 2. 



source crlt:micros 

CONFER II (10/80) - designed by Robert Parnes 

CONFERenoe for CRLT:MICROS (organizer: Karl Zinn. 763-M10) 
Please respect the informal nature of some items. 

Reminder for Jan31/81 ,^,,„, 

List revision to send to Creative today I 
POSTPONE, DELETE, OR IGNORE? delete 
Deleted 

No new messages 

SrSFSo-'SSE. TERMINATE WITH ,ENDFILE 

>Bernle, I am listing revised copy to send to Creati ve ^^ 
>I will get revised progress report as well as guiue 
>Karl 
>\ 

EDIT MESSAGE? 

ENTER RECIPIENT: banet (BPBNTE , . ok re copy for you to review 

OK? TO SEND TO BANET, BERNARD (BERNIE) ■ « ™ l » 

CONFIRMATION WANTED? 

Message sent .._,„,,, . 

ENTER ANOTHER RECIPIENT (or press RETURN). 

DO NEXT? agenda amie 

AHIE (APPLE TO MTS INFORMATION EXCHANGE) 

Items in this category 

76 102 117 121 125 133 20* 231 
CATEGORIZE WHICH ITEMS? 
• THESE ITEMS? yes 
These are now the * items. 

DO NEXT? descriptor • last 



* 



17:08 Jan14/81 22 lines Prime=20« 



Item 231 

A°veYsion of AMIE which work, with DC Hayes Micro-odem is available 



T 




DO NEXT? d • previous 

08:59 Dec17/80 152 lines 



Prime=78 



18:16 Oct0«/80 110 lines Prime=78 



Item 20* 

ret 8 another new version of AMIE for Apple users everywhere. 

DO NEXT? which • "ontel" 

78 102 117 121 
• THESE ITEMS? yes 
These are now the • items. 

DO NEXT? descriptor • last 

Item 121 18:16 Oct0U/80 110 lines Prime=78 

Tiny Ontel is now AMIE (kind of like VISA) 

nn NEXT? agenda meetings 

MEETINGS OfVhO USERS IN EDUCATION (SE MICHIGAN) 

Items in this category 

15 96 101 105 187 196 216 237 251 
rsTrnflRTZF WHICH ITEMS? 

• THESE ITEMS? yes 
These are now the • items. 

DO NEXT? which * "Braun" 
237 251 

• THESE ITEMS? 

DO NEXT? d 251 



22:15 Jar.29/81 36 lines 



Item 121 
Doug Orr 
Tiny Ontel is now AMIE (kind or like VISA) 

no NEXT? agenda meetings 

MEETINGS OF MICRO USERS IN EDUCATION (SE MICHIGAN) 

Items in this category 

15 96 101 105 187 196 216 237 251 
CATFIflHTZE WHICH ITEMS? 

• THESE ITEMS? yes 
These are now the • items. 

DO NEXT? which • "Braun" 
237 251 

• THESE ITEMS? 

DO NEXT? d 251 

Item 251 22:15 Jan29/8l 36 lines 

tentative schedule Tor visit of Lud Braun (and review of UM 
instructional computing) 

"JPSJ^IlS.rSK'.t Stony Brook) will be visiting of « 
Tuesday Feb 3 to see how we use computers in college teaching and 
learning. In particular, I hope he will see the mix ! 
GO BACK TO DO NEXT? yes 

DO NEXT? reminder 

ENTER REMINDER NOTE. TERMINATE WITH »ENDFILE 



;inn . >retrieve relevant itens for Lud 

tent a- >\ 

EDIT REMINDER? 
yTanother new version of AMIE for Apple users everywhere. EFFECTIVE DATE? (EG 02-28-81): ♦! 

Reminder posted for 02/01/81 
DO NEXT? which • "ontel" 

78 102 117 121 
• THESE ITEMS? yes 
These are now the • items. 
DO NEXT? descriptor • last 



DO NEXT? stop 
You are leaving CRLT:MICROS. 

# 



Use SIGNOFF to leave computer. 



102 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



New Data Factory compatible business program. 




NEW FOR THE APPLE 



Do more than invoices 

It isn't just an invoice program. The 
Invoice Factory generates an aged re- 
ceivable report, a product or customer 
report, even a yearly bar graph analysis, 
and much more. You can calculate your 
yearly, semi-annual, and quarterly busi- 
ness in minutes. 

. . . it's easy 

And it's easy to operate. After only a 
few minutes with the Manual, anyone 
can enter orders and generate invoices. 
Your statements are ready automatically 
with 30, 60, or 90 day analyses. With The 
Invoice Factory your accounts will stay 
current and you will know exactly where 
the money isn't. 

. . . it's ready when you are 

We needed this system too! Our bills 
were going out later and later every 
month. With today's economy, and 
money tight, no one can afford to forget 
those receivables. As billing became 
more complex with service and handling 
charges, we found that we had to have a 
system to relieve our weary office staff. 
We had computers that didn't ask for 
raises or vacations, and didn't get the 
flu, or come in late; we therefore cre- 



ated another system that works.' We 
developed it to work in conjunction with 
The Data Factory, our data base manage- 
ment system, but it can also stand alone. 
. . . it's automatic 

The data disks that are generated by 
The Invoice Factory are fully compatible 
with The Data and Mini Factory. You 
just enter an account number and The 
Invoice Factory goes to work. It retrieves 
all the account information instantly. 
Terms of payment, method of shipping, 
special handling procedures, and even 
your own seasonal comments are noted. 
About three hundred accounts can be 
handled on one data disk. One hundred 
different products can be listed then 
tabulated automatically. UPS zones and 
fees are entered to compute charges 
quickly and correctly. Taxes can be 
added if desired. You have to see it op- 
erate to appreciate the speed and effi- 
ciency of the system. 

. . . it's an investment 

With this system, like our others, you 
can be sure that Micro Lab will add new 
features to make it even more powerful. 
By purchasing The Invoice Factory now, 
you will be able to have your input count. 
And the next version of the product will 



include many of the routines that per- 
haps you, yourself have suggested. 
. . . it's always there 
Again, we offer two identical program 
disks with each package. You are never 
without a back up should anything go 
wrong with the original copy. If you have 
an Extended Warranty just send the 
blown disk back to us for a renewal at 
no additional cost. And when new ver- 
sions of the system are released, your 
extended warranty covers that as well. 
The annual Extended Warranty rate is 
$20. Without the Extended Warranty 
there is a $10 per disk fee for renewals. 
You will always have the current version 
of The Invoice Factory. When we add 
new features to the program your in- 
vestment will become more valuable. 

. . . it's available now 

Micro Lab has a reputation for quality 
products. The Invoice Factory is a sure 
winner. Those that have seen it have 
been truly impressed with the simplic- 
ity yet power of the system. The Invoice 
Factory is offered at the introductory 
price of $100.00. It requires a 48k Apple 
II computer with Applesoft and two 
disk drives. Orders must be arranged 
through your local dealer. 




micro lab 



systems that work 




3218 Skokie Valley Road • Highland Park, IL 60035 • 312-433-7550 

CIRCLE 1SS ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Wayne L. Slingluff 



Friday, April 10, 1992 



Memoriam Statements arc presented to citizens this dav as 
per Obligation (87) of Public Trust 

FACTONE does not agree with all comments (nor with 
any of those of criminal elements) herein taxed. 

As conformed to the Detention Act of 1985, Section II. 
Paragraph 9, amended 1989. Memoriam Statements for those 
convicted in The Commonwealth are hereby devoxed. not more 
than 6.V7 condensed from original. 

Shallon. William 1947-1992 

Look, you won't believe this. okay. It's too late for you, I 
know. The "crime" of which I am convicted is a poof, a 
confection of an apartment neighbor covetous of ourhot water, 
and the fabrications of our recently "elected" IRS officialdom. 

Yes. I was once a computer programmer. Hey! There was ■ 
time not long ago when it was not only honorable, but even 
legally profitably to write for computers. Okay, that was before 
the O.L.T.. before the BHA plague, before Leaded lungs. 
Before IRII took most of our jobs. I didn't do any of that. well, 
not directly. I was just working. Programming was an 
art science as necessary as. say, spit/pelling today. And it was 
difficult like modern romances of doctors in medicine before 
OMNICURE. We didn't have ENG IV. SPEAKEASY 90. or 

oven WOWBASIC-86. We wrote our own s . I — . . . . 

(delcted-ed) . . ., yes. the stuff that some of you call obscene. 

Oh, we knew about the coming second Industrial 
Revolution, all right. How could we predict its savagery, or the 
consequences to ourselves of Our Little Turndown. Never even 
night ma led of being driven from cities, ostracized, murdered by 
Modl.uds. We really didn't think it would be called our fault 

Crime? We read about computer crime, but no more 
committed it than most two-handed subway riders arc 
pickpockets. Crime has been a constant problem of any 
civilization: civilization hasalways dealt with it. I wasa working 
stiff. I never stole a dime in my life. I didn't plan how to take 
■way jobs. 

Wayne I SlingtufT. 71 Phillips St., Huston. MA 02114. 



For ourselves, we even thought the need for programmers 
might, someday, decrease. 1 didn't know we would have to get 
ProgCards. I didn't know how few there would be. I didn't 
know the connections that would be nccessarv to get them How 
could I, in 1980? 

So. of course, with no Card, and my background. I am 
unemployable. The maxim is "Hire No Progs." Everyone must 
use a computer. The few who might understand too much areas 
cursed as those seeing in the land of the blind. Employers fear us 
— insurance companies forbid us. 

Surely, there was an honest profes- 
sion not needing computers. Surely I 
could almost forget what I knew. 

I wanted to work! Surely, there was an honest profession 
not needing computers. Surely I could almost forget what I 
knew. Surely someone would take a chance . . . 

Yes, I once worked for a multinational. Hell, many of us 
did. back then. Okay. I even owned a home computer. That 
wasn't illegal, before the NYSCAM of 1984. 1 used it for games, 
not profit. 

Anyway. Kathy was in poor health, unemployable because 
of my background, unable to even visit her parents. My two 
children were being forced into"TradeScouts9.V I wasdrafted 

"A Burden On the City" for the infamous 

HAYMKTSLJPI.R camp in the Bcrkshires. 

What I then did was only . . . (condensed as per Public 1 aw 
CS742SE. MA. -ed) ... As you see. I am innocent of any 
wrongdoing. 

Convicted of first degree computer fraud, known one-time 
employee of a notorious Multi. mr. SHALLON 181-40- 
882 ICR was P.Q.N, this National Emergy under Section 6, bled 
to the death at Amherst, the earthly remains left toour common 
good at a Hopewell Farm for the Destitute. He is survived by a 
wife and two children, under custody of The Commonwealth 

D 



104 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



A major breakthrough in the learning process 





the 

learning 
system. 



People have been coming up with new 
ways to teach things to one another 
since the beginning of time. Various 
breakthroughs have occurred and we 
have progressed. We offer another break- 
through—The Learning System" by 
Dr. Scot Kamins. This combination of 
programs is a truly interactive teaching 
vehicle that can positively teach any 
subject to anyone. The instructor has a 
teaching and testing tool and the user 
learns and expands his knowledge of 
the subject while receiving positive 
interaction with the computer. 

This system is important. It is mean- 
ingful because it allows any company, 
no matter how small, to prepare a train- 
ing device for its employees. No one 
need take time off his job for instructing 
a new person. Additional tutoring or re- 
finements to a routine can be taught 
and tested quickly. The educator can 
creatively teach his subject in an effec- 
tive way to give the learner that "some- 
thing extra." If you use the validity 
analysis data, that the system produces, 
you can key in to the areas that must 
be retaught. Effective, quick analysis 
of test results allows the instructor to 
operate more effectively. 

Let's face it, teaching today, whether 
in the school system or in the business 
environment is a tough assignment. 
Because of the fluent society, more and 
more people must learn quickly. If you 
could use "The Learning System" to 
teach people faster and more effectively, 
this will save you time and money. 

SetUp 
Set up your own text with instructions 
or information. Then key it to a test to 
check for learning comprehension. Use 
an instruction or a test mode. The in- 
struction mode will give hints and help 



BY 

SCOT KAMINS, PHD 



to the user, while the exam mode tests 
and stores score results. Choose a mul- 
tiple choice, fill-in, or column matching 
format. Write your questions and an- 
swers to correspond to portions of the 
composition so that in the instruction 
mode, a review of that section will occur. 
Or, set up a quiz independently without 
reference to the text on the computer. 

Using the instruction mode, The 
Learning System becomes a tutorial 
program. The user has two or three 
chances to answer each question. There- 
after, he is told the answer and must 
rewrite it correctly. At the conclusion 
of each series of questions, the user 
must retake those questions that were 
answered incorrectly. Ample help is 
available if he has forgotten the correct 
answer. There are multiple levels of 
reinforcement. 

In the test mode, there are no second 
chances! One answer only is entered 
by the user. The testee is given the 
number and percentage of correct re- 
sponses and the number of times to 
get it. At the conclusion of the exam 
the learner can receive the score im- 
mediately. However, this score is re- 
tained on a records disk along with a 
name for later analysis by the instructor. 



Scoring 

Test results may be evaluated on many 
levels, for analysis of the users strengths 
or weaknesses; comparison to others 
who have taken the same exam; as a 
device for the instructor to see how 
well he has taught the material; or to 
evaluate the validity of the questions 
used. Scores from other exams may be 
viewed, compared, averaged, or printed 
out if you have a printer. 

Comparing the results of many exams 
from an entire class, the instructor can 
see what must be retaught. He can 
check the percentage of users that 
answered each question correctly or 
incorrectly to establish whether it was 
a fair one. The class curve can easily 
be computed. Grades can be given at 
marking time without spending days 
computing and averaging exam scores. 

Apple Compatible 
The Learning System is presently being 
offered for the Apple computer but will 
be available in other versions. You will 
need 48k, Applesoft in ROM. The sys- 
tem will operate using either one or 
two disk drives. Future versions will be 
available for home use and special 
applications. 

Backup Protection 

The Micro Lab Extended Warranty is 
again an option. Should any disk need 
renewing, it will be handled free of 
charge to all policy holders. The annual 
Extended Warranty is priced at $30. 
Updates offering additional features 
will be made and user feedback is al- 
ways solicited. When new versions are 
released, your Extended Warranty covers 
them as well. Without this policy, there 
is a $10 per disk fee for renewals. 

A Complete System 
The system is sold as a package with 
one master disk plus two player disks 
You supply the test and record disks 
as you need them. You will also receive 
a backup of the master disk. Extra player 
disks can be purchased. An easy to 
understand manual explaining all fea- 
tures is provided. 

See our demo at your local Apple 
dealer. The Learning System is priced 
at an introductory offer of $150. 



micpolsb — 
learning center 



systems that work , 



3218Skokie Valley Road • Highland Park, IL 60035 • 312-433-7550 

CIRCLE 156 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



The Computerized 
H/riter 




I just got a job through my TRS-80 home 
computer! . 

I'm a full-time freelance writer living in 
Florida and if you've ever been a full-time 
freelance writer Hiving anywhere) you know 
what kind of a life 1 lead. All in all. its 
been a lousy week. Yesterday 1 got three 
rejections, a "go-ahead-on-speculation" from 
a retirement magazine in California, 
a "definitely-not-interested-but-thanks-any- 
way" from Playboy, a check for S20 from 
Writers Digest and another check for $150 
from a magazine that pays on publication 
and published my article in the Easter 
1978 edition of their magazine. 1 guess you 
can understand then that anything we 
writers can get for our carefully-chosen 
words is ok with us. If you don't under- 
stand, multiply what you think it's like to 
be a full-time freelance writer by "237- 
negatives" and you'll be close. 

To make a long computer story short. 1 
never mastered the complex computer 
language, but I did learn to stuff expensive, 
pre-programmed tapes into the TRS-80's 
innards and wasted a lot of time balancing 
my meager checkbook and playing ani- 
mated versions of Chinese checkers. 

Somewhere between the excitement of 
getting a new toy and the frustration of 
trying to communicate with it. 1 sold a few 
home computer articles to minor magazines 
for $50-5100 which managed to support 
my pre-programmed tape habit. 

(■hil PhHcox, Inioimition fte»Servke, 51 l* Rottw 

Hills Court. Tampa, II .1.1617. 



Like overweight wives and husbands who 
are always late for dinner, the thrill was 
soon gone. It was strictly an owner-machine 
relationship and if you can't talk to each 
other, you just sit there like a dummy or 
take another shot of pre-programmed mylar 
sort of like trying to order a hamburger 
and fries in a genuine Chinese restaurant 
staffed by genuine Chinese waiters just off 
the box from Shanghai. 

In my search for article material. I 
probably write about 25 letters a week 
looking for input and somehow, one of my 
input letters landed on the desk of Noel 
Tyl. director of communications for the 
Source Telecomputer Corporation in 
McLean. VA. The Source is the latest 
move into the 21st century and a big step 
toward what could be a major breakthrough 
in the field of mass communications. 

You can access the Source through a 
telephone modem and any home computer 
becomes an instant information, education 
and entertainment center. You can forget 
complex computer statements and com- 
municate with commands like CHAT. 
HELLO. HOW ARE YOU? and QUIT. If 
you get stuck, just type FUTILE and the 
Source will lead you out by the hand. 

To access the Source, you pay a one- 
time hookup fee of $100. then $1 5 an hour 
for line time during prime time (8 a.m. to 6 
p.m.). $4.25 an hour during non-prime time 
(6 p.m. to 12 p.m. weekdays all day week- 

106 



ends and all holidays -when you're most 
likely to be playing with your electronic 
toys) and only $2.75 an hour if you can 
stop wiggling in your seat until after 12 
p.m. to go information-education hunting. 
That's about what I pay for a movie ticket 
and a box of unbuttered popcorn, so 
comparing the Source to an ordinary movie 
and minimal refreshments is like comparing 
"60 Minutes" to "The Laverne and Shirley 
Show"— there ain't no comparison. 

I've yet to tap into the Source's vast 
information network, but I did discover 
the Computer Search International Career 
Network and the Bulletin Board and soon 
found others discovering me as a writer- 
for-hire. Through CSI's network, you can 
access the computerized files of job place- 
ment agencies around the country, (legally, 
of course), so if you're a scientist living in 
New Jersey and think the job market might 
be better in Wyoming (it isn't), you can 
call up this information on your computer 
screen and see for yourself. 1 found a job 
listing for a technical writer in Seattle, 
paying $55,000 a year plus expenses, but 
they listed eight must-haves and I didn't 
have any of them. Oh well, it's always 
raining in Seattle anyway and chances are 
they wouldn't let me work in my pajamas 
dike lam right now). 

You can feed your resume into the 
network by contacting any of the member 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



executive recruiting firms or through CSI 
headquarters and if you're a marketable 
commodity . you could get a call from some 
company president sitting in a genuine 
leather. $1500 swivel chair somewhere out 
there over the horizon. 1 threw some of 
my qualifications on the Source's Bulletin 
Board, then went back to playing Chinese 
Checkers with the computer. (He/she's 
won 161 games, lost none.) 

Somewhere between November 1 5th and 
December 20th. 19X0. 1 got some inquiries 
from my computer listing (they reach me 
through my electronic mailbox! but obvi- 
ously not too many people were interested 
in a ghostwriter who was no longer a 
ghost— advertising can do that. 

On the 21st of December, a day that 
might go down in freelance writing history 
as the first electronic freelance writing job 
ever consummated by computer. 1 turned 
on my TRS-HO. checked my mailbox and 
there was a message waiting for me from 
TCAXXX (I can't give you his number. 
I'm a ghost, remember?) in Chicago, asking 
me for my Tampa telephone number (I'm 
TCA093). I answered his letter, typed 
EXPRESS MAIL .SEND and shut down 
the computer to free the phone lines. In 
ten minutes the phone rang. 

"Can you." TCAXXX asked, "look at 
my book manuscript, help me get it organ- 
ized, do some rewriting if necessary, keep 



your mouth shut and sell it to a publisher 
for a $10,000 advance and 25% royalty on 
each copy sold?" 

"Yes. yes. yes. yes. no. no." I answered 
honestly. 

TCAXXX is the president of a real estate 
company who had 1 23 pages of a proposed 
250-page real estate book in various stages 
of completion (read that "mess"). I rattled 
off some credits and convinced him over 
the phone I knew the difference between 
a computer keyboard and a typewriter 



If you're a scientist 

living in New Jersey and 

think the job market 

might be better in 

Wyoming, you can call 

up this information on 

your computer screen 

and see for yourself. 



keyboard and yesterday 1 received a 
package containing 123 single-spaced, hand- 
written pages in the mail. Attached to the 
top page was a check for half of a job that 
will hopefully be well done. 1 figure it will 



take me about a month to complete th 
job— if I can stay away from my Chinese 
Checker games and the Source long enough 
lo get some work done. 

I'm rich! I'm working! I'm compu- 
terized!!! 

Update 

For a ghostwriter, there has to be a link 
between the paying author and the getting- 
paid writer and using the Source, we've 
worked out the following system. The TRS- 
80 is linked to the Source through a Lynx 
Telephone Modem from Emtrol Systems, 
and my IBM Selectric has been transformed 
into an electronic secretary using Rochester 
Data's typewriter conversion kit. 

By waiting until after 12 p.m. to feed 
manuscript copy into his file, then trans- 
mitting it to my file in Florida. TCAXXX 
pays only $2.75 an hour to put his manuscript 
rough on line. I LPRINT the incoming 
data after 12 p.m. EST. edit during the day 
directly on the typewriter, then feed the 
edited copy back to Chicago for his com- 
ments. 

Using the Source's electronic mailbox, 
we can exchange ideas and incorporate 
them into the manuscript file. About once 
every two weeks, we make telephone 
contact for some comments, then turn 
back to the computers as the finished copy 
files elecronically between Tampa and 
Chicago. □ 



CMCi*) lab presents 

(Uriuun 



HEAR YE! HEAR YE! 




NEW FOR THE APPLE 



Artiiatn 

By Dan and Marilyn Meller 



Gather round ye Knights and Ladies. 
Behold! I tell ye of a new game written 
by Sir Dan and Lady Marilyn Meller. 
One encounters a challenging test of 
skill that only the bravest should at- 
tempt. The consequences are dire. 

I know thou hast seen games played on 
wooden boards before. While this 
game has a board divided into hex 
shapes, it cannot be played on a table 
top! This one is played only on an 
Apple. It is a new game — of a type you 
have never before seen. Fierce mon- 
sters of types you have heard spoken 
of, but never dreamed you would look 
upon, appear lifelike before your very 
eyes. 

APRIL 1981 



In the Kingdom of Arthain, the good 
King lies dying. His sons, Princes Bert- 
hain and Merthain, previously ban- 
ished, have been summoned. The one 
who successfully fords the stream, 
crossing through hexes of forests and 
lakes to find the proper passage to the 
underground mountain hall where the 
crown lays, could win the Kinghood. He 
must accumulate gold to buy the map 
to aid him on this dangerous journey. 
Monsters are lurking everywhere. But 
take heed and listen to my wise coun- 
sel. A new more powerful and danger- 
ous creature guards the Crown. The 
prince who tries to get the crown must 
have much experience along with a 
high defense and attack factor. Magi- 
cal aids he encounters along the way 
will help. 

This one or two player high res color 
adventure can be played on twenty skill 
levels. While almost any knave can win 
the crown at the easier skill levels, only 
the most practiced nobleman can win 

107 



at the highest levels. One must be a 
skillful and expert swordsman to win 
the Kinghood at Level 1. He must be 
prepared to thrust, hack, or shield his 
weapon at any moment or be mer- 
cilessly destroyed. Only the alert and 
clear-headed will succeed. Go with 
God. 

Make haste if you wish to see this high 
res adventure game at your Apple 
dealer. One needs any Apple computer 
with 48K and Applesoft in ROM. The 
"Crown of Arthain'' is priced at $35. 



"~ systems 

that work 

3218 Skokie Valley Road • Highland Park. IL 60035 
312/433-7550 
CIRCLE 152 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



The Osborne 1 



The Design 

Lee Felsenstein has done it again. Once 
you get used to a word processing system, 
it is not easy to go back to the dark ages of 
writing with pencil and paper. But on an 
airplane, what choice do you have? 

Now. it appears there is a choice. The 
Osborne l is a self-contained portable 
system that can run for three to five hours 
on an optional battery pack. Weighing 
just 20 pounds and measuring 18" x 13" x 
8" it fits (barely) under an airline seat. 

Felsenstein's design is based around a 
Z-80 MPU with 64K of memory (RAM) 
and a separate, partitioned ROM containing 
the operating system. A 5" CRT monitor 
is built-in although a 9" monitor is available 
as an optional extra. The monitor displays 
24 lines of 50 characters. However, the 
display is actually a "window" on a longer 
128-character line. 

A dual floppy disk drive is built-in with 
packing of I00K per disk. A thoughtful 
touch is an included storage compartment 
for extra disks. 

Two interfaces are provided: RS232C 
and IEEE 488 which should handle virtually 
every type of printer, plotter or external 
peripheral. A modem with acoustic coupler 
plugs into a special jack. 

Hardware without software might as well 
be a boat anchor. Obviously Osborne doesn't 
want his systems used for boat anchors as 
standard software includes CP/M. t "Basic . 
WordStar and MailMerge. There is also a 
package similar to VisiCalc. 

Felsenstein has grown up in this field 
and knows it from manufacturer to retailer 
to customer. Nowhere has he demonstrated 
his concern for the customer better than 
in the concept of swap-out maintenance. 
Under normal circumstances, the customer 
can run a diagnostic, isolate a problem, 
pull the faulty board or module and swap 
it for a good one. 

Options include the 9" monitor mentioned 
above, an acoustic coupler, and a battery 
pack good for three to five hours per 
charge. 

The system is aimed, obviously, at the 
business professional, but our bet is that it 
will find a much wider market than that. 
Especially considering that the base price 
is $ 1 595 — at least $800 less than a similarly 
configured Apple not to mention the 
portability, CP/M software and expected 
high reliability. 

For more information, write Osborne 
Computer Corp.. 2650 Corporate Ave.. 
Hay ward. CA 94545 or check 273 on the 
Reader Service Card. 




Ailum ()\ht>rne pt>\es with tits latest venture, the Oshnrne I 



Some Related History 

Last Time Around With Lee Felsenstein 

David H. AM 



It was a particularly miserable night in 
November 1976. The rain which had started 
early that Friday morning was still coming 
down in sheets buffeted by a gusty wind. 
The temperature was hovering just above 
freezing causing a dense fog. Between the 
fog. rain and wind, driving was hazardous 
and slow. 

Nevertheless, drive I did to meet Lee 
Felsenstein at Newark Airport. Lee was 
hopping around the country to each of the 
five major personal computing magazines, 
each of which were being given a SoI-20 
computer for evaluation. Creative was the 
third stop, and what a stop it was! 

After I met Lee at the passenger terminal. 
we drove (or should I say boated) to the 
air freight depot to pick up the Sol which 
had been previously shipped by Processor 
Technology. But. alas, no Sol was there. 

Many phone calls later. Lee determined 



that the plane carrying the Sol had been 
diverted to Kennedy. The computer would 
arrive in Newark the next day by truck. 
That was fine with me. It was 10 p.m. and 
by the time we got back to Morristown in 
that weather it would be 1 1 p.m. plus. 

But that was not okay with Lee. He was 
on a schedule and couldn't afford an extra 
day in New Jersey. So off we set for 
Kennedy. Hours later we found the correct 
air freight depot, convinced them that we 
were the rightful recipients of the shipment 
and set off for Morristown. 

The rain had let up. but the fog persisted, 
making it a long trip home. Finally, at 2 
a.m.. out came the most compact and well- 
engineered computer I had ever seen. 
Compared to the Altair. Imsai and SWTPC 
kits we had recently assembled, here, indeed 
was a giant improvement. Keyboard. CPU. 
memory and five expansion slots all in one 



108 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 






DYNACOMP I 

Quality software for\- 



BUSINESS and UTILITIES 



ATARI 

PET 

APPLE II Plus 



TRS-SO (Level II) 
NORTH STAR 
CP/M 8" Disk 



GAMES. SIMULATIONS, EDUCATION 
MISCELLANEOUS 

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Osborne, continued 



case plus a built-in operating system or. as 
Processor Technology called it. "personality 

module." 

Lee had a bit of trouble getting it going 
because 1 didn't have a monitor and my 
Pixieverter RF modulator was powered 
by the 8V power supply in the Altair. By 3 
a.m.. we had kluged together a makeshift 
arrangement and were finally "on the air." 
Over the years I've kept in touch with 
Lee and he's written an occasional piece 
for Creative Computing. About two years 
ago he told me about a "dream" computer 
he designed for Processor Technology to 
be the replacement for the Sol-20. 
Unfortunately a few months later PTCo 
closed their doors and Lee's computer never 
got into production. 

Now. through the happy marriage of 
the management of Adam Osborne, the 
venture capital of Jack Melchor (Rolm 
Corp. etc.). and a completety new design 
from Lee. we have the Osborne 1. 

We're looking forward to getting one 
for evaluation in an upcoming issue. But 
this time. I'm going to insist that it be 
delivered to Morristown! 

Footnote: Our Sol-20 is one of the most 
reliable computers we have. It has been in 
constant use for four years. Hooked to a 
PTCo Helios floppy disk system and 
SelectraTerm. it is the principal word 
processing system used by Editor Betsy 
Staples and our retail sales department. 



The Philosopl 

Adam Osborne 



According to Adam Osborne the 
success he projects for the Osborne 1 
will be attributable to its unique design. 
Here we find some of the philosophy 
behind that design. 



After examining the small computers 
currently available and the marketing 
strategies of the companies that make them. 
I came to the conclusion that what we do 
not need are close copies of existing 
products. We do not need more powerful 
and more expensive microcomputers. What 
we need is a major price breakthrough. 
We need a microcomputer with the capabil- 
ities of existing products, but with a much 
lower price tag. Such a machine. I decided, 
can be built if we discard old design habits, 
inherited from the world of minicomputers 
and the days of expensive electronic logic. 
We need a simple microcomputer that 
does a large number of straightforward 
tasks, without offering expansion capabilities 
that will let you grow into a big system. If 
you need more computing power, you can 
buy another computer. 

We need a portable microcomputer, so 
why not build a microcomputer system in 
a briefcase? 

We need a microcomputer that uses 



industry standard operating systems and 
programming languages. We need a micro- 
computer with a lot of useful software 
packages that work as a group. What is 
[he use of an electronic spread sheet 
program that is utterly incompatible with 
a word processor, which in turn is totally 
at odds with business packages? That, after 
all . is the state of affairs on most microcom- 
puters sold today. 

What we need is a machine that gives 
the budding software entrepreneur a 
chance: a machine that sells in very high 
volume, at low cost, running CP/M and 
using popular dialects of Basic. We need a 
machine that provides the entrepreneur 
with a customer base and an environment 
that offers protection from piracy and theft. 
We need a microcomputer manufacturer 
who realizes that his existence depends on 
the good will and cooperation of software 
vendors at large. 

We need a microcomputer manufacturer 
who will offer a product with a discount 
schedule that makes it feasible for retailers 
to sell the product and make a profit. 

In all my microcomputer industry 
endeavors I have tried to make sure that 
my customers got a quality product and 
honest support. 1 believe I have met these 
objectives at Osborne Computer Corpora- 
tion. 




The Osborne I features a standard keyboard. 5" monitor and dual floppy disk drives- in a case that 
qualifies as airline carry-on baKgaite. 



110 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Economic and 
Ecology Simulations 



The Ecology Simulations 
series are a unique educational 
tool They are based on 
"simulation models" developed 
by the Huntington Two 
Computer Project at the State 
University of New York at Stony 
Brook under the direction of Dr 
Ludwig Braun The programs 
and accompanying document- 
ation are written for self- 
teaching or classroom use and 
include background material, 
sample exercises and study 
guides Graphic displays were 
specially developed by Jo Ann 
Comito at SUNY and Ann 




Corngan at Creative Com- 
puting The Ecology Simula- 
tions packages are a remarkable 
educational application of 
micro-computers 



Ecology Simulations-1, CS-3201 (16K) 



1. Pop 

The POP series of models 
examines three differeni 
methods of population 
projection, including exponen- 
tial. S-shaped or logistical, and 
logistical with low density 
effects At the same time the 
programs introduce the concept 
of successive refinement of a 
model, since each POP model 
adds more details than the 
previous one 

2. Sterl 

STERL allows you to 
investigate the effectiveness of 
two different methods of pest 
control— the use of pesticides 
and the release of sterile males 
into the fly population The 
concept of a more environ- 
mentally sound approach 
versus traditional chemical 



v\\ 



-. .J. .v. 



methods is introduced In 
addition. STERL demonstrates 
the effectiveness of an 
integrated approach over either 
alternative by itself 



3. Tag 

TAG simulates the tagging 
and recovery method that is 
used by scientists to estimate 
animal populations You 
attempt to estimate the bass 
population in a warm-water, 
bass-bluegill farm pond 
Tagged fish are released in the 
pond and samples are recovered 
at timed intervals By presenting 
a detailed simulation of real 
sampling by "tagging and 
recovery." TAG helps you to 
understand this process 

4. Buffalo 

BUFFALO simulates the 
yearly cycle of buffalo 
population growth and decline, 
and allows you to investigate the 
effects of different herd 
management policies Simula- 
tions such as BUFFALO allow 
you to explore "What if" 
questions and experiment with 
approaches that might be 
disastrous in real life 



Ecology Simulations-2, CS-3202 (16K) 



Ordering Information 



The series is designed for the 16K TRS-80 Level II and is 
attractively packaged in a vinyl binder with a complete study guide 
Ecology Simulations- 1 disk CS-3501 . cassette 3201. Ecology 
Simulations- 1 1 disk CS-3502, cassette CS-3202. Social and 
Economic Simulations: disk CS-3508. cassette CS-3204. At a 
modest $24 95 each, the series is an affordable necessity. 
To order, send payment plus $2.00 for one, $3.00 for two or 
more for shipping and handling to Creative Computing 
Software, Dept. ACGG, P.O. Box 789-M, Morristown, NJ 
07960 For Faster Service, call in your order toll-free to our 
order hotline 800-631-8112. In NJ call 201-540-0445. 



1. Pollute 

POLLUTE focuses on one 
part of the water pollution 
problem; the accumulation of 
certain waste materials in 
waterways and their effect on 
dissolved oxygen levels in the 
water You can use the 
computer to investigate the 
effects of different variables 
such as the body of water, 
temperature, and the rate of 
dumping waste material 
Various types of primary and 
secondary waste treatment, as 
well as the impact of scientific 
and economic decisions can be 
examined 

2. Rats 

In RATS, you play the role of a 
Health Department official 
devising an effective, practical 
plant to control rats The plan 
may combine the use of 
sanitation and slow kill and 
quick kill poisons to eliminate a 
rat population It is also possible 
to change the initial population 
size, growth rate, and whether 
the simulation will take place in 



an apartment building or an 
entire city 





3. Malaria 

With MALARIA, you are a 
Health Official trying to control 
a malaria epidemic while taking 
into account financial con- 
siderations in setting up a 
program The budgeted use of 
field hospitals, drugs for the ill. 
three types of pesticides, and 
preventative medication, must 
be properly combined lor an 
effective control program. 

4. Diet 

DIET is designed to explore 
the effect of four basic 
substances, protein, lipids, 
calories and carbohydrates, on 
your diet You enter a list of the 
types and amounts of food eaten 
in a typical day. as well as your 
age. weight, sex. health and a 
physical activity factor DIET is 
particularly valuable in 
indicating how a diet can be 
changed to raise or lower body 
weights and provide proper 
nutrition 



Social and Economic Simulations 
CS-3204 (16K) 



1. Limits 

LIMITS is a micro-com- 
puter version of the well known 
"Limits to Growth" project 
done at MIT. It contains a 
model of the world that is built 
of five subsystems (popula- 
tion, pollution, food supply, 
industrial output, and resource 
usage) linked together by six 
variables: birth rate, death 
rate, pollution generation, re- 
source usage rate, industrial 
output growth rate, and food 
production rate. 

2. Market 

Market allows two or more 
people to play the roles of 
companies who are competing 



for the market for a particular 
product: in this case, bicycles. 
Each player makes market- 
ing decisions quarterly includ- 
ing the production level, the 
advertising budget, and the 
unit price of the product for 
his/her company. 

3. USPop 

USPOP allows the user to 
study many aspects of the 
United States' human demo- 
graphy (population change) 
including population growth, 
age and sex distribution. 
USPOP makes population pro- 
jections and investigates the 
consequences of many differ- 
ent demographic changes. 



APRIL 1981 



111 



*5Thc ^Sorcerer 
5Rea££>ears 




Paul Terrell, left, d e mom tn Uei Ihe Kxidy Socerer. a new £40 bued 

machine, al the AukusI W7N Personal < 'oniputinu Show in Philadelphia. 



In which Paul Terrell brings us up to date 
on the whereabouts of the Exidy Sorcerer. 



David H.Ahl 



Ahl: What happened to Sorcerer? The 
last I knew Exidy still had it. but it was up 
for sale. 

Terrell: We just spun out the computer 
division of Exidy. We formed a California 
Corporation called Exidy Systems Inc. of 
which I am president. We hired Dick Smith, 
the old Dynabyte marketing guy. as vice- 
president of marketing in the new company. 
We are moving into a new 12.000 square- 
foot facility that is two miles from the 
parent company in Sunnyvale. This is a 
total separate entity. The problem we always 
had with computers at Exidy was that coin- 
op games were their first love and they 
didn"t put enough attention, money, etc. 
into the computer side of the business. 

Under this new direction Exidy Systems 
is a subsidiary of Exidy Inc. The new 
company has its own everything. We have 
our own line of credit with the Bank of 
America, we have our own funding and 
there is no game influence involved in the 
computer side of the house any longer. 
Ahl : So the Sorcerer will now be back in 
production? 

Terrell: It never went out of production. 
Over 15.000 machines are installed today. 



We are still shipping to Europe, although 
we have pulled the plug on the U.S market. 
After the Rec-O-Tec deal to purchase the 
computer division from Exidy fell through. 
I put together a licensing program, went 
to Europe in September ( 1980) to sell our 
distributor in Holland and England on the 
concept and they both bought the program. 
The Dutch company . CompuData Systems, 
will begin manufacturing the Sorcerer in 
May. 

Ahl: Will they be supplying all of Europe? 
Terrell: Yes. they are going to be doing 
the production for Europe and we are 
now kx>king for other license opportunities. 
We have a company interested in Hong 
Kong and one in Australia. Out of Sunnyvale 
we will be doing the production and the 
sales for the domestic market. We are 
looking at manufacturing license oppor- 
tunities in Canada. Mexico, etc. We will 
sell them products out of Sunnyvale until 
we get manufacturing operations set up. 
We have a lot of plans, such as a hard 
disk product that we will be announcing 
soon, and some new software. People in 
Europe have had Winchester disks and 
Pascal on the Sorcerer for several months. 



Ahl: A 12.000 square foot facility doesn't 
sound like enough to manufacture the unit. 
Are you subcontracting that? 
Terrell: Yes. for the first six months we 
are going to be buying boards that have 
been stuffed and flow soldered. We will be 
doing the test and assembly of the product 
The main point is to get it away from 
Exidy and under its own roof. 
Ahl: What has happened to the distribution 
since you emphasized the European market 
and let the U.S. market languish to some 
extent? 

Terrell: Basically the original strategy on 
that was based on Pete Kaufman (President 
of Exidy I and I traveling to some shows in 
Europe and looking at the market to see 
how solid it was. We were convinced that 
it was; we liked the payment terms in 
dealing international (letter of credit). As 
soon as you ship the product you get paid. 
We were having some problems with the 
VS. computer store market. A lot of them 
were underfinanced which meant we'd end 
up playing bank for them. It was a good 
business move logo to Europe. Of course. 
Commodore and some other people have 
been successful with it. 



112 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




The plan was that we would come back 
into the VS. market through the office 
equipment distribution channel. We 
expected that by the time we were ready 
I to come back to the U.S. market, we would 
Vhave a proven disk product line, word 



processor packs and small business book- 
keeping software. 

We did go to the office equipment show 
this year and are a member of NOMDA. 
Our show plans in 1981 are the NCC and 
NOMDA shows. 



We are also talking to some people about 
a distribution program for the personal 
computer market, the computer store 
market. But we haven't concluded any 
agreements on that yet. Basically our whole 
focus and thrust is going to be in the office 
equipment, desktop computer direction 
with a display /disk. 4«K Sorcerer and daisy 
wheel printer. It is a systems product. 
Ahl: In the time since the computer was 
introduced the prices have come down on 
many products. Is the Sorcerer still cost 
effective at the price'' 
Terrell: Very cost effective in the office 
equipment market. At the NOMDA show 
m July we showed a $6899 system It 
consisted of a 48K Sorcerer at $1495 a 
S299.S display /disk and a $2 195 daisy wheel 
printer. When dealers saw our product at 
$6899. they couldn't believe that it was a 
complete computer product, that it would 
do bookkeeping as well as word processing. 
We were running it with the word processor 
pack, but they just weren't used to anything 
under SH).(XX) that computes. My feeling 
was that we could have sold as many units 
at $9999 as we could at $6899. In fact it 
may have worked against us. Dealers 
couldn't believe that it would do order 

entry, inventory control, and functions like 
that because they were buying CPT and 
Vydec word processors for $ 1 5.000. □ 



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APRIL 1981 



113 



CQMPUTRQNXCS 

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TRS-90" DISK AND OTHER MYSTERIES 

Over 100 pages of indespensible mlormation lor 
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114 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



•cqnputrqmcs- EVERYTHING 



SO N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 



« APPLE IS A TRAOEMARK OF THE APPLE CORP 



FROM COMPUMAX BUSINESS SYSTEMS 

The COMPUMAX business application! programs are written with the novice 
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COMPUMAX supplies the BASIC source code Thus the programs are easy to modify 

MICROLEDOER 
This General Ledger system performs the essential functions of dual entry bookkeeping 
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MICROLEDGER includes the following programs.: 

LEDGER 1- builds and maintains the CHART OF ACCOUNTS file This tile contains 
both current and accumulated totals for each ajCWOunL 

LEDGER 2 - builds and updates the JOURNAL TRANSACTION I'le 

LEDGER 3 - lists both the the JOURNAL file and the CHART OF ACCOUNTS 

LEDGER 4 - computes the TRIAL BAt ANCE and executes POSTING of lournal trans- 
actions into the CHART OF ACCOUNT ^ An AUDIT TRIAL of all transaction is output 

LEDGER S - produces the PROFIT AND LOSS STATEMENT 

LEDGER 6 - produces the BALANCE SHEET Assets, liabilities and owners equities^ ■"» 

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MICROPAY 
An Accounts Payable system. MICROPAY includes the following program & Junctiona. 

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MICROREC 
An Accounts Receivable system. MICROREC includes the following programs and 

U REC 1 - initializes Accounts Receivable files, adds A/R record and prints invoices 

REC 2 - accepts receipt of customer payments and changes or deletions ol A/R Trans- 
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31-60 days. 61 -90days. and over 90 days 

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REC 6 - lists Transaction and Master tiles and accumulates and |ournalizesAccounts 
Receivables creating JOURNAL entries which communicate with the MICROLEDGER 

JOURNAL tile $140.00 

MICROINV 
This Inventory Control system presents a general method ol Inventory Control and pro- 
duces several important reports Its program includes 

INV 1 - initializes Transaction and Master tiles and adds and updates Transaction and 
Master records .„„_ 

INV 2 - handles inventory issued or received, creating inventory records This program 
also accumulates and journalizes transactions, producing JOURNAL entries which 
communicate with the MICROLEDGER file 

INV 3 - lists both Transaction and Master tiles 

INV 4 - produces the STOCK STATUS REPORT, showing the standard inventory stock 
data and stock valuation, and the ABC ANALYSIS breaking down the inventory into 
groups by frequency ol usage 

INV 5 - gives a JOB COST REPORT/MATERIALS, showing allocation ol materials used 
year-to-date by each |ob or work code (This is complemented by the Job Cost Report/ 
Personnel in the MICROPERS program ) 

INV 6 - computes and provides the E.O.Q (Economic Order Quantities) $140.00 
MICROPERS 

This is a Payroll/Personnel program whose functions include 
PERS 1 - initializes the Master tile and allows for entry and updates ol Master records 
PERS 2 - initializes the Payroll file and allows lor entry and updates ol payroll records 
PERS 3 - lists an Employee Master Record or the entire Employee Master file, lists a 

single Payroll Record or the entire Payroll file , . t . „ . -.„,-■■..-■« 

PERS 4 - computes Payroll and prints the PAYROLL REGISTER Prints PAYCHECKS 

and creates JOURNAL entries to be led into the MICROLEDGER JOURNAL liur 
PERS 5 - produces the JOB COST REPORT/PERSONNEL . computes the quart e rl y 941 

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All COMPUMAX programs available in machine readable lormat (diskette form) tor the 



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TRS-80™ Model I 
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Micropolis 1053/11 
Microsoft under CP/M 
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FROM ADVENTURE INTERNATIONAL (By Scott Adams) 



t 1 



t2 



ADVENTURELANO - You wander through an enchanted world trying to recover 

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t Recommended lor the novice adventurer, with many built-in HELPS' 



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With VisiCalc, you work with an electronic worksheet ol up to 63 columns and 254 
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CCA DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM I74.9S 

DMS Features 

File Creaton and Maintenance 

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• Print reports with records in any order. 

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THE HORSE SELECTOR II (FLATS) (By Dr Hal Davis) $50.00 

New simplified version of the original Horse Selector The first Horse Selection System 

to actually calculate the estimated odds ot each horse 

HIGHER PROFITS (OVER 100%) POSSIBLE THROUGH SELECTIVE BETTING ON 

• Rates each horse in 10 seconds. 

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• Can be used with any Apple II Computer 

■ 100% money back guarantee (returned for any reason) 

• Uses 4 factors (speed rating, track variant, distance ol the present race, distance ot 
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• Using the above factors, the Horse Selector calculates the estimated odds BET on 
horses whose actual payoff (from the Tote Board or Morning Lines) is higher than 
payoff based on estimated odds 

• Using the above factors, the Horse Selector calculates the estimated odds BET on 
any selected horse with an estimated payoff (based on Tote Board or Morning Lines) 
higher than calculated payoff (based on Horse Selector II) 

• Source listing lor the TRS-80- TI-59. HP-67. HP-41. Apple and BASIC Computers 

• No computer or calculator necessary (although a calculator would be helpful for 
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FREE Dutchfng Tablee allows betting on 2 or more horses with a guaranteed profit 



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APRIL 1981 



115 



8«-WX->ADEV75S"CQ<U*«Q3HQl#+. JNM9P. ; %" ! 5=W6=ER«- ' (/CXN<Dl SI 47 1. 



@IJ 



A Ciphering Technique 



Frederick Raab 



Have you ever wanted to keep confiden- 
tial information in the company computer— 
but hesitated because others would be able 
to read it? (And there « always someone 
who knows your log-on code!) The tech- 
nique described here will enable you to 
construct a simple ciphering program based 
on shift-register code generators. While it 
won't keep the CIA and KGB out of your 
confidential files (will anything?), it will 
keep all but the most dedicated of your 
co-workers from making any sense out of 
them. 

The Code Wheel 

If you drank Ovaltine for breakfast in 
the 1940s, chances are you sent in three 
wrappers and became a member of Captain 
Midnight's Secret Squadron. If so. you 
were issued a badge with embossed airplane 
symbols that had a code wheel on the 
front. The letters "A" through "Z" were 
arranged in a circle, and by rotating a 
pointer from one letter to another, you 
could encode or decode messages. 

The code wheel shown in Figure 1 might 
be considered an expansion of Captain 
Midnight's code wheel: this one contains 
a total of 64 symbols: the letters "A" through 
"Z." the numbers "0" through "9," your 
favorite punctuation marks and special 
symbols, and last but not least, the blank. 
Including symbols as well as letters is 
especially important if you want to produce 
an encoded text (cipertext) that looks 
entirely like alphabet soup and has no 
visible resemblance to the original text 
(cleartext). One of the symbols (in my 
program the backslash) will be used for 
special functions, such as carrriage return. 

Frederick H. Raah. 240 Stamford Road. Burling- 
Ion. VT 05401. 



The use of 64 symbols is convenient (64 = 
2 ). but not absolutely necessary, and 
you can expand the wheel as you desire to 
include lower case letters and such other 
symbols as can be read from or written 
into a file. 



Each symbol is associated with an integer 
numerical value between and 63 by its 
position in the wheel. Coding and decoding 
are accomplished by modulo-64 addition 
and subtraction respectively, of a coding 
offset integer P. For example, if P = 20, 




Figure 1 Code wheel. 



116 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Fast Delivery of Good, Easyto.Run Business Programs 



C. CAPEN-FREDERICK 

Director of Franchise 
Training 



On-Llne Mlcrocenters 
'COMPUMAX is a com- 
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company, responsive to 
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AN EXCELLENT 
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LaRob Inc. 

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President 

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Wltconaln Vocational 
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What more is there to say; except: 



COMPUMAX INC., a nationally recognized software 
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P.O. Box 1139, Palo Alto, CA - (415) 321-2881 



GARY JACOBSEN 

Owner/Manager 

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packages and going 

strong ." 



CIRCLE 147 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Ciphering, continued. 



SHIFT REGISTERS 



OUTPUT 



Xo 



> SR1 



SR2 



<Sp 



i SR3 



SR4 



SR5 



*t 



SR6 



x s 



MODULO-2 ADDER 
CORRESPONDING POLYNOMIAL: f(x) = x«©xs©x*©*'©1 



Figure 2. Linear-feedback shift-register generator 



"K" is encoded into "5" by the formula 1 1 
+ 20 = 32. Under the rules of modulo-64 
addition and subtraction, numbers less than 
or more than 63 are mapped back into 
the 0—63 range, thus the "equals" sign is 
encoded into "C" by the formula 47 + 20 
= 67 = 3, given P =20. Similarly, entire 
words or lines of text are encoded ; "cipher" 
becomes "W291 Y" with P = 20 for all six 
symbols. 

The code wheel can be implemented in 
a program by initializing an array with the 
literal (string) symbols. For example: 

INTEGER S(64) 

S(1)='A' 

S(2)="B" 



S(64)=' ' 

The above can be shortened considerably 
by the DATA statement if the program is 
written in Fortran. 

A constant coding offset P produces a 
substitution code in which a given symbol 
is always encoded into the same symbol. 
The trouble with substitution codes is that 
they are very easy to break ; much to my 
dismay, my father was able to decipher 
virtually every message that I encoded 
with my Captain Midnight badge. 

To provide any real security, the coding 
offset P must be a sequence of numbers 
known only to the sender and receiver of 
the message. For example, if P= 10.48.1. 

50. 11. 1. 53 "cipher" becomes 

"M < > V5." One way to accomplish the 
pseudorandom coding offset is to use a 
"one-time pad" containig a sequence of 
random numbers between and 63. Since 
storing the equivalent of a one-time pad is 
neither convenient nor safe, pseudo-random 
number generators are used to produce 
the coding offset. 

Shift-Register Generators 

One means of generating an apparently 
random (pseudorandom) binary sequence 
is the linear-feedback shift-register generator 
(LFSRG). The binary sequences produced 
by these generators are easily converted 



f,( X ) = X'J©X«0X«©X2©1 

f 2 ( X ) = X'*©X"©X»©X8©X7©X5©X2©X©1 

f 3 (X) = X"©X°©X3©X*©1 

f 4 (x) = x'*©x»©x«>©x»©x«©x«©xa©x©1 

f 5 (X) = X'<f)x"©X'°©X'©X 2 ©X©1 

f 8 (x) = x'*©x"©x<K±)x'©x<K+)x !i ©1 

f 7 (X) = X'*©X"©X»©X5©X3©X©1 
f s (X) = X'S©X">©X*©X5©X«©X©1 

These and 1 36 more length-1 2 polynomialscan be 
obtatnedbydeciphering Appendix C in |1| 



into pseudorandom sequences of coding 
offsets for use with the code wheel discussed 
above. 

A hardware implementation of an LFSRG 
is depicted in Figure 2. The output of the 
LFSRG is ( by definition ) the output of the 
last register, SR6. Each clock pulse causes 
the outputs of registers SRI, SR2. ... SR6 
to be shifted to the right. The input Xo to 
the first register is the modulo-2 sum of the 
outputs of a selected set of registers I "taps") 
in the generator. LFSRG operation is easily 
implemented in software; for example, one 
cycle in the operation of the generator of 
Figure 2 is simulated by 

X6=X5 

X5 = X4 

X4 = X3 

X3 = X2 

X2 = X1 

XI = X0 

X0 = MOD2(X6 + X5 + X2 + XI) 

OUTPUT = X6 

The MOD2 function converts normal 
addition to modulo-2 addition by producing 
a when its argument is even and a 1 when 
its argument is odd. For example. Fortran's 
integer division accomplishes this by 

MOD2 = 1 

IF(ARG/2»2.EQ.ARG) MOD2 = . 

Note that ARG, X0. XI. ... X6 must be 
declared to be integers if your program is 
written in Fortran. If you use Basic, the 
MOD2 function can be accomplished by 
truncation and comparison in a manner 
similar to the Fortran integer division. 

Needless to say. at least one of the 
registers in the LFSRG must be initialized 
with a 1 or the generator will produce only 
an unending sequence of zeros. (Similarly, 
if an all-zeros state ever occurs in the course 
of operation, only zeros will be generated 
from then on.) If there are n registers in 
the generator, the number of different 
nonzero states of the generator, hence the 
maximum possible length of the binary 
sequence before repetition is 

118 



Table 1. Examples of length-12 primitive polynomials. 



1 = 2 n - 1 

A 6-register generator can therefore pro- 
duce sequences up to 63 bits long, while a 
12-register generator can produce sequences 
up to 4095 bits long. 

The length of the sequence produced 
by an LFSRG depends upon the particular 
set of feedback taps (inputs to the modulo- 

2 adder) used. The set of taps can be 
associated with the terms of a modulo-2 
polynomial, as shown in Figure 2. An 
LFSRG that produces a maximal-length 
sequence Im-sequence) is associated with 
a primitive polynomial, which is to poly- 
nomials as a prime number is to integers. 
The what, why. and how of primitive 
polynomials is buried in the depths of 
abstract algebra. Fortunately, the reader 
who is uninterested in this form of witchcraft 
can simply consult published tables of 
polynomials and program the taps accor- 
dingly. Some examples of length- 1 2 primitive 
polynomials are given in Table 1. 

Since an m-sequence produces all possible 
states of the generator, the initial state of 
the generator determines the timing or 
phase of the sequence, rather than what 
sequence will be produced. If there are 
Lmax elements in the sequence, there are 
Lniaxdifferent initializations. The generators 
in a ciphering program are initialized by 
keywords known only to the user. 

The reader should note that the program 
that simulates an LFSRG need not actually 
use n program variables and perform n 
actual transfers. The bits in a single integer 
variable can represent the outputs of each 
register in the generator: for example, the 
state of the generator of Figure 2 can be 
represented by 

Y = 32'X1 + 16»X2+... + 2»X5 + X6 

Shifting is accomplished by integer (or 
truncated) division 



Y = Y/2 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



WE WILL NOT BE UNDERSOLD 



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Ciphering, continued. 



LFSRG #1, L = 4095 




STEP 1 




STEP 4095 




STEP 8189 



LFSRG #2, L = 4094 




STEP 4094 




STEP 8188 




STEP 8190 



Figure 3. Length of product sequence. 



Output and feedback information is pro- 
duced by bit testing, which can be imple- 
mented by truncation or integer division 
as a library function is not available. The 
input to SRI is then inserted into the first 
register by 

Y = Y + 32»MOD2(ARG) 



Product Codes 

One way of obtaining longer pseudo- 
random sequences is to use a longer LFSRG . 
Another way is to take the modulo-2 sum 
of two or more sequences. The result is 
called a product sequence because its 
polynomial is the product of the polynomials 



of the two sequences that were added. 
The curious reader may wonder how two 
codes of the same length can be added bit- 
by-bit to produce a code of greater length. 
In fact, the two sequences that are added 
must have different lengths to produce a 
product code with a greater length. 

It is generally quite difficult to devise a 
set of feedback connections that produce 
a pseudorandom sequence of an arbitrary 
length. However, a shift-register generator 
can be short-cycled to produce an arbitrarily 
shorter sequence. Short-cycling circuitry 
or software simply detects a specified state 
of the registers and then advances the 
generator by one or more states. Suppose 
that the taps of a 12-register generator are 

120 



connected to produce a maximal-length 
sequence <L = 4095). and that the states of 
the generator are represented by integer 
values Y = 2488. 3237, 3284. 1224. 0199. 
... , 2488, ... Short-cycling the generator by 
one step is accomplished in software by 
adding a statement such as 
IF(Y.EQ.3284) Y = 1224 
just ahead of the output step. The modified 
generator then produces the sequence 

Y= 2488. 3237. 1224. 0199 2488 

whose length is 4094. 

The precession of the epochs (starting 
points) of two different sequences (i.e.. 
sequences based upon different polynomials 
of the same length) with different lengths 
(produced by short-cycling one of the 
generators) causes the product sequence 
to have a length greater than that of either 
component sequence. Figure 3 illustrates 
the precession by representing the sequence 
phase of the codes produced by two 12- 
register generators by consecutive numbers 
from 1 to 4095; note that the sequence 
phase numbers are not the same as the 
state number Y used earlier. At step I, 
both generators have (by definition) phase 
1. Some 4093 steps later (step 4094). both 
generators have phase 4094. At step 4095, 
however, the short cycling in generator 
#2 advances it to phase 1 . while generator 
#1 advances normally to phase 4095. 
Another 4093 steps later, we find generator 
m at phase 4093 and generator #2 at 
phase 4094. At the next step, short cycling 
again advances generator #2 an extra 
increment, putting it two phase increments 
ahead of generator # 1 . 

This process continues until the phase 
of generator #2 has advanced 4094 incre- 
ments ahead of the phase of generator # 1 . 
At that point, both generators cycle into 
phases of the same step and are therefore 
realigned. The length of this product 
sequence is therefore 

L p = L, L 2 =4095.4094*I6.8-10 6 

Similarly, any number of generators can 
be short-cycled to produce sequences whose 
lengths are slightly different and contain 
no common factors. For example, my 
program uses four different 12-register 
generators. Three of the LFSRGs are short- 
cycled to produce sequence lengths of 
4094. 4093 and 4092. The product sequence 
obtained by modulo-2 summation of the 
four outputs has a length of 
Lp = 4095»4094«4O93«4O92 * 28M0 12 . 

Implementing the Program 

The preceding discussions have suggested 
how the code wheel and the shift-register 
sequence generators can be implemented 
in software. The following discussion gives 
suggestions for implementing other parts 
of the ciphering/deciphering program. The 
use of separate files for cleartext and 
ciphertext is assumed. 

A pseudorandom coding offset integer 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 






Find Your Way Around 
The New Apple DOS 
With The Dakin5 
Programming Aids 3.3 



Dakin5 Corporation, a Colorado software house, is making 
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Apple is a registered trademark <>i Apple ( ompun 



The Diskette Copy is a diskette-to-diskette copy program 
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ihr i onrroHci * j registered trademark ot DjkmS ( orporatioii 



0AKIN5 
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CIRCLE 125 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Ciphering, continued. 



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CD • T3V.F)2' (IJIUS e » ;et1 v. HF)OUI3N|-? J »)-:\<?«SG/I 



FiKure 4. I x.i in pU- ciphertext file. 



between and 6.^ is easily obtained from 
six sequential output bits from the binary 
code generator by 

P = 32*B1 + 16*B2 + ... + B6 
Encoding of a symbol from the cleartext 
file is accomplished by first matching it to 
Si J i. thereby obtaining index J. and then 
computing and writing S(MOD2(P + J) ) 
to the ciphertext file. Decoding is similarly 
accomplished by matching the ciphertext 
symbol to S(K) to find index K and then 
writing S(MOD2(K - P ) ) to the cleartext 
file. 

The reader may now be asking what 
real good is accomplished by having a 
ciphering program in his or her directory 
that can presumably be used by anyone 
having access to the ciphertext files. The 
trick is to use keywords to initialize the 
shift-register generators. As with mechanical 
locks— everyone knows where they are 
and how to use them, but only you have 
the key. If your code generator produces 
a sequence 281»10 12 bits long, it can be 
started in 28M0 12 different places and 
can produce 281»1() 12 different alphabet 
soups from the same cleartext file. Needless 
to say. there are therefore 2N1»10 12 possible 
keywords. 

Keywords are not the sort of thing you 
want to list in a file— any more than you 
leave your door keys hanging beside the 
door. I find it easier to remember a short 
alphanumeric sequence than a longer 
numerical sequence. The code wheel 
symbol table can be used to convert an 
alphanumeric keyword into sequences of 
bits that initialize the LFSRGs. It is con- 
venient to use a compatible number of 
symbols and number of registers. For 
example, one symbol of the 64 in the code 
wheel of Figure 1 specifies six bits and 
therefore initializes six registers in an 
LFSRG. Two alphanumeric symbols there- 
fore initialize one 12-register generator and 
eight symbols initialize a code generator 
employing four 12-register generators. 
Remember that an adjacent pair of blanks 
(Figure 1 ) may initialize one of the genera- 
tors to an all-zeros state, thereby effectively 



disabling it. (I included software to check 
for this and issue a warning if it occurred.) 
One can simply substitute a ciphertext 
symbol in place of a cleartext symbol 
without changing the format. However, as 
with Captain Midnight's badge, the format 
of the ciphertext then gives even the casual 
observer a pretty good clue about what 
the cleartext is (computer program, check- 
book, letter, etc.). I therefore use a pair of 
buffers to reformat the cleartext before 
encoding and after decoding. Cleartext is 



The curious reader may 
wonder how two codes 

of the same length 

can be added bit-by-bit 

to produce a code of 

greater length. 



read into the first buffer with backslashes 
( \ ) separating different lines. When the 
buffer is full, it is encoded and written to 
the ciphertext file. The unencoded portion 
of the first buffer is then shifted left and 
the next line of cleartext read into the 
buffer to the right of the remaining unen- 
coded data. The resultant ciphertext (Figure 
4) is line after line of 72-symbol alphabet 
soup, regardless of the format of the clear- 
text. 

Decoded ciphertext is similarly first 
placed in one of the buffers to the right of 
previously decoded text. When a backslash 
is detected, the contents of the buffer to 
the left of the backslash are written to the 
cleartext file as a single line. The unwritten 
portion of the buffer (to the right of the 
backslash) is then shifted left and the next 
line of ciphertext is decoded and placed to 
its right in the buffer. 

All symbols in my code wheel are com- 



patible with almost any file read and write 
statements. Symbols such as TAB (control 
I) or BELL (control G) are simply passed 
without encoding or decoding: the alter- 
natives are aborting the program or expan- 
ding the codewheel. Long strings of blanks 
occur frequently in many types of cleartext 
and facilitate breaking the code. My 
program therefore replaces a string of N 
blanks with \N \ . where N is a two-digit 
integer. If this option is used, the carriage- 
return symbol becomes \\ . rather than 
\ . You may wish to devise a few special 
procedures to suit your particular clear- 
text. 

How Safe Is It? 

If you are going to use a ciphering 
technique to protect your confidential data 
from the eyes of your co-workers, you 
should know in advance how safe it really 
is. Consider first the monkey-at-the- 
keyboard approach to breaking the code 
in which all possible alphanumeric keywords 
are eventually tried. If it takes one second 
to make a decision whether the deciphered 
text is alphabet soup or useful information . 
it will take 1/2»28M0 12 seconds or 4.45 
million years to have tried half of the possible 
keywords and thereby have a 50-50 chance 
of having deciphered the information. The 
utility of the 8-character keyword for 
keeping the passively curious out of your 
data is immediately obvious. 

Someone with determination, program- 
ming ability, and a smattering of abstract 
algebra can do somewhat better. Suppose 
that corresponding sequences of eight 
symbols in both the clear text and ciphertext 
are known to the would-be codebreaker. 
The differences between corresponding 
symbols produces a sequence of eight coding 
offsets, hence 8*6 sequential binary outputs 
of the pseudorandom sequence generator. 
If the sequence generator employed a single 
48-register LFSRG. these 48 bits would 
initialize it and it could be moved forward 
and backward to decipher the rest of the 
text. 

It is not quite that simple if the sequence 
generator uses four 12-register LFSRGs. 
Abstract algebra must be used to convert 
the 48 sequential bits into four sets of 12 
bits to initialize the four individual LFSRGs. 
In addition, the would-be codebreaker 
probably does not know exactly where in 
the text a particular sequence occurs. He 
or she must therefore assume that some 
sequence of eight characters (e.g.. 
WRITE! 10. CHECK NO ) occurs and is 
followed by another machine-recognizable 
sequence (e.g.. FORMAT* .BALANCE). 
The would-be codebreaker must then write 
a program that assumes that the first 
sequence occurs at a particular location, 
derives the coding offset sequence, initializes 
the code generator, and deciphers up to a 
preset portion of the subsequent ciphertext. 
If the second sequence shows up in the 
deciphered text, the probability is very 



122 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




Great software doesn't 
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Just look for 

the Hayden name. 



SOFTWARE 



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Ciphering, continued... 



Tales from the Crypt 



Dear Editor: 

1 read with interest the article on Cryptography by N.B. 
Winkless in the May 1980 edition of Creative Compittiiif;. 
However, I think young Stan has a lot to learn if he wishes to 
protect his messages against attack by modern cryptanalysts. 

The pseudo-random generator method of encryption is open 
to fairly easy attack. Stan assumes that it is necessary to find 
the "seed" he used for encrypting his message, but this is not 
the case. To see why. it is necessary to look at the methods 
used for generating random numbers. One common technique 
is to use the formula 
R n , i = (a R n + c) mod m 

where a. c and m are constants and R n and R n • 1 are 
successive random numbers. These constants must be carefully 
chosen if the sequence generated is to have suitable random 
properties. 

Let us suppose the pseudo-random generator used in Stan's 
computer is of this form and has the values 

a=24298 

c=9991 

m=199017 

but we don't know the seed Rq selected by Stan. It would 
appear that we may need to try up to 199017 seeds before we 
can crack the code, but things aren't as bad as that. If we 
intercept a message from Stan of about 200 characters (2 or 3 
sentences) we can proceed with our cryptanalysis as follows. 

Firstly we pick a trial "seed" R„ and test it against the string 
of encrypted characters. If nothing meaningful emerges we try 
again with the same R x but starting with the second character 
in the string. We carry on until the message is deciphered or we 
get within five or six characters of the end (we need a few 
characters to recognize a successful decipherment). If this 
fails we repeat the whole procedure with another value of R x ■ 

It might seem that an enormous number of values of R x 
need be tried before we succeed, but the number need not be 
that large. 

The probability of failing with one value of R 

-(, 195 > 
- (1 " 199017 » 

and the probability of failing with n values of R 

3(1. 195 .»n 

" 199017 ■' 
For n = 1000 probability of failure = .375 
For n = 3000 probability of failure = .053 

Thus with only 3000 tries we have a 95% chance of success. 
The situation improves with longer messages. If the message 
length is 1000 characters then 
For n = 600 probability of failure = .049 

Obviously decryption can be made more difficult with a 
larger value of m, but given a reasonably long string the task is 
still manageable. 



A computer can carry out the tests very rapidly and filter 
out unlikely answers based on letter distribution, impossible 
pairs of letters, etc. This can reduce human intervention to a 
minimum. 

Only one problem remains. Having found a starting seed in 
the middle of the string, how can we work backward to the 
beginning of the string? 

The method requires finding the inverse of "a", i.e. we want 
an integer i such that 
a x i mod m = 1 

This can be solved using continued fractions (interesting in 
their own right). For the values a and m in the example i ■ 
45319. 

To illustrate how this can be used suppose R n =15 then 
R |W1 = (15 x 24298 + 991 ) mod 199017 = 175444 
To go back we use i 
Rn = ((175444-9991) x 45319) mod 199017= 15 

Stan has a further problem: namely, what seed does he use 
for his next message? 

1 ) Continue from where he left off. 

2) Start again with the same seed 

3) Use a completely new seed. 

If he chooses option ( I ) then all he is doing is extending the 
effective message length, aiding decryption. 

If he takes option (2i he is in even worse trouble. An 
interceptor could line up the two messages and subtract one 
from the other modulo 26. which would remove the random 
coding and combine the two messages into what is called a 
running key code. Suppose the nth characters in the two 
messages were X and A respectively and the encoding character 
R. 

Then the relevant encoded characters are 
Message 1. X + R = P 
Message 2. A + R = S 

When subtracted we get 
(X + R)-(A + R) = X-A = W 
and we can see (hat R has been removed. 

We now have two plaintext strings subtracted from each 
other and if we know one we can determine the other. The 
messages can now be deciphered by trying common words in 
each position of one message and seeing what this produces in 
the other. We can then extend both messages bit by bit until 
the two messages have been extracted. 

So. in practice. Stan is left with only one option (3) and he 
runs into a major problem of cryptography — "key distribution" 
i.e. how do you get your key ("seed") to the other end without 
risk? 

Stan might do well to look into the iatest approach to 
encryption — namely, public key encryption -- but that is another 
story.— Mike Bennett. 36 A Bedford Rd. Northwood. Middlesex, 
England HA6 2AZ. 



high that the code has been broken. If it 
doesn't show up in the allowed number of 
symbols, the program must shift the location 
of the first sequence and try again. Needless 
to say. this technique takes some time and 
determination on the part of the would-be 
codebreaker. Pilfering your desk should 
prove somewhat easier. 

If you're still worried about the would- 
be codebreakers. you can complicate the 
ciphering program in several ways: ( 1 ) Use 
one additional random sequence generator 
to insert symbols produced by another 



additional random sequence generator at 
random locations in the ciphertext. (2) 
Use substitution codes before and/or after 
encoding by the pseudorandom sequence 
generator: the difficulty here is the length 
of the keywords that specify the substitution 
codes. (3) Include nonlinear operations 
(jumps, multiplications, changes in tap 
connections) in the shift-register generators. 
(4) Use the NBS data encryption algorithm, 
which is based on different principles. 

In any case, the technique described 
here should allow you to construct a 

124 



ciphering program that will keep almost 
everyone out of your files. Exploring 
improved variations can keep you busy 
for years to come. rj 

References 

1. W. W. Peterson. / rmr < omcting Codes. (New 
V.»rk: John Wiley and Sons. 1961). 

2. S.W. Ootomb, Shift-KiaiMrr Scqucn.-es. (San 
Franciico: HoMen-Day, Inc., I4ft7i. 

V // / / ( r>ntmunutitt<>n\ Society Mattazine. vol. 

10, no. 6, November 1978 (several papen). 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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Saucer Shoot 



Ralph White 



The accompanying Saucer Shoot pro- 
gram, written in Radio Shack Level II 
Basic, demonstrates that those of us not 
experienced in machine language need 
not be limited to static displays. We too 
can provide movement and animation to 
bring our screens to life. It also dispels 
the notion that an educational program 
must be dull. 

The program mixes the environment of 
a TV arcade game with percentage prob- 
lems. The result, which is used in a junior 
high classroom, helps make percentage 
drill problems palatable. Even the most 
unmotivated child likes to play games. By 
camouflaging the purpose of the pro- 
gram, perhaps we can convince an other- 
wise unwilling student to work problems 
that would normally be untouched. 

Saucer Shoot is written for two players 
to compete against each other. The com- 
puter is a neutral nonparticipant. It ran- 
domly thinks of problems to befuddle the 
players and does the housekeeping 
chores required to referee the game. 

The program combines competition, 
animation and CAI to achieve its pur- 
pose—which is that the players will 
become better aquainted with percent- 
age problems without experiencing the 
drudgery. 

The computer alternately presents the 
players with problems. Each player may 
choose any one of five levels of difficulty 
for each turn. If the question is answered 
correctly, the player gets to shoot at 
flying saucers. The number of shots is 
directly related to the level of difficulty 
chosen. A player gets one shot for choos- 
ing a level 1 (easiest) question, two shots 
for a level 2 question, on up to five shots 
for successfully answering a level 5 (hard- 
est) question. If the question is not 

Ralph G. While. 529 South Vermont. Columbus. 
KS 66725. 




answered correctly, the correct answer 
will be displayed and then play will pass 
to the other player. The first player to 
shoot down ten flying saucers wins. 

After a player answers a question, a 
little head will rise up from the proper 
gun emplacement, turn, look at the 



18 



answer, and nod "yes" or "no" in re- 
sponse to whether the answer is right or 
not. If the answer is correct then the 
player is allowed to shoot at flying 
saucers that move across the screen. The 
saucers fly at various heights, and may 
appear on either side of the screen. Only 
one shot at each saucer is allowed. When 
a saucer is hit. it explodes and shatters 
into pieces. 

Animation is provided by a series of 
strings that are comprised of graphics 
characters. There are 28 different strings 
that are needed to supply movement of 
the heads and fourteen strings that create 
the flying saucers and explosions. This 
procedure of printing strings of graphics 
characters rather than employing the 
SET and RESET commands increases 
the speed of the graphics to the point that 
smooth animation is possible. □ 



10 CLS:CLEAR<400>:DL=20 
12 DIMH*':30),S*C15> 

15 BL*<1>= BL*<2>=" 

26 Pa >=919:P(2>=929:A*a>="< ":A*(2>=" >" 

25 TL*= "»*»«»*«««««#«#««" 

50 PRINTCHR*< 23.-: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT: PRINTTL*;TL* 

52 PRINTTABdO.) "SAUCER SHO0T":PPINT:PRINTTAB< 11 > "PERCENTAGE" :PPINT 

54 PRINTTL*STL* 

100 GOSUB 10000 

2 £% £k^i^ T 2 B< ! 0> "! ALICER SHOO T":PRINTTAB<26>"INSTRUCTI0NS":PRINT 

210 PRINT"THE PROBLEMS IN THIS PROGRAM ASK YOU TO FIND THE PERCENT OF A" 

215 PR I NT "NUMBER. THERE ARE 5 LEVELS OF DIFFICULTY. YOU CHOOSE THE ONE" 

220 PRINT"YOU WISH Cl-EASIEST : 5-HARDEST). IF YOU ANSWER THE QUESTION" 

225 PRINT"COPRECTLY, YOU GET TO SHOOT AT FLYING SAUCERS. THE NUMBER OF" 

230 PRINT"SHOTS YOU GET DEPENDS ON WHICH LEVEL OF DIFFICULTY IS CHOSEN. " 

235 PRINT-LEVEL 1 ALLOWS YOU ONE SHOT, LEVEL 2 GETS TWO SHOTS AND SO ON. 

240 PRINT"THE FIRST PLAYER TO SCORE TEN HITS IS THE WINNER. ' 

241 PRINT"TO SHOOT AT THE SPACE SHIPS PRESS THE SPACE BAR. YOU GET ONE" 

242 PRINT"SHOT AT EACH SAUCER. ": PRINT 

245 INPUT "WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE FIRST PLAYER ":N*(1> 

246 IFLEN<N*a^<10GOTO250 

247 PRINT"NAME TOO LONG. 10 LETTERS OR LESS, PLEASE": G0T0245 

250 INPUT "WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE SECOND PLAYER ";N*<2> 

251 IFLEN<:N*<2>X10GOTO260 

252 PRINT"NAME TOO LONG. 10 LETTERS OR LESS. PLEASE ": GOTO2S0 
260 CLS 

506 FORI=0TO4l:SET(0+I,42>:SET(80+I,42):NEXT 

510 FORI=0TO4: SET<0, 43+1 ):SET<1, 43+1 >:SET<40, 43+1 >:SET<41, 43+1 >:SET<80,43+I>: SET 

<81, 43+1 >:SET< 120, 43+1 >ISET< 121, 43+1 >«NEXT 

700 P«RND<2> 



126 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



The Sinclair ZX80 is innovative and powerful. 
Now there's a magazine to help you get 
the most out of it. 



Get in 
sync 



SYNC magazine is different from other 
personal computing magazines. Not just 
different because it is about a unique 
computer, the Sinclair ZX80 (and kit ver- 
sion, the MicroAce). But different be- 
cause of the creative and innovative phi- 
losophy of the editors. 

A Fascinating Computer 

The ZX80 doesn t have memory map- 
ped video. Thus the screen goes blank 
when a key is pressed To some review- 
ers this is a disadvantage To our editors 
this is a challenge. One suggested that 
games could be written to take advan- 
tage of the screen blanking. For exam- 
ple, how about a game where characters 
and graphic symbols move around the 
screen while it is blanked? The object 
would be to crack the secret code gov- 
erning the movements. Voila! A new 
game like Mastermind or Black Box 
uniquely for the ZX80 

We made some interesting discoveries 
soon after setting up the machine. For 
instance, the CHR$ function is not limit- 
ed to a value between and 255. but 
cycles repeatedly through the code. 
CHR$ (9) and CHRS(265) will produce 
identical values. In other words. CHRS 
operates in a MOO 256 fashion. We 
found that the " = " sign can be used se- 
veral times on a single line, allowing the 
logical evaluation of variables. In the 
Sinclair. LET X=Y=Z=W is a valid ex- 
pression. 

Or consider the TL$ function which 
strips a string of its initial character. At 
first, we wondered what practical value it 
had. Then someone suggested it would 
be perfect for removing the dollar sign 
from numerical inputs. 

Breakthroughs? Hardly. But indicative 
of the hints and kinds you II find in every 
issue of SYNC We intend to take the 
Sinclair to its limits and then push be- 
yond, finding new tricks and tips, new 
applications, new ways to do what 
couldn t be done before SYNC functions 
on many levels, with tutorials for the be- 
ginner and concepts that will keep the 
pros coming back for more. We II show 




you how to duplicate commands avail- 
able in other Basics. And. perhaps, how 
to do things that can t be done on other 
machines. 

Many computer applications require 
that data be sorted. But did you realize 
there are over ten fundamentally differ- 
ent sorting algorithms? Many people 
settle for a simple bubble sort perhaps 
because it's described in so many pro- 
gramming manuals or because they've 
seen it in another program. However, 
sort routines such as heapsort or Shell- 
Metzner are over 100 times as fast as a 
bubble sort and may actually use less 
memory. Sure, 1 K of memory isn t a lot 
to work with, but it can be stretched 
much further by using innovative, clever 
coding. You'll find this type of help in 
SYNC 

Lots of Games and Applications 

Applications and software are the meat 
of SYNC. We recognize that along with 
useful, pragmatic applications, like finan- 
cial analysis and graphing, you'll want 
games that are fun and challenging. In 
the charter issue of SYNC you II find se- 
veral games. Acey Ducey is a card game 
in which the dealer (the computer) deals 
two cards face up. You then have an op- 
tion to bet depending upon whether you 
feel the next card dealt will have a value 
between the first two. 

In Hurkle. another game in the charter 
issue, you have to find a happy little 
Hurkle who is hiding on a 10 X 10 grid In 
response to your guesses, the Hurkle 
sends our a clue telling you in which 
direction to look next. 

One of the most ancient forms of arith- 
metical puzzle is called a "boomerang.'' 
The oldest recorded example is that set 
down by Nicomachus in his Arithmetics 
around 100 AD You II find a computer 
version of this puzzle in SYNC. 

Hard-Hitting, Objective Evaluations 

By selecting the ZX80 or MicroAce as 
your personal computer you've shown 
that you are an astute buyer looking for 



good performance, an innovative design 
and economical price. However, select- 
ing software will not be easy. That's 
where SYNC comes in SYNC evaluates 
software packages and other peripherals 
and doesn't just publish manufacturer 
descriptions. We put each package 
through its paces and give you an in- 
depth, objective report of its strengths 
and weaknesses. 

SYNC is a Creative Computing pub- 
lication. Creative Computing is the num- 
ber 1 magazine of software and applica- 
tions with nearly 100.000 circulation. 
The two most popular computer games 
books in the world. Basic Computer 
Games and More Basic Computer 
Games (combined sales over 500.000) 
are published by Creative Computing. 
Creative Computing Software manufac- 
tures over 1 50 software packages for six 
different personal computers. 

Creative Computing, founded in 1974 
by Oavid Ahl. is a well-established firm 
committed to the future of personal com- 
puting We expect the Sinclair ZX80 to 
be a highly successful computer and 
correspondingly. SYNC to be a respect- 
ed and successful magazine. 

Order SYNC Today 

Right now we need all the help we can 
get. First of all. we'd like you to subscribe 
to SYNC. Subscriptions cost $10 for one 
year (6 issues). $18 for two years (12 
issues) or. if you really want to beat infla- 
tion, $24 for three years (18 issues). 
Send to the address below or call our 
toll-free number. 800-631-8112 (in NJ 
201-540-0445) to put your subscription 
on your MasterCard. Visa or American 
Express card. Canadian and other fore- 
ign surface subscriptions are $15 per 
year or $27 for two years. We guarantee 
your satisfaction or we will refund the 
unfulfilled portion of your subscription. 

Needless to say, we can't fill up all the 
pages without your help. So send in your 
programs, articles, hints and tips. 
Remember, illustrations and screen 
photos make a piece much more inter- 
esting. Send in your reviews of peripher- 
als and software too— but be warned: re- 
views must be in-depth and objective. 
We want you to respect what you read on 
the pages of SYNC so be honest and 
forthright in the material you send us. Of 
course we pay for contributions— just 
don't expect to retire on it. 

The exploration has begun. Join us. 

Tint mif itn« fnr B m c M w ZXBOu 



Mil 

39 East Hanover Avenue 
Morris Plains. NJ 07950. USA 



Toll free 800-631-8112 
(In NJ 201-540-0445) 

CIRCLE 215 ON READER SERVICE CARD 







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CIRCLE 218 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Saucer Shoot, continued. 

710 PRINT©961.N*a);:PRINT81001,N*<2>; 

800 PRINT®924,"TURN"; 

865 PRINT»976,S<l);:PRINTal016,S<2>; 

sie print»p<p),a*(P); 

828 PRINTC349, "CH00SE":PRINT»41 1 , "A LEVEL OF":PRINT»475, "DIFFICULTY"; :PRINT8S40, 

"(1 — 5) 

900 A*=INKEY*:IFA*=""GOTO980 

910 VL»ASC(A*):IFVL<490RVL>S3GOT098e 

920 D=VAL(A*> 

950 PRINT8349.S*<14>;:PRINT8411,S»<14);:PRINT847S,S«<:i4);:PRINT8S4e,S*<14)J 

1000 ONDGOTO1010, 1020, 1030, 1040, 1050 

1010 PC=RND<3)*2S:NU=RND<20)*20:GOTO1500 

1020 PC=RND<4)*20:NU=RND<50)*10:GOTO1500 

1030 PC=RND<9)*10:NU=RND<50)*10:GOTO1500 

1S40 PC=RND(19)*5:NU=RND(20)*20:GOTO1500 

1050 PC=RND<24)*4:NU=RND<16)*25 

1500 AN=NU*PO100 

1510 PRINT8670, "WHAT IS":PRINT8729, rPRINTPC; "* OF ";NU; 

1515 PRINT8794," ";:INPUTEX» 

1516 PRINT8288," " 

1518 IFLEN(EX*>=8G0T01S15 

1520 NV=VAL<EX*)xFV»0 

1530 F0RI=1T0LEN<EX») 

1535 EV=ASC<HID«EX*, I,l>> 

1540 IFEV<480REV>57THENFV»1 

1560 IFFV-08OTO1580 

1570 PRINT8794," "« :G0T01515 

1 588 HT=782 : HB=846 : I FP= 1 GOTO 1 600 

1590 HT=809:HB=873 

1600 FORI=1T03:PRINT8HB,H*<I);:FORTH=1TODL:NEXT:NEXT 

1610 F0RI=1T02:PRINT8HT,H*<I)s:PRINTCHB,H«(I+3);:F0RTM=1T0DL:NEXT:NEXT 

1620 PRINT8HT,H*<6>;«PRINTeHB,H*<7>;:FORTH=lT0DL:NEXT 

1630 F0RTH= 1 T0DL: NEXT 

1650 ONPGOTO1800, 1900 

1800 FORI«9T01SSTEP2:PRINT8782,H*a>;:PRINTe846,H*<I*l);:FORTH=lTOOL:NEXT:NEXT 

1820 FORTM=1TO300:NEXT 

1825 F0RI=13T09STEP-2 

1830 PRINT8782, H*< I ) ; : PRINT8846, H*< 1+1 ) ; : F0RTH= 1 TOOL : NEXT 

1835 NEXT 

1840 PRINT8782,H*(6>;:PRINT8846,H*<7>;:F0RTM=1 TOOL: NEXT 

1890 6OTO2000 

1900 FORI«17TO23STEP2:PRINT8809,H*<nt:PRINT«873,H*(I + l);:FOPTM=lTODL:NEXT:NEXT 

1910 FORTH- 1TO300: NEXT 

1920 F0RI=21T017STEP-2 

1925 PRINT8889, H*< I ) ; : PRINT8873, H*< 1*1 ) ; : F0RTH=1 T0IX: NEXT 

1930 NEXT 

1940 PRINT8809,H»<6);:PRINT8873,H»<7)t:FORTH=lTODL:NEXT 

2006 IFNV=ANGOTO2100 

2005 F0RI=1T03 

2010 PRINT»HT,H*<9)»! 

2020 PRINT8HT,H»<6>:: 

2030 PRINT8HT,H*<17) 

2040 PRINT8HT,H*<6); 

2050 NEXT 

2060 F0RI=2T01STEP-1 

2062 PRINT8HT,H*<8>; 

2065 F0RI=3T01STEP-1 

2070 PRINT«HB,H*<8); 

2080 6OTO220O 

2180 F0PI=1T03 

2110 PRINT8HT,H*<2S);:PRINT8HB,H»<26);:F0RTH=1T02*DL:NEXT 

2120 PRINTS>HT,H*<6);jPRINT8HB,H»<7);:F0RTH=1T02*DL:NEXT 

2130 PRINT8HT,H*(27);:PRINT8HB,H*(28);:F0PTH«=1T02*DL:NEXT 

2140 PRINT®HT,H*<6>s:PRINT«#«,H»<7>::F0RTM=1T02*DL:NEXT 

2150 NEXT 

2160 F0PI=2T01STEP-1:PRINT8HT,H»<I>;:PRINT8HB,H$<I+3);:F0RTH=1T0DL:NEXT 

2162 PRINT8HT,H*(8)S 

2165 F0RI=3T01STEP-1:PRINT8HB,H»<I>;:F0RTH=1T0DL«NEXT:NEXT 

2170 PRINT*iHB,H*<8>;:F0RTM=1T0DL:NEXT 

2180 PRINT8670.SX14); :PRINT«729,S*(14); :PRINT8786,S*< 14); 

2190 GOTO2300 

2200 PRINT®786,S*(14);:PRINT8787,"THE CORRECT ANSWER IS ";AN; 

2210 FORTM=1TO3000:NEXT 

2220 PRINT8786,BL*<2>;:PRINT®P<P),BL*<1>8 

2236 PRINTO670,BL$(2);:PRINT8729,BL*(2)J 

2240 IFP=2SOTO2270 

2250 P-P+ 1:60T0888 

2270 P=P-i:6OTO800 

2380 PRINT»724,BL»<2);:PRINT8729.BL*(2);:PRINT«786,BL*<2)5 

2310 PRINT8732, "YOU HAVE"; 8PRINTC795.D; " SHOTS"; 

2390 FORTH* 1 TO 1500: NEXT 

2400 H=RND(6):SH=64*H:EN=SH+56 

2410 DR»RND<2):IFDR=26OTO2430 

2420 BG«SHI ST=EN: IN= 1 I GOTO2500 

2430 BG=EN:ST=SH:IN— 1 

2500 IFP-2GOTO2880 

2600 FOPI=0TO3:FORJ=0TO2:SET(19*I+J, 41-1): NEXT: NEXT 

2601 X=268Y=35 
2605 PRINT8BG,S»<1)J 
26 1 A*= I NKE Y* : I FA*=» " " GOTO2630 
2620 IFASC<A«)=32GOTO2700 



PRINT8HB,H*a0>;8FORTM=lTODL*2:NEXT 
PRINT®HB.H*<7);:F0RTM=1T0DL*2:NEXT 
:PPINT8HB,H*(18);:FORTH=1T02*DL:NEXT 
PR I NT8HB . H« C 7 ) ; : F0RTH= 1 T02*DL : NEXT 

PRINT8HT,H*<I);:PRINT8HB,H*<I+3);:F0RTH=1T0DL:NEXT:NEXT 

PRI NT8HB , H* < I ) ; : F0RTH= 1 TODL : NEXT : NEXT 
F0PTH=1T0DL:NEXT 



128 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



QUALITY DISK SOFTWARE 

BACKED BY ON-GOING APPLICATIONS SUPPORT 

from SPECTRUM SOFTWARE 



APPLE II ® TRS»80 © 



HOME FINANCE PAK I: Entire Series $49.95 ® © 

CHECK REGISTER AND RUDGET: This comprehensive CHECKING ACCOUNT 
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM not only keeps complete records, il also gives you 
the analysis and control tools you need to actively manage your account 
The system provides routines tor BUDGETING INCOME AND EXPENSE 
AUTOMATIC CHECK SEARCH, and BANK STATEMENT RECONCILING. CRT or 
printer reports are produced tor ACTUAL EXPENSE vs BUDGET. CHECK 
SEARCH DISPLAY RECONCILIATION REPORT and CHECK REGISTER DISPLAY 
by month Check entry is prompted by user-defined menus of standard 
purposes and recipient codes, speeding data entry and reducing disk 
storage and retrieval time Six tields o) data are stored lor each check 
amount, check no., date, purpose recipient and TAX DEDUCTIBLE 
REMINDER CHECK SEARCH routines allow searching on any of these data 
tields Routines are also provided tor CHECK SORT by date and check no 
DATA EDITING and Report Formats Up to 100 checks/mo storage 
$39 95 

SAVINGS: Account management system for up to 20 separate Savings 
accounts Organizes, files and displays deposits, withdrawals and 
interest earned tor each account Complete records shown via CRT or 

printer 514.95 

CREDIT CARO: Get Control of your credit cards with this program 
Oiganizes. stores and displays purchases, payments and service charges 
tor up to 20 separate cards Use lor credit cards or bank loans CRT or 
printer reports S14.95 

UNIVERSAL COMPUTING MACHINE: $49.95 ® 

A user programmable computing system structured around a 50 row x 50 
column table User defines row and column names and eguations forming a 
unique computing machine Table elements can be multiplied, divided, 
subtracted or added to any other element User can define repeated 
functions common to row or column greatly simplifying table setup 
Hundreds of unique computing machines can be defined, used and stored 
and recalled, with or without old data, tor later use Excellent lor sales 
forecasts, engineering design analysis, budgets, inventory lists, income 
statements, production planning, protect cost estimates-in short for any 
planning, analysis or reporting problem that can by solved with a table 
Unique curser commands allow you to move to any element, change its 
value and immediately see the effect on other table values Entire table can 
be printed by machine pages (user-defined 3-5 columns) on a 40 column 
printer. 

COLOR CALENOAR: $29.95® 

Got a busy calendar' Organize it with Color Calendar Whether its 
birthdays, appointments, business meetings or a regular office schedule, 
this program is the perfect way to schedule your activities 
The calendar display is a beautiful HIRES color graphics calendar of the 
selected month with each scheduled day highlighted in color Using the 
daily schedule, you can review any day ol the month and schedule an event 
or activity in any one of 20 time slots from 8 00 AM to 5:30 P.M. Your 
description can be up to 20 characters long The system will also print out 
hard copies on your minimum 40-column printer 

BUSINESS SOFTWARE: Entire Series $159.95®® 

MICROACCOUNTANT: The ideal accounting system for small businesses 

Based on classic T-accounls and double-entry booking, this efficient 

program provides a ledger |ournal for recording posting and reviewing up 

to 1.000 transactions per month to any one of 300 accounts The program 

produces CRT and printer reports covering 

Transaction Journal Balance Sheet 

Accounts Ledgers Income and Expense Statement 

Financial Accounting 



Includes a short primer on 



Requires 48K Ram 
549.95 



UNIVERSAL 8USINESS MACHINE: This program is designed to SIMPLIFY 
and SAVE TIME tor the serious businessman who must periodically 
Analyze Plan and Estimate The program was created using our Universal 
Computing Machine and it is programmed to provide the following planning 
and forecasting tools 

SALES FORECASTER 
SOURCE AND USE OF FUNDS 
JOB COST ESTIMATOR 
INVENTORY ANALYSIS 



CASH FLOW ANALYSIS 
PROFORMA PROFIT & LOSS 
PROFORMA BALANCE SHEET 
REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT 



BUSINESS CHECK REGISTER ANO BUDGET: Our Check Register and Budget 
programs expanded to include up to 50 budgetable items and up to 400 
checks per month Includes bank statement reconciling and automatic 
check search (48KI $49 95 

ELECTRONICS SERIES: Entire Series $259.95 

LOGIC SIMULATOR: SAVE TIME AND MONEY Simulate your digital logic 
circuits before you build them CMOS TTL. or whatever, if its digital logic. 
this program can handle it. The program is an interactive, menu driven, 
full-fledged logic simulator capable of simulating the bit-time response of a 
logic network to user-specitied input patterns It will handle up to 1000 
gates including NANDS. NORS INVERTERS FLIP-FLOPS. SHIFT REGISTERS 
COUNTERS and user-defined MACROS UP to 40 user-defined random, or 
binary input patterns Simulation results displayed on CRT or printer 
Accepts network descriptions from keyboard or from LOGIC DESIGNER for 

simulation S159.95 ®(£) 

LOGIC OESIGNER: Interactive HI-RES Graphics program tor designing digital 
logic system A menu driven series of keyboard commands allow you to 
draw directly on the screen up to 15 different gate types including 10 gate 
shape patterns supplied with the program and 5 reserved tor user 
specification Standard patterns supplied are NAND NOR INVERTER EX- 
OR. T-FLOP. JK-FLOP. D-FLOP RS-FLOP 4 BIT COUNTER and N-BIT SHIFT 
REGISTER User interconnects gates |ust as you would normally draw using 
line graphics commands Network descriptions tor LOGIC SIMULATOR 
generated simultaneously with the CRT diagram being drawn. $15995 (A) 
MANUAL AND DEMO DISK: Instruction Manual and demo disk illustrating 
capabilities of both programs $29 95 

MATHEMATICS SERIES: Entire Series $49.95 ® 

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS I: This menu driven program performs LINEAR 
REGRESSION analysis determines the mean standard deviation and plots 
the frequency distribution of user-supplied data sets Printer Disk I/O 

routines $19 95 

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS: HI-RES 2-Dimensional plot ol any function 
Automatic scaling At your option, the program will plot the tunction plot 
the INTEGRAL plot the DERIVATIVE determine the ROOTS MAXIMA 

MINIMA INTEGRAL VALUE S 1 995 

MATRIX- A general purpose, menu driven program for determining the 
INVERSE and DETERMINANT of any matrix, as well as the SOLUTION to any 

set of SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EOUATIONS S19 95 

3-D SURFACE PLOTTER: Explore the ELEGANCE and BEAUTY of MATHE- 
MATICS by creating HI-RES PLOTS of 3-dimensional surfaces from any 
3- variable equation Disk save and recall routines tor plots Menu driven to 
vary surface parameters Hidden line or transparent plotting ... $1995 

ACTION ADVENTURE GAMES: Entire Series $29.95 ® 

RED BARON- Can you outtly the RED BARON' This fast action game 
simulates a machine-gun DOGFIGHT between your WORLD WAR I BIPLANE 
and the barons You can LOOP. DIVE. BANK or CLIMB-and so can the 

BARON In HI-RES graphics * 1495 

BATTLE OF MIOWAY: You are in command of the U.S.S. HORNETS DIVE- 
BOMBER squadron Your targets are the Aircralt carriers. Akagi. Soryu and 
Kaga You must fly your way through ZEROS and AA FIRE to make your 

DIVE-BOMB run In HI-RES graphics S14.95 

FREE CATAL06 All programs are supplied on disk and run on Apple II 
w / Disk & Applesoft ROM Card & TRS-80 Level II and require 32K RAM unless 
otherwise noted Detailed instructions included Orders shipped within 5 
days Card users include card number Add S1 50 postage and handling 
with each order California residents add 6 %sales tax Foreign orders add 
S5 00 postage and handling 



SPECTRUM SOFTWARE 

142 Carlow, P.O. Box 2084 
Sunnyvale, CA 94087 




Price, including a copy ot the Universal Computing Machine $8995 



FOR PHONE ORDERS: (408) 738-4387 
DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED. 



CIRCLE 189 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




The world is full 

of intriguing problems 

that never got into 

a textbook. 



Problems for Computer Solution 
by Steve Rogowski 

Ninety intriguing and fascinating prob- 
lems, each thoroughly discussed and ref- 
erenced, make an excellent source of 
exercises in research and preliminary 
investigation. Eleven types of problems 
are provided in the following areas: arith- 
metic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, 
number theory, probability, statistics, cal- 
culus and science. Author Stephen 
Rogowski of SUNY-Albany has included 
several problems which have never been 
solved He feels that some research and 
an attempt to solve these will sharpen 
students insight and awareness 

Some of the problems are not new like 
the one asking how much the $24 the 
Indians were paid for Manhattan would be 
worth today had it been deposited in a 
bank. However, this problem was revised 
to have a variable interest rate so it would 
be a challenge to program. Of course, 
many of the problems are new and have 
never been in print before. 

The student edition has 106 pages and 
includes all 90 problems (with variations), 
7 appendices and a complete bibliog- 
raphy. Cost is $4.95. 

The 182-page teacher edition contains 
solutions to the problems, each with a 
complete listing in Basic, sample runs, and 
in-depth analyses explaining the 
algorithms and theory involved. Cost is 
$995 

To get one or both books send payment 
plus $200 shipping and handling per 
order to Creative Computing Credit card 
orders may be called in toll-free to the 
number below. 

Order yours today If you are not com- 
pletely satisfied, return it for a full refund 
plus your return postage 

creative 
computing 

Morris Plains. NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800-631 -811 2 

(InNJ 201-540-0445) 

> __ S 

CIRCLE 300 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Saucer Shoot, continued. 

B BG=BG+IN: IFBG=STGOTfi31A0 
2640 GOTO2600 

2?0& BG=BG+IN: IFB6=STGOTO3100 
2718 PRINT«68,S*<1)I 
2?:-0 PESE T •: X- 3 . Y+3 > : SET ( X , Y > 
2738 L~K=P0INT(X+3, Y-3): I FCK=- 1 60T03888 
2740 X=i:+3: V=Y-3: IFV<5GOTO310Ci 
2750 GOTO2700 

2806 FOR I =0TO3 : FOR J=0TO2 J SET < l 00- 1 + J , 4 1 - 1 ) : NEXT : NEXT 
2801 X=9S:Y=3S 
280S PRINT«BG,S*<1>; 
2810 A*=INKEY*:IFA»=""GOTO2830 
2820 IFASC<A#)=32GOTO2900 
2830 BG=BG+IN:IFBG=STGOTO3100 
2840 G0T02888 
2900 BG=BG+IN:IFBG=STGOTO3100 
2910 PRINT®BG,S*<1)S 
2920 RESET<X+3,Y+3):SET(X,Y> 
2930 CK-P0IMXX-3, Y-3>: IFCK=-1GOTO3008 
2940 X=X-3:Y»Y-3:IFY<SGOTO3100 
2950 GOTO2980 

3006 PRINT®BG-64,S*<.2);:PRINT»B6,S*<3);:PPINT8BG+64.S*(4);:F0RTM=1T02*DL:NEXT 

3010 PRINT««G-64,S»<S>;:PRINT»BG,S»<6>;:PRINT»BG+64,S»<7>;:F0RTM=1T0DL:NEXT 

3020 PRINT«BG-l,S*(8);:PRINT«eG+63,S*<9)S:FORTM=lTODL+10:NEXT 

3030 PRINTSiBG-2. S«( 10> % : PRINT»BG+62, S«< 1 1 > ; : F0PTM=1 r0DI_:NEXT 

3040 PPINT»B6-3,S*<12>s:PRINT»BG+61,S*<13>;:F0PTM=lT0DL:NEXT 

3045 PRINT»BG-3> S#< 14) :PRINT88G+61 , S*< 14) ; 

3050 S<P>=S(P)+l: IFS<P)>9GOTO3200 

3055 FORTM=1TO800:NEXT 

3860 D=D-l:IFD>0GOTO2310 

3070 GOTO2220 

3100 PPINT®25,"HE GOT AWAY'"; 

3110 F0RTM=1 TO 1800: NEXT 

3115 PRINTs>BG,S*<S)::PRINT»2S,S*<14>j:RESET<X,Y> 

3117 PRINTs>89,S*<14>S:PRINT«151,S»<14;>::PRINT«21S,S*<14>: 

3128 GOTO3060 

3200 CLS:PRINTCHR*<23):PRINT 

3210 PRINTTAB<S)»N*cP> 

3220 PRINT-IS THE WINNER' ":PRINT:PRINT 

3230 PRINTNfcP);" SAVED THE WORLD" 

3240 PRINT-FROM THE INVADERS FROM MARS!" 

3250 END 

3330 END 
8008 F0RH=1T028:F0RI=1T06:READCH:H$<H>=HS<H>+CHR*<CH>:NEXT:NEXT 
8818 FORS=1T07:FORI=1T08:READCH:S»<S>=S»<S>+CHR*<CH):NEXT:NEXT 
0020 FORS=8TO9:FORI=1TO10:READCH:S*<S>-S»<S>*CHR*<CH):NEXT:NEXT 
0030 FORS=10TO11:FORI=1TO12:PEADCH:S*<S>=S*<S>+CHR*(CH> :NEXT: NEXT 
0040 F0RS=12T013:F0RI=1T014:READCH:S*<S>«S*<S)+CHR*<CH>:NEXT:NEXT 
0850 S*<14)=STRING*<14,CHP*<128>> 
8860 RETURN 

1088 DATA128. 176, 176,176,176,128 
1001 DATA128, 188, 188, 188, 188, 128 
1802 DATA168, 191,175, 159, 191, 144 
1003 DATA136, 191,187, 183, 191,132 

1884 DATA138, 191,158, 173, 191,129 

1885 DATA160, 191,175, 159, 191,144 

1006 DATA128, 143,183,187, 143, 128 

1007 DATA128, 128, 128,128, 128, 128 

1888 DATA168, 191,159, 191,175,144 

1889 DATA128, 143, 191 , 179, 143, 128 
1010 DATA128, 191,191,175, 159, 128 

1811 DATA128,143,191,183, 139, 128 

1812 DATA128, 191,191,159, 191,128 

1813 DATA128, 143, 191,191,139, 128 

1814 DATA128.191,191,191,175, 128 

1815 DATA128, 143, 191,191,143, 129 

1816 DATA168, 159, 191,175, 191,144 

1017 DATA128,143,179, 191,143, 128 

1018 DATA128. 175, 159, 191,191,128 
1819 DATA128, 135, 187, 191, 143, 128 
1828 DATA128. 191,175,191,191,128 

1821 DATA128, 135, 191,191,143, 128 

1822 DATA128, 159, 191,191,191.128 

1823 DATA138, 143, 191,191,143.128 
1024 DATA160, 191,187, 183.191,144 

1825 DATA128, 143, 189, 198, 143, 128 

1826 DATA168, 191, 191, 191, 191,144 
1027 DATA128, 143, 158, 173, 143. 128 
1828 DATA128, 148, 174, 191 , 191, 157, 148, 128 
1029 DATA128, 168, 176, 176, 176, 176, 144, 128 

1830 DATA1 74, 179, 145, 191 , 191 , 162. 179, 157 

1831 DATA128, 138, 131, 131, 131, 131 . 129. 128 
1032 DATA128, 128. 128, 128, 128. 128. 128. 128 
1833 DATA148. 136, 133, 190, 189. 138, 132, 140 

1034 DATA128, 128, 129, 129, 138, 138, 128, 128 

1035 DATA176, 160, 133, 132, 162. 145, 136, 138, 11 

1036 DATA128, 136, 136, 129, 129, 138, 138, 132, 13 

1837 DATA128, 128, 152, 168. 128. 132, 136. 128, H 

1838 DATA1 31 , 146, 168, 136. 162, 191 , 191 . 145. 12 

1839 DATA128. 128, 168, 128, 128, 128, 128, 128, IS 
1848 DATA138, 153, 161. 138, 152, 168, 129, 138, 144. 164. 129. 146, 166, 129 




130 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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THE ORIGINAL MAGAZINE FOR 
OWNERS OF THE TRS-80™* MICROCOMPUTER 



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PROGRAMS AND ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN OUR FIRST 12 ISSUES 
INC I UDE THE FOLLOWING 

• ACOMPI.ETr INC -OMI rAX PROGRAM I lONC. AND sMOR I ! ORMi 

• INVENTORY t'ONTROl 

. SIOC K MARKH ANAI YSIS 

• WORD PROCESSING PROGRAM ilOR DISK OK (Ass! III. 

• [ ( (WE R CASI M( N >ll II A HON I OR Y( )t IR VII )l ( ) Ml >NI I OR OR PRIN 1 I R 

• PAYKOII ill D1RAI rAX WITHHOLDING PROGRAM I 

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\M Kools AND rRIGONOMf IRU" FUI* I: 

• NEW DISK DRIVES I OR YOUR PR! 

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• ahors! SELECTION SYSTEM***ARITHMET1C ItAiMIK 

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I 1 I MENTARY AND ADVANCI Dl AND 

■ I Rsii 



WORD PROCESSING PROGRAM Foi writing letters, text, mailing lists, etc . with each new subscriptions 
LEVEL II RAM TEST Ch«< ks random ■ ensure that .ill memory locations are working pi 

DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Compk-u ment (oi your TRSWT 

CLEANUP Fast ... lion Maze Game 

ADVENTURE Adventure «i K Scott Adams (From Adventureland lnHTn.itioti.il) 

* All |m... it. mis are supplied on cassette (add $3 lor Diskette Version ■ add $5 (or modilied Mi.il II Version) 



*=»££ 







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June 1979 • »18 - January 1980) 



EXP DAI! 



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— ADDS* WAR (CANADA. MEXICO! ADD $12 YEAR AIR MAII - OUTSIDE OI IS A. CANADA* MEXICO — 

CIRCLE 138 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

131 




Hill. 

::l 




(•■I ••••••■ 

II T 

I !! ii 

••i ••• ••■ 



"Streets of the City " was the winner of 
our recent competition for a transporta- 
tion simulation. The program is written 
in Basic for the TRS-tfO. Disk versions 
for TRS-HO and Apple will soon be 
available from Sensational Software. 

ABOUT THE GAME 

Congratulations! You have been named 
Transportation Director of River City. 
Michigan. River City is a central city with 
a declining population which is now at 
185.000 persons. Budget problems over 
the past decade have resulted in a severely 
deteriorated road system and inadequate 
bus service. 

Prior to your being hired, the City 
Commission approved a ten-year trans- 
portation improvement plan that will now 
be your responsibility to complete. In the 
Street Fund, the plan calls for reconstructing 
44 miles of main streets, called primaries, 
and 16 miles of interstate. At the same 
time, you have to improve significantly 
the overall street conditions and traffic 
safety. For the Transit Authority, an aging 
bus fleet needs to be expanded and 
modernized, and ridership must be 
expanded. 

Your success will be measured in two 
ways. The first is how well you progress 
each year in meeting the overall goal. 
Second is your ability to maintain a majority 
vote of the City Commission. Each influ- 
ences the other. 



Kenneth R. Murray 




Kenneth R. Murray. Deputy City Manager, Grand 
Rapids. Ml. 



Goals to be Achieved 

In the initialization of the simulation, 
the initial conditions are randomly set within 
reasonable limits. This includes the first 
budgets, street mileage and conditions, 
the traffic safety index, fleet size and age. 
and transit performance. The goals that 
you must achieve are as follows: 

GOAL 

Primary Street Reconstruction 

Interstate Highway Construction 

Street Condition Index 

Traffic Safety Index 

Bus Fleet Age 

Bus Ridership 

Fleet Downtime Index 

On Schedule Performance Index 

Highway Construction: The costs are 
initially set at random. Each year costs 
will increase because of inflation. An 
inadequate maintenance program will also 
cause the construction costs to rise. 
Street Conditions: A street condition index 
is randomly set: the higher the index, the 
worse the condition. Each year the index 
is adjusted according to street mileage 



dotal streets will be added in relation to 
inflationary pressures on development t and 
how well you budget fur street maintenance. 
Your maintenance costs are determined 
by street mileage, street conditions, labor 
negotiations, and inflation. 
Traffic Safety: A traffic safety index is 
also set randomly: again, the higher the 



STANDARD 

Reconstruct 44 Miles 
Build 16 Miles 
Reduce 60 Percent 
Reduce 60 Percent 
Reduce 60 Percent 
Increase 4 Times 
Reduce 60 Percent 
Reduce 60 Percent 

index, the worse the traffic accident rate. 
This index is adjusted each year according 
to changes in the street conditions and 
how well you meet your maintenance and 
safety budget. The safety needs are deter- 
mined by street mileage, the traffic safety 
index, labor negotiations, and inflation. 

Age of Bus Fleet: The size and age of the 
fleet are randomly set and are incremented 



132 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Software for the Apple II and Apple II Plus* 




ASTEROIDS IN SPACE" 

By Bruce Wallace 

An exciting space action game! Your space ship is 
traveling in the middle of a shower of asteroids Blast 
the asteroids with lasers, but beware — big asteroids 
tragment into small asteroids! The Apple game paddles 
allow you to rotate your space ship, tire its laser gun. 
and give it thrust to propel it through endless space 
From time to time you will encounter an alien space 
ship whose mission is to destroy you. so you'd better 
destroy it tirst! High resolution graphics and sound 
effects add to the arcade like encitement that this 
program generates Runs on any Apple II with at least 
32K of RAM and one disk drive 

On Diskette $19 95 





Cassette 



FASTGAMMON" By Bob Christiansen 
Sound, hi res, color, and musical cartoons have 
helped make this the most popular backgammon 
playing game tor the Apple II. But don't let these 
entertaining features fool you — FASTGAMMON 
plays serious backgammon Runs on any Apple II 
with at least 24K of RAM 
$19 95 Diskette - $24 95 



ASTROAPPLE™ by Bob Male 
Your Apple computer becomes your astrologer, 
generating horoscopes and forecasts based on the 
computed positions of the heavenly bodies This 
program offers a delightful and stimulating way to 
entertain friends ASTROAPPLE produces natal 
horoscopes (birth charts) for each person based 
on his or her birth data Any two people may be 
compared for physical, emotional, and intellectual 
compatibility The program is written in Applesoft 
BASIC with machine language subroutines It 
requires either RAM or ROM Applesoft and at least 
32K of memory. 

Cassette - $14 95 Diskette - $19 95 




BATTLESHIP COMMANDER'" by Erik Kilk and Matthew Jew 



A game of strategy You and the computer each start out by positioning five ships of 
different sues on a ten by ten grid Then the shooting starts Place your volleys skillfully 
— a combination of logic and luck are required to beat the computer Ccrtoons show 
the ships sinking and announce the winner Sound effects and flashing lights also add 
to the enjoyment ol the game Both Applesoft and integer BASIC versions are included 
Requires at least 32K of RAM 

Cassette $14 95 Diskette - $19 95 




* 



FRACAS" by Stuart Smith 

A fantastic adventure game like no other 1 Up to eight 
players can participate in FRACAS at the same time 
Journey in the land of FAROPH. searching for hidden 
treasure while warding off all sorts of unfriendly and 
dangerous creatures You and your friends can compete 
with each other or you can |Oin forces and gang up on the 
monsters Your location is presented graphically and sound 
effects enliven the battles Save your adventure on diskette 
or cassette and continue it at some other time Both integer 

nirip i * * — ..••>.MHr .ni-Li/4aH Diuiinrac at loact 



j0b ' Or CaSSeilC dllU I.UIIUHUC H Oi aui'ic vimci iHiic. nwi.i ....^ 6 v. 

.»% BASIC and Applesoft versions included Requires at least 
- ' 32K of RAM 

Cassette - $19.95 Diskette $24.95 



BENEATH APPLE MANOR" by Don Worth 
Descend beneath Apple Manor into an under 
ground maze of corridors, rooms, and secret 
passages in quest of rich and powerful treasures 
The dungeon complex consists of many floors, 
each lower level more dangerous than the last It 
you can reach the lowest level, you may even find 
the ultimate obiect of your quest the fabled 
golden apple of Apple Manor Strategy is extreme 
ly important as you deal with a variety of monsters, 
each with its own characteristics Written in 
integer BASIC with machine language sub- 
routines Requires integer BASIC and at least 16K 
of RAM on cassette or 32K of RAM on diskette 

Cassette - $14.95 Diskette 




BABBLE" by Don Worth 
Have fun with this unique software You write a 
story, entering it as a BABBLE program As you 
write the story you specify certain words to be 
selected by the computer or entered from the key 
board at execution time Run the program and 
watch BABBIE convert your story into an often 
hilarious collection of incongruities The ways in 
which BABBLE can entertain you are limited only 
to your imagination You can compose an 
impressive political speech or write poetry You 
can plan a dinner menu You can even form 
images on the screen or compose musical tunes 
with the help of BABBLE The cassette version 
requires at least 16K of RAM and the diskette 
version requires at least 32K of RAM BABBLE is 
written in machine language and runs on any 
Apple II computer 

Cassette - $19.95 Diskette 



MS'r»'J MfcK.lt, .iMMtt* 
tnl» iovCI *OV* Ah/TrATCR, 
A.MO THE cfUfJCMU IV AT- 

Tackimg t« rfttrmxy tureen. 



D 




BABBLE 



$24.95 



$1995 



L 
I 

N 
K 
E 
R 



LINKER by Don Worth 

Turn your Apple II or Apple II Plus into a powerful and productive 
software development machine with this superb linking loader/editor 
package LINKER does the following and much more: 

• Dynamically loads and relocates suitably prepared machine 
language programs anywhere in RAM 

• Combines a main program with subroutines You can assemble a 
subroutine once and then use it with as many main programs as you 
wish 

• Produces a map of all loaded routines, giving their location and the 
total length of the resulting module 

• Contains a library of subroutines including binary multiplication and 
division, print text strings, delay, tone generator, and random 
number generator 

Linker works with virtually any assembler for the Apple II Requires 32K 
of RAM and one disk drive 

Diskette $49.95 
Manual Only $19.95 



QUALITY SOFTWARE 

6660 Reseda Blvd . Suite 106. Reseda. CA 91335 
(213) 344-6599 
Now exclusive distributors for products from The Software Factory. Newhall. California 
•»ppl* II and Apple II Plus «e trademarks ot Apple Computer. Ire 

See us at the West Coast Computer Faire-booth *206C. 



ES 



WHERE TO GET IT: Call us at (213) 344*599 for the name of the Quality Software 
dealer nearest you If necessary you may order directty from us Mastercard and 
Visa cardholders may place orders by telephone Or mail your check or bankcard 
number to Quality Software. 6660 Reseda Blvd. Suite 105, Reseda. CA 91335 
California residents add 6% sales tax SHIPPING CHARGES Within North America 
orders must include $1 50 for first class shipping and handlingJDutside North 
America the charge for airmail shipping and handling is $500 Pay in US. 

currency CIRCLE 195 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



City Streets, continue 
each year according to your sale and 
acquisition of buses. Sale is assumed on 
the basis of the oldest buses being sold 
first. Sale and purchase prices are influenced 
by inflation. 

Ridership: Ridership is initially determined 
randomly. It is then affected by decisions 
on the number of routes, the hours of 
service, the days of service, and bus fare. 
The performance measures of downtime 
and on-schedule performance ( referred to 
as service delay) and strikes will also affect 
ridership. 

Fleet Downtime: This is measured by an 
index; the higher the index, the greater 
the downtime. The index is adjusted 
according to the age of the fleet and how 
well you meet your maintenance budget. 
The maintenance needs are determined 
by the size and age of the fleet, the level of 
service, labor negotiations, and inflation. 

Service Delay: The higher the service delay 
index, the poorer is your on-schedule 
performance. This index is determined by 
the size of the fleet relative to the number 
of routes, downtime, and meeting your 
operational budget. Operating needs are 
affected by the number of routes, hours 
and days of operation, labor negotiations, 
and inflation. You should not let the average 
number of buses per route drop below 
three. 

Transit Authority Service Decisions 

In this phase you determine the level of 
transit service you will have for the year. 
Your decisions and ranges are as follows: 



Bonding 

In years 3 and 7. you will have the option 
of seeking authority to borrow money (in 
the form of bonds) for street construction. 
In year 3, the bond limit is $1.5 million, 
and in year 7. it is $2.0 million, each per 
year. You do not have to request the entire 
amount. The City Commission will decide 
what size of a bond issue to put to a vote of 
Reducing the indexes requires more than 
the minimum appropriation. 

Property Taxes 

In this phase you will ask the City 
Commission to levy up to ten mills of 
property tax for street and transit operation. 
The amount that is approved will depend 
upon your support of the Commission and 
the size of the levy requested. The tax that 
is approved must then be divided between 
streets and transit. If you are too greedy, 
the chances that the Commission will 
approve a less-than-adequate property tax 
increase. 

The amount of the property tax base is 
set at the start of the simulation. Each 
year it changes according to inflation, street 
improvements, and bus ridership. The 
theory is that with streets and more bus 
riders, property values will increase. 
Conversely, with poorer streets and fewer 
riders, property values will decrease. 

Street Fund Budget 

Once the tax levy is determined, you 
must decide how much to spend from the 
Street Fund on maintenance, safety, and 
construction. You will be able to transfer 
money from the operating account to the 
the citizens. The Commission decision will 
depend upon the size of the bond requested 
and your support among the Commission 



SERVICE 


INITIAL VALI 1 


RANGE OF OPTIONS 


Routes 


6 




6 to 25 


Hours of Operation Per Day 


12 




12. 17. or 24 


Days of Operation 


6 




6 or 7 


Fare 


$.35 




$.25 to $1.00 



capital account and vice versa. The per- 
centage that you can shift will change 
according to the amount of bonds you 
have issued. Your operating revenue, which 
includes funds left over from the previous 
year, gasoline taxes, and tax levy, is 
automatically adjusted to delete bond 
payments. Gasoline tax revenue is initially 
calculated at the start of the simulation 
based on street mileage and vehicle miles, 
then adjusted according to mileage changes 
and inflation. It is not a variable over which 
you have control. The construction budget, 
exclusive of bonds, is similarly set. 

In making your maintenance and safety 
decisions, you should remember that the 
needs shown are the minimum amounts 
necessary to keep the maintenance and 
safety indexes approximately the same. 



members. Once the issue is submitted to a 
vote, you will be asked to make certain 
pledges to the Coalition of Neighborhood 
Associations. Making the pledges will 
improve the chance of passage: however, 
if you fail to keep your pledges, you will be 
penalized severely. 

Transit Budget 

You have a similar set of decisions to 
make on the Transit Authority budget. 
Operating revenues include rider fare 
(ridership times fare), a federal subsidy 
which is automatically set at half of the 
operating and maintenance needs for the 
year and tax revenues. The capital budget 
consists of revenues from the sale of buses 
and from occasional federal grants. You 
may transfer up to 25% of the operating 
revenues to acquisition, but you may not 



use the capital fund for operations. By 
random determination, you may receive a 
federal grant for bus acquisition. In those 
years you cannot transfer funds from the 
operating account. Your decision whether 
to buy and/or sell buses depends upon 
your fleet needs. Remember that buses 
add to maintenance costs, whether you 
need them or not. A rule of thumb is that 
three buses are needed per route. Again, 
the operating and maintenance needs are 
minimums necessary to hold the indexes 
about the same. 

Labor Negotiations 

The final phase of decision making is 
labor negotiations for the next year. The 
outcome of the negotiations directly affects 
your operating and maintenance budget 
for streets and the Transit Authority. 

There will be between two and six rounds 
of negotiations, with the Union making 
the first offer. Subsequent union offers 
will depend upon how willing you are to 
bargain in good faith. If you reach a 
settlement, excellent. If you do not reach 
a settlement, you risk a strike. The proba- 
bility of a strike depends upon the beginning 
and ending positions of the two parties. 
Once a strike occurs, the wage decision is 
out of your hands: and it will be decided 
by an arbitrator according to the beginning 
and ending positions of the two parties 
and how much each has changed its position. 
A strike negatively affects your performance 
for the year in which it occurs, so you 
should not risk one lightly. 

Performance Review 

Once you have completed the decision 
process, you will be given a comparison of 
the effects of your decisions this year against 
the past year and against the fiscal plan. 
You will also be shown a graphic 
display of the status of your street con- 
struction. Your general performance will 
be evaluated and you will be told the 
strengths and weaknesses of your per- 
formance. Depending upon your per- 
formance, you can gain or lose support 
among the Commissioners. You begin the 
game with the unanimous support of all 
eleven Commissioners. 

End of the Game 

The game can end in one of three ways. 
The most desirable, and the one requiring 
the most political acumen, is for you to 
complete satisfactorily the transportation 
plan. The second way is to serve out the 
ten years but not complete the plan, which 
results in a demotion for you. The third 
ending is that you will be asked to resign. 
This will happen if you fail to keep the 
support of at least six Commissioners. And. 
it's easier to lose votes than it is to gain 
them. 

Good luck on your new job! □ 



134 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



SOFTWARE FOR OSI 




A JOURNAL FOR OSI USE RSI I 

The Aardvark Journal is a bimonthly tutorial for OSI 
users. It features programs customized for OSI and 
has run articles like these: 

1) Using String Variables. 

2) High Speed Basic On An OSI. 

3) Hooking a Cheap Printer To An OSI. 

4) An OSI Disk Primer. 

5) A Word Processor For Disk Or Tape Machines. 

6) Moving The Disk Directory Off Track 12. 



Four back issues already available! 
$9.00 per year (6 issues) 



ADVENTURES 

Adventures are interactive fantasies where you give the 

computer plain English commands (i.e. take the sword, 

look at the control panel.) as you explore alien cities, 

space ships, ancient pyramids and sunken subs. Average 

playing time is 30 to 40 hours in several sessions. 

There is literally nothing else like them - except 

being there yourself. We have six adventures available. 

ESCAPE FROM MARS - Explore an ancient 

Martian city while you prepare for your escape. 

NUCLEAR SUBMARINE - Fast moving 

excitement at the bottom of the sea. 

PYRAMID - Our most advanced and most 

challenging adventure. Takes place in our 

own special ancient pyramid. 

VAMPIRE CASTLE - A day in old Drac's 

castle. But it's getting dark outside. 

DEATH SHIP - It's a cruise ship - but it ain't 

the Love Boat and survival is far from certain. 

TREK ADVENTURE - Takes place on a 

familiar starship. Almost as 

good as being there. 

$14.95 each 



NEW SUPPORT ROMS FOR BASIC 
IN ROM MACHINES 

CIS - for the C1P only, this ROM adds full 
screen edit functions (insert, delete, change 
characters in a basic line. I, Software selectable 
scroll windows, two instant screen clears (scroll 
window only and full screen.), software choice of 
OSI or standard keyboard format. Bell support, 
600 Baud cassette support, and a few other 
features. It plugs in in place of the OSI ROM. 
NOTE : this ROM also supports video conversions 
for 24, 32, 48, or 64 characters per line. All that 
and It sells for a measly $39.95. 
C1E/C2E for C1/C2/C4/C8 Basic in ROM ma- 
chines. 

This ROM adds full screen editing, software 
selectable scroll windows, keyboard correction 
(software selectable), and contains an extended 
machine code monitor. It has breakpoint utilities, 
machine code load and save, block memory move 
and hex dump utilities. A must for the machine 
code programmer replaces OSI support ROM. 
Specify system $59.95 



DISK UTILITIES 

SUPER COPY - Single Disk Copier 
This copy program makes multiple copies, 
copies track zero, and copies all the tracks 
that your memory can hold at one time — 
up to 12 tracks at a pass. It's almost as fast 
as dual disk copying. - $15.95 
MAXIPROSS (WORD PROCESSOR) - 65D 
polled keyboard only - has global and line edit, 
right and left margin justification, imbedded 
margin commands, choice of single, double or 
triple spacing, file access capabilities and all the 
features of a major word processor — and it's 
only $39.95. 



BOARDS 

MEMORY BOAROSII - for the C1P. - and they 
contain parallel portsl 

Aardvarks new memory board supports 8K 
of 21 14' j and has provision for a PIA to give a 
parallel portsl It sells as a bare board for $29.95 
When assembled, the board plugs into the expan- 
sion connector on the 600 board. Available now I 

PROM BURNER FOR THE C1P - Burns single 
supply 2716s Bare board - $24.95. 
MOTHER BOARD - Expand your expansion 
connector from one to five connectors or use It 
to adapt our CtP boards to your C4/8P. - $1435. 



ARCADE AND VIDEO GAMES 

ALIEN INVADERS with machine code moves - 
for fast action. This is our best invaders yet. The 
disk version is so fast that we had to add select- 
able speeds to make it playable. 
Tape - $10.95 - Disk ■ $1295 

TIME TREK (8K) - real time Startrek action. 
See your torpedoes move across the screen) Real 
graphics - no more scrolling displays. $9.95 

STARFIGHTER - a real time space war where 
you face cruisers, battleships and fighters using a 
variety of weapons. Your screen contains work- 
ing instrumentation and a real time display of the 
alien ships. $6.95 in black and white - $7.95 in 
color and sound. 

MINOS - A game with amazing 3D graphics. 
You see a maze from the top, the screen blanks, 
and then you are in the maze at ground level, 
finding your way through on foot. Realistic 
enough to cause claustrophobia. - $12.95 



SCREEN EDITORS 



These programs all allow the editing of basic 
lines. All assume that you are using the standard 
OSI video display and polled keyboard. 
C1P CURSOR CONTROL - A program that uses 
no RAM normally available to the system. (We 
hid it in unused space on page 21. It provides 
real backspace, insert, delete and replace func- 
tions and an optional instant screen clear. 
$1195 

C2/4 CURSOR. This one uses 366 BYTES of 
RAM to provide a full screen editor. Edit and 
change lines on any part of the screen. (Basic in 
ROM systems only.) 

FOR DISK SYSTEMS - I65D. polled key- 
board and standard video only .) 
SUPERDISK. Contains a basic text editor with 
functions similar to the above programs and also 
contains a renumberer, variable table maker, 
search and new BEXEC* programs. The BEXEC* 
provides a directory, create, delete, and change 
utilities on one track and is worth having by 
itself. - $24 95 on 5" disk - $26 95 on 8". 



AARDVARK IS NOW AN OSI DEALERI 

Now you can buy from people who can support 
your machine. 

-THIS MONTH'S SPECIALS- 
Superboard II $279 

C1P Model II 429 

C4P 749 

. . . and we'll Include a tree Text Editor Tape 
with each machine! 

Video Modification Plans and P.C. Boards 
for C IP as low as $4.95 



^^ 



This is only a partial listing of what we have to offer. We now offer over 100 programs, data sheet*. ROMS, and boards 
for OSI systems. Our $1.00 catalog lists it all and contains free program listings and programming hint* to boot. 

Aardvark Technical Services • 1690 Bolton • Walled Lake, Ml 48088 



% 



CIRCLE 102 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



City Streets, continued. 




1 CLEAR ISOOlDEFBTR F-.DIM T*(6),T(6.1t 
1 <» : C«-CHR« < 207 ) : D*=CHR4 < 2 1 2 ) ; E*-CHR* I : 

50 CLS:FOR X-10 TO 1 15i SET < X, 3) : NEXT 

51 FOR Y-4 TO 44;SET(10.Y):SET(115.Y)-.NEXT 

52 FOR X-10 TO 115;SET(X,44> ll< 

53 PRINT3213. "STREETS OF THE CITVl 

54 PRINTA605."BY"; 

55 PRlNISfcM, KENNETH R. MURRAY"; 

56 FOR X=l TO ISOOiNEXT X 



9, 10). A (8, 2). B( 2. 10>,8<S,1D,U(10), 




~f£ 




PRINT-A TEN-YEAR TRANSPORTATION PLAN TO RESTORE SERVICES FO 
■ R I NT "BOTH STREETS AND BUSES TO AN ADE0UA1E LEVEL. "WILL HI 
135 PR1NT"Y0UR RESPONSIBILITY TO CARRY OUT THIS PLAN.":PRINT 

l INT'FOR THE STREET FUND. YOU WILL NEED TO CONSTRUCT SEVE1 -. 
145 PRINT "MILES OF INTERSTATE HIGHWAYS AND RECONSTRUCT MAJOR I 

INT "STREETS (CALLED PRIMARIES). YOU WILL ALSO NEED TO IMPI 
155 PRINT"STREET CONDITIONS AND TRAFFIC SAFETY. -tPR I NT 
B14 S«(1>="R1DERSH1P"|S»(2)»"FLEET AGE" l S« <3> -"DOWNT IME" l S* (4 > 
* (5) -"FLEET SI 2b" ___ 

8SO T« (2) -"PRIMARY ST. MILEAGE" : T* < 3) =" INTERSTATE MILEAL.E 
860 T*(4)-"SIREET CONDITION INDEX" i T« (5) -"TRAFF IC SAFETY INDEX" 
865 T*(1)="L0CAL ST. MILEAGE" : T» (6) -"VEHICLE MILES" 
10O0 F A<-- "**#»*«#.*»#. "-.FB="*t»#tt#«.»««":FC-"****.**" 
I OR R-l TO 8 
1 OR C-l TO 2 

.C) 
NEXT C 
1 1 M 16 Nl a r R 

1007 DATA 128,191,384,431,640,687, /< >4, 767.896.959 

1008 DATA 15.975.31,991,47. 

.R«0:CV=U:Gl-0t63=0f B=50:P1 = 1. 0O0OlP2" '.> : l-i < I- 

CI-< ( (RND(250 • 'I 

M4'i MI-RNDC 

I (l,YR)-450+RND(l , R> -85+RND (25) : T (3. YR) -0 
1060 T(4.YR)-RND<50)». 1 +6: T <5. YR) -RND (50) * . 1+6 
1065 KX-3000+RND<3000> I XY" r00O*RND< 5000) I XZ-2 IO+RNIXG 

I <6,YR)-(XX»T<1,YR> > + (XY*l (2.YR) ) 
1080 TB(1,YR)-<T(6,YR>/1.6 |PT-TB<1 , YR> * < < <30+RND 1.01 > ) lTB<8, YR) 

; TB(2. YR>=1 

1090 TB<3. YR>=(RNbibn"> »1000>+2100 IB (9. yR> 

.,„„, MN-<T<l,YR>»Ml*.16*<T<4,YR>«.l>>+<T<2,YR>«MI*.3*<T<4,YR>*.l>>H »MI< 

2010 bN-MN*."4*T\S. VK> : TB <6, YR) =MN: TB (7 . V R) -SN 

2011 S(1.YR)-RND( ►530000lS<5,YR>-INT<RNDU0>-M5>lMl-lN 

2012 BF-0sM3-2OOiF0R X-l TO S(5,YR> 
BF-BF+RND(12> +3 

2014 NEXT X 

2"15 Sl2.YR)-INT< (BF/S(5,»k< )»!■), » . 1 : M2- (Ml *S (5. YR) >* CI ■ 

I S-(RND( it.OliSI 1 83-61 MS- (81*1 • • • >M9 

2021 S4«.35;B( 1, YR)-(RND(5<>. w tlOOO 

2022 S(3.YR)-INT(S(2, YR) / 3) +6-MRND (bi ., «. 1 > 1 B (4, YR) -INT ' ». 1 • 
:S(l.YR)-S(l.YR)-( ( (S(5.YR)+S(4.YR> )».01) *8 ' I . <lw ) : !<1 M (M5». I) I I 

I (4.11>-INT(T(4.YR)».4):T<5. ID-INK I (5, YR) *. 4) |8< 1 , 11 ' BU.YR)»4l 
NT(S(2.YR)*.4)lS(3.11)-INT(S(3.YR)».4)sS(4,ll)=INT(S(4.»P.*.t' : 

. 111-16 

2040 INPUT"PRESS ENTER";Z;CLS:PRINT"FOR THE TRANSIT AUTHORITY. YOU 
CE A" 

2041 PR1NT-DELAPIDATED BUS FLEET. INCREASE RIDERSHIP. REDUCE 

2042 PRINT"MAINTENANCE DOWNTIME, AND IMPROVE ON-SCHEDULE PERM 
|RINT"(ALS0 REFERRED TO AS SERVICE DELAY) .": PRINT 

2044 PRINT"FOR ALL INDICES USED. THE HIGHER THE INDEX VALUE THE" 

2045 PRINT"WORSE THE CONDITION INDICATED. THE BUDGET NEEDS LISTED" 

2046 PRINT"ARE THE MINIMUMS NEEDED TO MAINTAIN THE INDEX AT 11 

2047 PRINT"PRESENT LEVEL; IMPROVING THE LEVEL REQUIRES BUDGETS THAT" 

2048 PRINT"ARE HIGHER THAN THE MINIMUM NEEDS. "; PRINT3960. "PRESS ENTER" 

2049 CLS:PRINT;PRINT"YOUR GOALS FOR THE PLAN ARE AS FOLLOWS: ": PR INT 
FRINT "STANDARD"; TAB (30) "PRESENT" ; TAB (45) "GOAL" 

2051 PRINT 

2052 FOR X-2 TO 5;PRINT T« ( X ) ; TAB (30) T ( X . YR> ; TAB (45) T ( X , 1 1 > ; NEXT X 
PRINT 

2034 FOR X-l TO 4 

2055 IF X-l THEN 2058 

:o56 PRINT S*(X) ;TAB(30)S(X,YR) ;TAB(45)S(X, 11) ;NEXT X 

2057 GOTO 2060 

2058 PRINT S»(X);TAB(30) ; ;PRINT USING FB: S ( X . YR) ;; PRINT TAB(45)l 
S(X,llMNEXI > 

PR1NT;PRINT"600D LUCK "': PR INT3935. "PRESS ENTER" ;: INPUT Z 

2990 YR-YR+1 

2991 FOR X=l TO 5 

2992 S(X, YR>-S(X. YR-1) 



I INPUT I 



■ PR INI 



136 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



IM 



■i 




©Iborfa 
iRebenge 



OLDORF'S REVENGE is a well done 
and exciting action game with over 100 
rooms in Hi-Res (See pictures). You 
must explore castles, caverns, caves, and 
palaces, battling monsters and Marching 
for lost treasures plus more. A total of 
4 interlocking programs. 48K Ram. 
Applesoft Rom and Disk required. 

OLDORF on Disk $19.95 



SEE YOUR LOCAL DEALER 

HIGHLANDS COMPUTER SERVICES 

14422 S.E. 132nd 

Renton, Washington 98055 

(206)228-6691 

Washington residents add 5.3*^ sales tax. Applesoft and 
Apple are registered trademarks of Apple Computers, Inc. 






QHje QTarturtan 

The Tartarian requires 48K ram, APPLE- 
Soft ROM, and a disk drive. As you explore 
the 160 rooms (each done in Hl-RES) 
gathering weapons and treasure that will 
prepare you for the Final battle against the 
Tartarian, you will encounter the deadly 
Krolls, battle the Minotaur, discover the 
Yummy Yakky's secret, make friends with 
the Tuliesweep, avoid Ghouls, kill giant 
Centipedes, explore the Pillar Tombs, 
discover secret passages and more. 
TARTURIAN on disk $24.95 

SEE YOUR LOCAL DEALER 

HIGHLANDS COMPUTER SERVICES 

14422 Southeast 132nd Street 

Renton, Washington 98055 

(206) 228-6691 

Washington residents add 3)*t sales las APPLESOFT 

and APPLE are registered trademarks of 

Apple Computers, Inc. 




CIRCLE 151 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



City Streets, continued. 



2993 NEXT X 

FOR X«l TO 6 
1 (X,YR)-T<X.VR-J) 
I NEXT X 
FOR X-l TO 9 

3050 TB(X,YR)=TB(X. YR-1) 

3051 NEXT X 

3052 B(1.YR)-B(1,YR-1>:B(2.YR>»B(2.YR-1>:: IF RNDUOX5 THEN GB- (RND (6) *P1 ) I 
GG-0 

3053 B(2,YR)-6(2,YR)+GG: IF B (2. YR) >P1 * 10 THEN B ( 2, YR> -PI « 1 • • 
iS IF YR-1 THEN 3071 

3070 1= (RND < 10) +5) ».01 1 IP1-P1+ (PI «I ) : P2-P2+ (P2» I ) i M9-M9+ (M9» 1 , 

3071 B(l.YR)-B(l,YR-l):B(2,YR>-B(2,YR-t):IF RNDU0X5 THEN GG-RND(6)*P1 Fl • ■'■ 
O 

3072 B(2,YR)-B(2.YR)*GG: IF YR-1 THEN 3241 

3080 MI-MI+(MI*I):CI-CI+(CI»I):TB(1.YR)-T6(1,YR)1-(TB(1. <R>I[ ,: IF ,!■: . hND T(4.YR 
> T(4,YR-2> THEN CI-CI*1.1 

3081 M1-M1-MM1*I):M3-M3+(M3*I>:M2-(M1«S(5.YR>> + (M3«BF) 
IF 1 .11 THEN T(1,YR)-T(1.YR)+RND(7) 

3110 IF K-.ll AND I>.08 THEN T < 1 . YR) -T ( 1 , YR) +RND ( 15) 

3120 IF K-.OB THEN T ( 1 . YR> =T ( 1 . YR) +RND(22> 

3190 T(6.YR)-T<6, YR)-MXX»(T(1.YR)-T(1. YR-1. u < . 

YR)-T(3,YR-2)>) 

3200 TB(l,YR)-((T(A,YR)>/1.6> + (TB(l,YR>*I>lPT«PT+(PT«(H-.02>>-MPTt( ((81 

.YR-1) )/S(5.YR-l) )/2) ) 

3210 TB(3,YR)-TB(3,YR)+(TB(3,YR>*(I-.02))lS(l,YR)-S(l,YR)+(S(l.YFi. 

3220 TB(9. YR) -TB (9, YR) +TB (3. YR) <-Bl : TB (8, YR) -TB(8. YR) +TB( 1 . YR) 

3230 MN-(T(1,YR)*MI*. 16* (T (4, YR) * . 1 ) ) ♦ (T (2. YR) »MI * . 5* ( T ( 4. YR) * . 1 ) / «MI 

3235 MN=(MN«.6>+( (MN* . 4 > » ( 1+U* . 01 > > 

3240 SN=MN*.o4*T(5,YR> : SN- (SN» . 6) •► ( (SN» . 4 ) * ( 1 +U» . 01 ) ) 

3241 CLS> PRINT "YOUR TRANSIT AUTHORITY SERVICE OPTIONS ARE: ": PRINT 

3242 PRINT TAB(5>"1. ROUTES" : PRINT TAB(5)"2. HOURS OF OPERATION" I PR INI i.< 
3. DAYS OF SERVICE": PRINT TAB(5)"4. FARE":PRINT TAB(3>"'.. 

5243 PRINT: INPUT-WHAT IS YOUR CHOICE": Z: IF INT(Z)OZ AND 1 41 

ON Z GOTO 3248,3254.3262,3270,3286 
[324B PR I NTS>640. "PRESENT NUMBER OF ROUTES-": SI 

'3249 PR I NTS) 704, "NEW NUMBER OF ROUTES (MIN. OF 6, MAX. OF 25)": 
INPUT SKI). PRINT»960,E»«: IF INT (SI ( 1 ) , < SI ( 1 ) THEN 

3251 IF SI (1X6 THEN 3281 

3252 IF SM1X25 THEN 3281 ELSE 3241 



-i-i»- ? 254 PRINT3640,"Y0UR POSSIBLE HOURS OF OPERATION ARE LISTED BELOW: IF S2- 
I I fl S2-1 



THFN 



3255 IF S2-17 THEN S2-2 

3256 IF S2-24 THEN S2-3 

3257 PR I NT3704, "CURRENT OPT ION-" i S2: PRINT3768, " 1 . 6 AM TO 6 PM" : PRINTiH 

AM TO 11 PM":PRINT3832."3. 24 HOURS" : PRINTSB72, "NEW HOURS" :: INPUT S2 ( 1 ) : PR INTi>9,S 
O.E»«:IF INT(S2(1> X>S2(1> OR S2 ( 1 X 1 OR 82(1) >3 THEN 3282 

3258 IF S2(l)-1 THEN S2(l)-12 

3259 IF S2(l>-2 THEN S2(l)-17 

3260 IF S2(l)-3 THEN S2 ( I ) -24 

3261 GOTO 3241 

3262 PRINT3640."Y0UR OPTIONS FOR DAYS OF SERVICE ARE AS FOLLOWS" 

3263 IF S3=6 THEN S3-1 ELSE S3-2 

3264 PRINTIB704, "CURRENT OPTION-" ; S3-.PRINT.J768. " 1 . MONDAY THROUGH SATURI 

3265 PRINT3832,"2. MONDAY THROUGH SUNDAY" 

3266 PRINT3872,"NEW DAYS -";: INPUT S3 ( 1 ) : PR INT.S960. E*; 

3267 IF INT (83(1) ) -S3 ( 1 ) AND S3(l)=l OR S3(l)-2 THEN 3268 ELSE 



S^ 3268 IF S3(l>-1 THEN S3 ( 1 ) =6 ELSE S3 ( 1 ) -7 
<S9 GOTO 3241 



Vi 



:270 PRINTJ)640."THE FARE MAY BE CHANGED IN NICKEL UNITS. WITH A" 
:271 PRINTS704, "MINIMUM FARE OF *. 25 AND A MAXIMUM OF *1. 
272 PRINT3768."D0 NOT ENTER DOLLAR SIGN" 

:273 PRINT3832, "CURRENT FARE = " : S4:PRINTS>872. "NEW FARE -") 
274 INPUT S4»:F'RINTS»960.E»,iIF RIGHT* (S4*. 1 ) -"O" OR RIGHT* (S4». 1 > -"5" THEN 

j ELSE 3285 

cf .75 S4(l)-VAL(S4*)sIF S4 ( 1 X . 25 OR 84(1) >1 THEN 3284 
3277 GOTO 3241 

3279 GOTO 3286 

3280 PRINT3960,"Y0U MUST ENTER A WHOLE NUMBER" ;. PR I NT5>7.>4. E«: GOTO 3249 

3281 PR I NT .i960. "V OUR NUMBER IS OUTSIDE THE RANGES" :: PR INTd704, E»: GOTO 3249 

3282 PRINT3960.-Y0UR OPTION MUST BE 1. 2. OR 3" , : PR INTi.832. E*. GOTO -.257 
o283 PRINTil96o, "YOUR OPTION MUST BE 1 OR i " : : F K INI .JW32. E*l GOTO 3265 
3284 PRINT3960."Y0UR FARE IS OUTSIDE THfc RANGE " : : FR1NT.S832. E«: 601. I 

-Iba «!! I f NT ?^':',7 He FARE MUST BE 1N NICI <EL INCREMENTS":, PR INTS.832. E*: bOICI 

,>2B6 S6-0:IF S 1 ( 1 ) -O AND S2 ( 1 > -O AND S3 ( 1 ) -O AND ?,-t 

3287 IF 83(1 )<>0 AND S3 ( 1 > -S3-S THEN S6-S6+ ( (RND ( 1SOOO) +7i> 

1%TL .f- S3(l>,0 AND S3(l)-S3-7 THEN S6-S6-M (RND (25. ■ • I. 

^f? I S3(l»v;0 AND S3(l)-S3-12 THEN S6-S6+ ( (RND .SI ) 

*?Zi IF S3<1 > " "ND S3-S3(l)-5 THEN S6-S6- ( (RND ( 15000) +750OO) »S1 ) 

-^o" S3(l> O AND S3-S3(l)-7 THEN S6-S6- ( (RND ( . 

^93 IF S3(1X>0 AND S3-S3(l)-12 THEN S6=S6-((RNI> II , 

3294 IF SMIXvO THEN S6-S6+ ( < ( 10O+RND < 1 20) > »500> * (SI ( 1 > -SI > . 

3295 IF S2 ( 1 X >0 AND S2 ( 1 ) , O THEN S6-S6+ ( RND < 1 OOOO > + 1 5000 ) « ( S2 < 1 ) -S2 ) 
-■296 IF S4UX0 AND S4 ( 1 ) S4 THEN S6-S6- ( ( (S4 < 1 > -S4) /5> «I ■ 

3297 IF S1(1)>0 THEN SI-SKI) 

3298 IF S2<1)>0 THEN S2-S2 ( 1 ) 

3299 IF B3(l> THEN S3-S3 ( 1 ) 
IF S4(1X0 THEN S4-S4(l) 



138 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



SOFTWARE UNLIMITED 



x 



presenting the LARGEST SELECTION OF SOFTWARE EVER ASSEMBLED. 



for ATARI® • APPLE® • PET® • TRS-80® and other Microcomputers 

at SUPER DISCOUNT PRICES! 



ADVENTURE INTERNATIONAL 

D ADVENTURE «0 it 825 

D ADVENTURE It 2 31 |D| (AP Tl 35 95 

D ADVENTURE (4 5.6 110] (APTi 35 95 

D ADVENTURE (7 8 91 |0| (APT) 3595 

D ADVENTURE (specify t 10) (APT! .... 1355 

□ PROJECT OMEGA (T| 13 55 

□ PROJECT OMEGA (Tl |D] 22 50 

D PLANETOIDS |D| (API 17 95 

D MEAN CHECKERS MACHINE (TI....1795 
D DR CHIPS (Tl 13 55 

□ KID-VENTURE 1 (API (T) 13 55 

D LUNAR LANDER (Tl 1355 

D MOUNTAIN SHOOT (AT| 895 

D SLAG (Ti 13 55 

D STAR TREK 35 (AT T| 1355 

DSTARTREK35 |D] (Tl 1795 

D SUNDAY GOLF (AT| 895 

D ZOSSED IN SPACE (Tl 13 55 

AVALON HILL 

D MIDWAY (P T API 13 50 

D NUKE WAR (P T API 1350 

□ PLANET MINERS (P T API 13 50 

D CONVOY RAIDER (P T API 13 50 

□ B1 BOMBER (PT AP) 13 50 

□ LORDS OF KARMA (P.T.APl 18 00 

ACORN SOFTWARE 

D ATERM (Ti 17 95 

D SYSTEM SAVERS (Ti 1355 

O TING TONG (T| 895 

D DISASSEMBLER (Ti 13 55 

D DISK TAPE UTIUIY 111 1795 

D CHECKBOOK |D| IT. 22 95 

D STAR TREK SIMULATION (Tl 8 95 

D OPERA THEATRER (Tl 8 95 

Q GAMMON CHALLENGER (T) 13 55 

a PIGSKIN ITl 13 55 

D STRUCTURED BASIC |D| (T| 26 95 

D ULTRA TREK (T 13 55 

D SPACE WAR (Tl 8 95 

D WARP LANDER (Tl 8 95 

D BASKETBALL |D| (Tl 18 95 

□ BASKETBALL (Tl 13 55 

D DUEL-N DROIDS |D| (T) 1895 

□ DUEL-NDROIDS (Ti 13 55 

D INVADERS FROM SPACE (Ti 1355 

Q INVADERS FROM SPACK |D] (T|...18 95 

D PIGSKIN |D| (T| 18 95 

D PINBALL (Ti 13 55 

D PINBALL |D| (T) 18 95 

D OUAD (Tl 13 55 

D OUAD [01 (T| 18 95 

D SUPERSCRIPT |D| (T) 28 95 

AUTOMATED SIMULATION 

a TUESDAY QUARTERBACK |D| (API ... 26 95 

O STAR WARRIOR |C.D| (APT) 35 95 

Q THREE PACK |D| (AP.P.T) 45 00 

D STARFLEET ORION |C D| (APT)... 24 95 

O STARFLEET ORION |C| (Pi 24 95 

D INVASION ORION |C.D| (AP Tl .... 24 95 

D INVASION ORION |C| (PI 24 95 

D TEMPLE OF APSHAI |0| (AP ,T| .... 2995 

D TEMPLE OF APSHAI |C| (P Tl 29 95 

D DATESTONESOF RYN |D C| (AP Tl . . . 1995 

□ DATESTONESOFRYN [C| (PI ....19 95 
D MORLOC TOWER |C D| (APT) ....19 95 

D MORLOC TOWER )C| (PI 1995 

O RESCUE AT RIGEL IC D| (APT| ...24 95 

D RESCUE AT RIGEL |C| (PI 24 95 

D HELLFIRE WARRIOR |D| (AP T) 2995 

D HELLFIRE WARRIOR [CI (P) 29 95 

BIG FIVE SOFTWARE 

D ATTACK FORCE (Tl 1430 

D GALAXY INVASION (Tl 14 30 

II you don't tee It 
listed, write... 
we probably have 
it in stock! 



Check program desired 
Complele ordering inlormation 
and mail entire ad 
Immediate Shipments Irom stock 



KEY: 

AT-Atari 

AP-Apple 

P-Pet 

T-TRS-80 

C -TRS-80 Color 

D-on Disc. 

If not marked-Cassette 

ATARI « 4 trademark ol ATARI INC 

APPLE is l trademark ol APPLE COMPUTER INC 

TRS*) is a trademark ol TANDY COUP 

PET » a trademark ol COMMODORE BUSINESS MACHINES 



BIG FIVE SOFTWARE 

D METEOR MISSION (f| 9 75 

□ SUPER NOVA |T| 14 30 

D COSMIC FIGHTER I T i 14 30 

COMPUTER SIMULATIONS COMPANY 

a BATTLE OF BULGE BASTGONES |T| ... 1795 
D O DAY INVASION OF FRANCE (T) ... 17 96 

a DARK KINGDOM (T) 11 75 

Q DOG RACE COLOR ONLY (C) 595 

D EMPIRE STRIKES BACK (T| 13 55 

D MINI ARCADE COLOR (Ci 13 55 

O POLARIS COLOR ONLY |CI 595 

D SHARK COLOR ONLY (Cl 595 

□ SLOT MACHINE (T) 7 25 

O BATTLE OF BULGEST VITH IT) .... 1355 

O STARCRUISERS (Ti 1355 

O U-BOAT COLOR ONLY (Cl 5 95 

INSTANT SOFTWARE 

D AIR FLIGHT SIMULATION (AP T| ....895 

D AIRMAIL PILOT H 8 95 

D BASIC PROGRAMMING ASSISTANT (T| . . 1355 

D BALL TURRET GUNNER |T| 895 

Q BATTLEGROUND ft] 8 95 

D CHECK MANAGEMENT |D] (T) 36 55 

D CHESSMATE-80 (T) 17 95 

D THE COMMUNICATOR (Tl 8 95 

D COSMIC PATROL IT i 13 55 

D DAREDEVIL |T| 895 

O DISASSEMBLER |Ti 896 

O DISK EDITOR ID| (T| 36 55 

D DISK SCOPE |D| (Tl 17 95 

O DLDIS |OI (T| 17 95 

O ENHANCED BASIC (Tl 2250 

D FLIGHT PATH (Ti 895 

a INVESTORS PARADISE (T 895 

D IRV (T| 22 50 

D IHV [D] (Ti 27 55 

D JET FIGHTER PILOT (T) 13 55 

D MONEY MADNESS (T) 8 95 

O NIGHT FLIGHT (T| 695 

D ONE-D MAILING LIST |D| (T| 22 50 

D OTHELLO (T) 8 95 

Q PET UTILITY (P) 8 95 

D PROGRAMMERS CONVERTER (T) .... 895 
D SANTA PARAVIA FIUMACCIO (APT P| . . 8 96 

D SKIRMISH-80 (Tl 695 

D TERMINAL-80 (Ti 22 50 

a TLDIS (T) 13 55 

D UTILITTY I OR II (Tl 7 25 

D WINNERS DELIGHT (T) 895 

D WORDSLINGER (T) 26 00 

PERSONAL SOFTWARE 

D CCA DATA MGMT |D[ (AP) 85 00 

O CCA MGMT TRS-80 |D| <T| 6600 

Q DESK TOP PLAN ID] (API 85 00 

□ MONTY MONOPOLY |D| (AP) 31 55 

D VISICALC |D) (API 125 00 

D VISICALC |DJ (AT P) 170O0 

D ZORK (Tl |D| 3696 

QUALITY SOFTWARE 

D3DTICTACTOE (Ti 1355 

□ 6602 DISASSEMBLER (AT) 10 55 

Q ATARI ASSEMBLER (AT) 22 50 

□ ASTEROIDS IN SPACE |D] (AP) .... 17 96 
O BATTLESHIP COMMANDER (AP) .... 13 55 

□ BATTLESHIP COMMANDER |D| (AP) . . 17 95 

D FASTGAMMON |D| (APT) 22 50 

D FASTGAMMON (APT ATI 17 95 

D FORTH [D| (AT) 7000 

D FRACAS ADVENTURE (AP) 17 95 

□ FRACAS ADVENTURE |0| (AP) 22 50 

□ BENEATH APPLE MANNOR (AP) .... 13 55 
D BENEATH APPLE MANNOR |D| (AP) . . 1796 
DOSLIGHTPEN (Tl 1795 



QUALITY SOFTWARE 

DSKETCH80 T 1355 

STRATEGIC SIMULATIONS 

D COMPUTER AMBUSH |D| (AP) 51 50 

D COMPUTER BISMARCK |D] (APT) ... 51 50 

D COMPUTER BISMARCK (Ti 42 00 

D COMPUTER CONFLICT [D] (API .... 3600 

□ COMPUTER NAPOLEONICS |D| (AP) . . 51 50 
D COMPUTER QUARTERBACK |D| (API .. 3500 
Q COMPUTER AIR COMBAT |D| (API ... 51 60 
D WARP FACTOR |D| (AP) 35 00 

SUB-LOGIC 

a 30 GRAPHICS (API 40 00 

D 30 GRAPHICS ID) (API 48 00 

□ A2-FS1 FLIGHT SIMULATOR (API .... 2200 

Q A2-FS1 FLIGHT |D| (AP| 29 00 

O T80-FS1 FLIGHT SIMULATOR (Tl .... 2200 
D 3D GRAPHICS (Ti 2650 

MICROSOFT SOFTWARE 

a ADVENTURE |D] (APT) 25 50 

D ASSEMBLY DEVELOPMENT [D| (Tl ... 8000 
D BASIC COMPILER |D| (Tl 175 00 

□ EDITOR ASSEMBLER (Ti 2550 

D FORTRAN COMPILER [O) (Ti 8000 

D LEVEL III BASIC (Ti 44 00 

D MuMATH |DJ (Ti 6400 

D OLYMPIC DECATHALON |DJ (T AP) . . . 2000 

D OLYMPIC DECATHALON IT 2000 

D TYPING TUTOR (APT) 13 55 

O Z-80 SOFTCARD |D| (AP 28000 

D 16k RAM BOARD (AP| 18500 

ON LINE SYSTEMS 

D HI RES AOVEN «0 |D| (AP) 17 95 

D HIRESADVEN «1 10) (API 2250 

D HIRESADVEN "2 |D| IAPi 29 00 

D HIRES FOOTBALL |D| (APi 36 00 

D HI-RES CRIBBAGE |D| (APi 22 50 

SIRIUS SOFTWARE 

□ STAR CRUSIER (AP) |0| 22 50 

D BOTH BARRELS (API |D| 22 50 

D CYBER STRIKE (API |D| 3600 

D PHANTOM FIVE (AP) |D| 26 95 

D SPACE EGGS (AP) |D| 26 95 

BROOERBUNO SOFTWARE 

D GALACTIC EMPIRE (AP) |D| 22 50 

O GALACTIC TRADER (AP) ID| 22 50 

D GALACTIC REVOLUTION (AP) |D| . . . . 22 50 

a TAWALA S REDOUBT (AP) |D| 26 95 

D HYPER HEAD ON (API |D| 2250 

D GALAXY WARS (AP) |D| 22 50 

□ APPLE GALAXIAN (AP) |D| 22 50 

D TANK COMMAND (AP) |0| 13 55 

Q GOLDEN MOUNTAIN (AP| [D] 1795 

BOTTOM SHELF 

D ANALYSIS PAD |D| (T) 9000 

O BUSINESSMAIL |D| (Ti 10000 

O CHECKBOOK II |D| (Tl 44 SO 

□ CHECK REGISTER |D| ( 1 1 67 00 

D DATA MANAGER |0| (Tl 67 00 

D LIBRARY 100 (T I 44 50 

D HEAD CLEANER |D| LAP ' 17 00 

SYNERGISTIC SOFTWARE 

D DUNGEON & WILDERNESS |D| (AP) . . 2900 
D DUNGEON (AP) 13 50 

□ DUNGEON [0| (AP) 15 75 

D ODYSSEY |D| (AP) 27 00 

D WILDERNESS (API 15 75 

□ WILDERNESS |D| (API 1800 

APPARAT 

O NEWDOS/80 |D) (Ti 125 00 



■ ol Compulrf 



with 



K memory 



Number ol Programs Ordered . . . 

Amount ol order 

N V residents add Sales Tan . . 

Ajdd shipping anywhere in the U S ^.00 
Total amount enclosed 



Charge my O Master Charge D Visa 

Signature . 

Card No Expires 



Mail to: 



DIGIBYTE SYSTEMS CORP. 

31 East 31st Street. New York, NY. 10016 
Phone: (212) 889-6975 



^* 



CIRCLE 184 ON READER SERVICE CARP 



City Streets, continued 





DONT 'DONT, 
'; WALK 



1- 




51 (1 >=0: : B3I 

IF YR=3 OR YR=7 THEN 3304 ELSE 36B0 
• B9=B1;B8=DS: IF VR=3 THEN B1-1SOOOOO ELSE Bl^. 
3309 CLStPRINT TAB < 1 5 > "STREET FUND BOND PROPOSAL" I PR I NT I PR I NT "YOU Ml 
NDING UP TO"! 

PRINT USING FAjBl: 
5311 FRINV'SUbJECT TO" 

3315 PR I NT "APPROVAL OF THE CITY COMMISSION AND A VOTE OF I HI " 
3320 PRINV'CIT IZENS. HOW MUCH DO YOU WISH TO PROPOSE (IN" 

INPUT "THOUSANDS. TYPE 'O' IF NONE)";Z 
3326 IF Z-0 THEN 3673 

: IF / OR Z Bl THEN 
3331 Bl-Z 
3335 IF CV<8 THEN Bl-Bl- (RND (35) * 104 " >• » 

THEN B1-B1-(RND(20> MOOOO) 
3345 PR I NTs PR INT "THE COMMISSION HAS APPROVED A BOND REFERENDUM" 
3350 PR I NT "FOR"; 

PRINT USING FA;B1; 
3356 PRINT"EACH YEAR. " s PRINT: PRINT l INPUT "PRESS ENTER";Z 

3360 CLSlPRINT:PRINT"THE COALITION OF NEIGHBORHOOD ASSOCIATIONS HAS ASKED" 
3365 PRINT"YOU TO MAKE THE FOLLOWING PLEDGES FOR THE NEXT THRI 

PR I NT "YEARS. WILL YOU MAKE ANY OF THEM ( Y/N) ?"i PRINT 
3375 IF T(4.YR) Il4.o) THEN B2-T(4,YR>-2 ELSE B2-T(4.0>-2 
3380 IF B2- 1 THEN B2- 1 
33B5 IF T(5.YRi T<5.0) THEN B3»T(5,YR>-2 ELSE B2=T(5,0)-2 

I b~ 1 THEN B3-1 
3395 IF Gl>22 THEN B4-44-G1 ELSE B4-20 
3400 IF G3 11 THEN B5-16-G3 ELSE B5-6 

3405 PRINT TAB(5>"1. IMPROVE STREET CONDITION INDEX TC 
3410 PRINT TAB(5)"1'. IMPROVE SAFETY INDEX T0";B3 

PRINT TAB (5) "3. CONSTRUCT "( B4; "MILES OF PRIMARIES" 

I'RINT TAB(5)"4. CONSTRUC I "; B5; "MILES OF INTERSTATES" 

3423 PRINT; PRINT376B. "PLEDGE 1 " ; TAB ( 15) "PLEDGE 2"|TAB<3©> "PLEDBI 'PLED 
ul. 4" 

3424 PRINT 3832, C« 

3425 PRINT3832.I 

3426 INPUT Z* 

IF Z* "Y" AND !*• >"N" THEN 3403 
3435 IF Z*="N" THEN B2-0 
3439 PRINT3847.C* 
:.44'. PRINT3B4 7. ; 
3441 INPUT Z* 
3445 IF Z*. >"Y" AND Z*'.>"N" THEN 3410 

IF Z*«"N" THEN B3-0 

3454 PRINT3862.C* 

3455 PRINT3862,;: INPUT Z* 

346(1 IF Z* <>"Y" AND Z«< - "N" THEN 3415 

IF 7*="N" THEN B4-0 
3469 PRINT3877.C* 

PRINTS>877. ;; INPUT Z« 

IF 1% "V" AND Z«<>"N" THEN 3420 
3480 IF Z»»"N" IHE1N R 

3485 PRINT3960, "PRESS ENTER FOR ELECTION RESULTS"; 
3490 INPUT ZsCLSlPRINT TAB(lB)"BOND ELECTION RESUl 

3492 PRINTsPRINT"WARD";TAB( 10) "YES" ; TAB (20) "NO"; TAB(35) "TOT. VI TOT. N 

G" 

3495 PRINT;V5-0;V6-0 

[I CV>9 tHEN VI =5000 ELSE VI -4 
3 IF T(4.YR) T(4.YR-1> AND T(4.YR) ld.'i) THEN VI 
3510 IF T(5.YR) T(5,YR-1) AND T<5,YR) r<S,0> THEN V1=V1+V>" 
3515 IF YR-7 THEN 

3520 IF Bl UOOOOO THEN V1=V1< 
5 GOTO 3535 

IF Bl 16OOO00 THEN Vl-Vl+500 

IF i<: IHEN Vl-Vl + J. 
THEN V1=V1+' 
3545 IF B40 THEN VI -VI +500 

II- H4 THEN VI -VI +500 
3555 V2»RND(5> 

I OR X=l TO 5 
3565 IF X-V2 THEN 3585 
3575 V3=V1+RND(11' 
3580 GOTO 3590 

3585 V3-(Vl/2)+RND( li> 

3586 IF V3 3OO0 IHEN V3-4<_ 

:.59o V4-2 1 000-V3 s V5-V5+V3: V6-V6+V4 

3595 PRINT TAB(2) X; TAB (9) V3; TAB ( 19) V4; TAB (35) V5; TAB (50) V6 

3600 FOR Y-l TO 500: NEXT Y 

3605 NEXT X 

>61" IF V5<=V6 THEN 3650 

3615 PR I NT; PR I NT "CONGRATULATIONS. THE BOND ISSUE WAS APPROVED BY" 

3620 PRINT"THE VOTERS. YOUR ANNUAL DEBT PAYMENT WILL BE";;DS»PT». 

PRINT USING FAsDS 
3635 TB(9. YR)«=TB(9. YR> +B1 : 6=B- 10; DS-DS+B8; B1-B1+B9 
3640 INPUT"PRESS ENTER" | Z; GOTO 3680 

IRINT"THE REFERENDUM HAS FAILED." 

3651 IF V6/ (V5+V6)< (55+RND(15> >».01 THEN 3660 

3652 PR I NT "BECAUSE OF THE MARGIN OF DEFEAT. YOU HAVE LOST" 



140 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Upr.i 

Files a 



: INVNTORY 



Call! Using: Pilel/Name - t 

• : 1 TRANSACT 1 L 

1 TRANSACT 2 PA 



arae - Pieldi/Nanie 

2 CUSTOMER 9 CUSTOMER t 

3 INVNTORY 1 PART NUMBER 



PROCEDURE 



1 If QUANTITY of (TRANSACT) EQ then 
SKIP 



TOTAL PRICE of TRANSACT-QUANTITY of TRANSACT'SELLING EACH of INVNTORY 
YEAR-TO-DATE of CUSTOMER-YEAR-TO-DATE of CUSTOMER+TOTAL PRICE of TRANSACT 
ON-HAND of INVNTORY-ON-HAND of INVNTORY-QUANTITY of TRANSACT 



fWtk 



The intimate Application Development System 



Nothing can compete with the brain when it comes to information 
storage capacity and speed of data entry and recall — but we're 
working at it. 

Our SELECTOR-IV™ data base management system will let your 
microcomputer operate with the flexibility available (up to now) only 
on larger systems. You can create, maintain and report on files 
limited in size only by your *CP/M™ compatible operating system or 
disk storage capacity. 

The basis of the power of SELECTOR-IV™ is our unigue method 
of cross-indexing the information in your files. You can immediately 
recall records by the contents of any piece of information reguired — 
from account numbers to ZIP codes to the date of your last audit. You 
can update records, individually or all at once. You can create new, 
uniguely, selected sub-files from existing ones (in the same or a 
different format), and perform computations in the process. You can 
define procedures to generate computed invoices, personalized 
letters, or gummed labels with the information coming from several 
files at once, and invoke them whenever needed. You can add new 
items to a record definition and change or delete them at will. 

*CP/M w • r»gi«1«f»d ll«d»m«rk ot Diqital R««#«rch 

CIRCLE 167 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



We've come a long way since we released the first information 
management system in microcomputers. We've listened to your 
suggestions and incorporated the best of them. We've built screen 
editing functions into the system which make operating the system as 
convenient as possible. We've had SELECTOR-IVs™ documentation 
produced by our experts emphasizing its use for the novice, the ap- 
plications developer, as well as, the retailer. Our applications 
specialists can provide you with a "turnkey" SELECTOR-TV™ system 
customized for virtuallyany reguirement. 

With SELECTOR-IV™ and a. good 
word processor program, chances 
are you won't need any other software. 

Look lor SELECTOR-IV™ crt 
your local computer retailor, or call: 

MICRO'AP, INC. 
7033 Village Pky. 
Suite 806 
Dublin, CA 94S66 
C41S)828-6697 

MICRO'AP 




City Streets, continued. 





3653 PR INT "THE VOTE OF A COMMISSIONER."! CV-CV-1 

3655 IF CV< 6 THEN 6770 

3660 El I -B9 1 B2-0 1 B3-0 : B4-0 : B5=0 

3675 PRINTi INPUT"PRESS ENTER";Z 

3680 CLSlPRINT TAB ( 18) "PROPERTY TAX LEVY" 

3681 M5-(S1«S2*S3*312«S)+M9:M2-M2+ (M5*. 1) i B( t , YR) -B < 1 , YR) + <S4*S< I . YR) >♦< ■ M. 
2) 

3685 PRINT TAB < 30) "STREET FUND" » TAB (45) " TRANS I T AUTHORITY" 

3690 PR I NT "OPERATING NEEDS" J TAB (30) J i PRINT USING FA: MN+SN+DS: ! PRINT TAB(45>::PPr 

NT USING FA|M2+M5 

3695 PRINVNON-TAX REVENUE" J TAB (30) f : PRINT USING FA: TB (8. YR) 1 :PRINT TAB(43)||PR1 

NT USING FA:B(1.YR) 

3699 IF M2+M5-B(1.YRX0 THEN Xl-O ELSE X 1»M2*M5-B ( 1 . YR) 

3700 PR I NT "PROPERTY TAX NEEDED (MILLS) " |: PRINT TAB (30) ; :PRINT USING FA:MN+ SI 
TB<8,YR)5lPRINT TAB (45) » i PRINT USING FA)X1 

3705 TN»INT( ( (MN+SN+DS+X 1-TB (8, YR) >/PT>*10>». 1 :PRINT: PRINT"YIELD OF ONE MILL «": 
iPRINT USING FAjPT:PRINT "TOTAL PROPERTY TAX NEEDED (IN MILLS) -":TN 
3710 PRINTS)640."WHAT PROPERTY TAX LEVY (0-10 MILLS) DO YOU PROPOSE" J i INPUT TB ( - 
YR) :PRINT3960.E«: 

3715 IF TB(2,YR>>-0 AND TB(2,YR)<-10 THEN 3725 

3720 PRINTS)960,"Y0U CANNOT EXCEED THE LIMITS" ti PRINTJ640. E«: GOTO 5710 
3725 IF TB(2,YRX-TB(2.YR-1> THEN 3805 
3770 Xl-0:X2-0 
3775 FOR X-l TO 11 

3780 IF CV 9 THEN 3783 

3781 IF XOCV THEN X3-RND(5) ELSE X3-RND(8> 

3782 GOTO 3785 

3783 IF X<=2 THEN X3«RND<4> 

3784 IF X 2 AND X<-CV THEN X3-RND(5):IF X >CV THEN X3-RND(8> 

3785 IF K3< =3 THEN Xl-Xl+1 ELSE X2-X2+1 
3790 NEXT X 
3795 IF Xl>=6 THEN 3801 

3800 IF TB(2,YRK-TN THEN TB (2, YR) -TB ( 2. YR) ELSE TB (2 . YR) -TB (2. YR) • (.1*<X2+I>) 

3801 IF Xl>-6 THEN 3805l IF TB (2. YR) >-TN+2 AND XK10 THEN T6(2. YR) «TB (2. YR) • I 
2+1) ) 

3805 PRINTS)704."THE CITY COMMISSION HAS APPROVED A LEVY OF" | TB (2, YR) J "MILLS" 
3810 PRINTi768."HOW MANY MILLS ARE FOR THE STREET FUND" : : INPUT T8: PRINT3960, F»: 
3815 IF TB>.-TB(2. YR) THEN 3825 

3820 PRINT3960, "YOU CANNOT ALLOCATE MORE THAN YOU ARE AUTHORI ZED" : : PR1NT.J76B. E«« 
GOTO 3810 

3825 TB(8,YR)-TB(8,YR)+(PT*T8)-DSiB(l.YR)-B(l.YR)+(PT»(Tb(2,YR)-T8) ) 

4000 CLStC-OiGOTO 4020 

401O C-l 

4020 CLSlPRINT TAB ( 10) "STREET FUND BUDGET DECISIONS FOR /EAR":YR 

4030 PRINT"OPERATIONSl " i TAB ( 33) "CONSTRUCT IONl " 

4040 PRINT TAB (5) "AVAILABLE: ": 

4041 PRINT USING FA:TB(8,YR>: 

4050 PRINT TAB(38) "AVAILABLE:" j iPRINT USING FA;TB(9,YR) 
4060 PRINT TAB(5)"MAINT. NEED-" | :PRINT USING FAiMN: 
4070 PRINT TAB (38 ("COST PER HALF MILE UNIT:" 
4080 PRINT TAB(5) "SAFETY NEED-" i: PRINT USING FAiSN: 
4090 PRINT TAB (38) "PRIMARY RDS. -":; PRINT USING FA:CI*.2 
4100 PRINT TAB(3B)"INTERSTATES-": :PRINT USING FA:CI 
4110 PRINT: IF C«l THEN 4260 

4150 PRINT" YOU MAY TRANSFER UP TO ":B:"V. FROM AN ACCOUNT" 

4160 PRINT TAB (10) "1. OPERATIONS TO CONSTRUCTION" 

4170 PRINT TAB (10) "2. CONSTRUCTION TO OPERATIONS" 

4180 PRINT TAB(10)"3. NO TRANSFER" 

4190 INPUT Z:IF ZOl AND I<>2 AND Z >3 THEN 4020 

4195 IF Z-3 THEN 4010 ELSE 4200 

4200 INPUT "HOW MUCH DO YOU WANT TO TRANSFER (IN THOUSANDS. 

T*1000 

4210 IF Z-l AND T >TB (B, YR) / (B«.01 ) THEN 420O 

4220 IF Z-2 AND T>TB(9. YR) / (Bt.Ol ) THEN 4200 

4230 IF Z-2 THEN 4250 

4240 TB(8.YR)-TB(8.YR)-T:TB(9,YR)-TB(9.YR.+T:G0T0 4010 

4250 TB(8.YR)-TB(8.YR)+T:TB(9,YR)=TB(9.YRi-T:GOT0 4010 

4260 PRINT"ENTER CONSTRUCTION BY THE NUMBER OF HALF MILE UNITS: " 

4265 PRINT-ENTER MAINTENANCE AND SAFETY BY THOUSAND DOLLAR UNITS." 

427(> PRINT"DO NOT USE COMMAS OR DOLLAR SIGNS" 

4280 PRINT:PRINT TAB ( 10) "PRIMARIES" : TAB < 2o> : " 1NTERSTATES" : TAB ( 36) "MAINTENANl I " : I 

"SAFETY" 
4290 PRINT"LAST YR" ; TAB ( 13) PC: TAB (23) IC: 

I PRINT TAB(35i : 
4'ol PRINT USING FA ( TB(6. YR-1) : 

PRINT TAB (50) ; 

•PINT USING FA:TB(7.YR-1> 

F--RINT"IH1& YR"; 
43 IS PRINT«>844, : 
4 It. INHUT PC 

R INT8960,E»| 

4318 IF INT (PC)- ;PC THEN 4390 

4319 IF Gl-MPC/2) 44 THEN 4392 
PRINT^854. : 

4321 INPUT IC 

4322 PRINT*960.E«: 

IF INT(IC) ;IC THEN 4393 
4324 IF T(3„YR)*(IC/2) >16 THEN 4395 



WITHOUT * SIGN)") flT« 



142 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Now NRI takes you inside the 

new TRS-80 Model III microcomputer 

to train you at home as the 

new breed of computer specialist! 



NRI teams up with Radio Shack 

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It's no longer enough to be just a 
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With NRI training, the program- 
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and easily. 

Only NRI gives you both kinds of 
training with the convenience of home 




you're always backed by the NRI staff 
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giving you guidance, and available for 
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You Get Your Own Computer 
to Learn On and Keep 
NRI training is hands-on training, 



study. No classroom pressures, no night with practical experiments and demon- 
school, no gasoline wasted. You learn at strations as the very foundation of your 



your convenience, at your own pace. Yet 




Training includes new THV80 Model III micro- 
computer, solid stale volt-ohm meter, digital 
frequency counter, and the NRI Discover) tab 
with hundreds of tests and experiments. 

(THS-HO Is i trior mark of the Radio Shack division of Tandy Corp.) 




knowledge. You don't just program your 
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interface with other systems. . . gain a 
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You also build 
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Send for Free Catalog. . . 

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has been used, write to NRI Schools, 3939 
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NuscIoVr' 

McGraw-Hill Continuing 

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Washington. DC 20016 
NO SALESMAN WILL CALL 
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O Auto Air Conditioning 

D Air Conditioning. Refrigeration 4 
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Accredited fn the Accrediting < ommiswon of if* Natural Home Study Council 



175-041 



CIRCLE 214 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



City Streets, continued. 






HOP H 




IF (PC«(CI*.2> >+(IC»CI> >T6(9.YR> THEN 
4326 PRIN 

INPUT riiTl>Tl*1000lPRINT9960,E*|iIF LEN(STR*' 

I HEN GOSUB 4399 ELSE 4330 
4328 IF Z*="Y" THFN -I 

.■»«"Y"sPRINTS>O7O,D*sG0TO 4326 

1 RINT3885, :: INPUT T2lPRlNT396 
>+l OR T2' lOOOOO THEN GOSUB 4399 ELSE • 

IF Z*="Y" THEN 4 
*=".":PRINTJ855,D»2G0T0 ■ 

IF T1+T2;TB(8. YR) THEN 44 
. GOTO 4440 

4390 PRINT3960. "YOU MUST ENTER A WHOLE NUMBER.': 

4391 PRINT.JB41.C*:G0T0 4315 

4392 PRINTSI960,"Y0U CANNOT BUILD THAT MANY MORE UNITS" t: GOTO 4391 
PRINT3960."Y0U MUST ENTER A WHOLE NUMBER.": 

4394 PRINT3851.C»:G0T0 4320 

4395 PRINT3960, "YOU CANNOT BUILD THAT MANY MORE UNITS"! :G0T0 4394 

4397 PRINT3960. "YOUR CONSTRUCTION PROGRAM EXCEEDS YOUR BUDGET.": 

4398 PRINTJ)841.C*lPRINTS>851,C«iG0r0 4315 
PRINTB960,Et|lPRINT9960, M ARE YOU SURE (Y/N)"s 

44.1,, INPUT Z*:IF 7* »Y" AND I* "N" THFN 4399 
4 401 RETURN: END 

PRINT3960,E«|lPRINT&960 l "ARE YOU SURE (Y/N)"; 

INPUT 2*:IF Z*< "Y" AND Z«< "N" THEN 44021 IF Z«="Y" TUMI • 
4404 PRINT3BB5,D*«G0T0 4330 

' RIN1 3960. "YOUR MAINTENANCE AND SAFETY BUDGET EXCEEDS YOUR III! 
4406 PRINT.J870,D*:PRINT3885.D«:G0T0 4326 
444u TB(6.YR)=T1:TB<7. YR) «T2 

4445 T(2. YR)=T(2,YR)+PC/2lT(3,YR)"=T(3.YR)+IC/2 
4450 TB(8.YR)=TB(B,YR)-TB(6.YR>-TB(7,YR> 
rB<9, iRi CPCtC I*.2)-(IC*CI> 

rRINT3960, "PRESS ENTER" ; : INPUT Z 

< INI ( ( (TB(6. YR)-MN)/MN)«18) 1.1) 
5210 IF T(4.YR> <1 THEN T(4.YR>«1 

5240 T(!=,. . vlo , INT ( ( (TB(7. YIO-SN) /SN> *18> *. 1) 
5249 IF T(4.YR> T (4.YR-1) THEN T (5. YR> =T (5, YR >■ 

IF T<5, v N I (5,YR>»1 

Ol 

CLBl PRINT TAB< 15) "TRANSIT BUDGET FOR YEAR 

PR INT" OPERAT I ONS " ; T AB ( 33 ) " BUS F L I , 

PRINT TAB <5> "AVAILABLE";: PRINT USING FA|B(1,YI 
PRINT USING FAiB(2,YR> 
6080 PRINT TAB(5)"MAINT. NEED-" ;i PRINT USING FA»M2s:PRINT , 



SPRINT I > 



SPRINT USING FAsMf.: 



PRINT TAB (5) "OPERATIONS NEED= 
PRINT USING FAsPl 
PRINT TAB (38) "SALE="; s PRINT USING FA: 
IF C=l THEN 6340 

I HEN PR I NT3640, "BECAUSE OF THE FEDERAL GRAN1 . YOU CANNI 
ROM" SPRINT3704, "OPERATIONS TO THE BUS FLEET". FOR X«l TU /^„>:NI .1 ■ 

."YOU MAY TRANSFER UP TO 25V. FROM OPERATIONS 11, A r. I I 11,11": 

4. "HOW MUCH DO YOU WISH TO TRANSFER (ENTER AMTS. IN THOUSANDS WIlMfi 
UT * SI6N)"i:INPUT Z : 1=1 » 1000: IF 7 . THEN 6180 ELSE 

6180 PRINT3640,E*lPRINTS704,E«lGOTO 6140 
6190 6(2, YR)=B(2. YR)+ZsB(l. YR)«B(1. YR)-Z 
I RINTS640,EtiPRINT9704,E* 

'."HOW MANY BUSES DO YOU WISH TO SELL";:INPU1 NBl IF 111 
R INT(NB) NB THEN 6230 ELSE 6240 
6230 PRINT364O.E«tG0T0 621 
6I'4,i [F NB=" THEN 6010 

,K' *:)»NB) sS(5,YR)=S(5.YR)-NB:M2=(Ml*S(5. IBF) 

. ,R) ♦ (N6*P2> sGOTO 6010 
PR I NT s PR I NT "ENTER BUDGETS IN THOUSAND DOLLAR UNITS. DO NOT" 

I R I NT "USE COMMAS OR DOLLAR SIGNS" 

I PRINTlPRINT TAB(22) "MAINTENANCE": TAB(36) "OPERAT IONS" t TAB ( s, , , "Nl W BUSES" 

■ RINT"LAST YEAR" i TAB (20) l sPRINT USING FAsBDisPRINT TAB (35) s : PR INT 
PRINT TAB(53);KN 
6375 PR I NT' THIS YEAR": 
6409 PRINT.S793. ;: INPUT BD: PRINT3960, E»i : BD-BD* 1- •■ >■ < 

THEN GOSUB 6690 
6402 IF BD< o THEN <,4„, 

II BD 10 ,<« THEN GOSUB 4399 ELSE 641,:, 

6404 IF Z«="Y" THEN 6410 

6405 Z*-"Y"sPRINTS>841.D«iG0T0 6400 

IF LEN(STR*(BD> ) LEN(STR«(M.', , + 1 THEN o<», ■• > 

6420 F'RIN7.i>806.; : INPUT BE: PR INT3960. E*s s 6E=BE* i 

6421 IF BE' O GOSUB 6690 

6422 IF BEiXi THEN 6420 

i hi lOOOOO BOSUB •» '-99 ELSE I 

6424 IF Z«="Y" THEN 64 

6425 PRINTJ)841.D»sG0T0 64 

IF LFN(STR*(BE) ) >LEN (STR* (M5> ) ■> \ THEN 
S440 IF BD+BE B<1,YR) THEN 66,- 

KINT.S820. s : INPUT BNs PRINT3960. £*; 
S460 IT UN 1,X,-S(5.YR) THEN6680 



144 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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26-4502 Inventory 


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26-4503 Payroll . 


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26 4554 Acct. Rec 


.. 180.00 


26- 


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. . 270.00 


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26-1 157A Doisy Wheel. 


2290.00 


26 


26 1158 Daisy Wheel II. 


. 1799.00 





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1161 Mini Disk - Additional 419.00 

1154 Lineprinter II 699.00 

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1 166 line Printer VI 1080.00 

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1566 Visicalc 83.00 

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CIRCLE 163 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



City Streets, continued. 




6470 IF BN<0 THEN GOSUB 6690 

6471 IF BN>-0 THEN 6480 

6472 PRINT3B2O,C«:G0T0 6450 
6475 IF 1NT(BN>- I BN THEN 6710 
6480 IF BN»P1 >B<2.YR> THEN 6700 
649" B(2,YR)-B(2.YR>-(P1*BN>:S<5.YR)=S(5,YR>+BN|BF-BF-BN 

HF-BF+S<5.YR> :S<2,YR>=INT((BF/S(5. YR) >*10>*. 1 
6580 B(1.YR)-B(1.YR)-(BD+BE> 
6599 GOTO 6750 

PRINTi)960."ARE YOU SURE ( Y/N) ":: INPUT Z* 
6610 IF WO»V" AND Z*0"N" THEN 6600: IF Z*="Y" THEN 64 
6620 PRINTil792.D*lG0T0 6400 

6630 PRINT3960, "ARE YOU SURE ( Y/N) ":: INPUT Z% 
6640 IF 2«<>"Y" AND Z*> "N" THEN 6630: IF Z*-"Y" THEN 6440 
6650 PRINT38O6.D*:G0TO 6420 

RINTS)960."Y0UR OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE BUDGETS EXCEED VI 
3792, D»:PRINT3806.D»: GOTO 6400 

6680 PRINT3960. "YOU CAN PURCHASE ONLY " « lOO-S <5, YR) -, "BUSES" I J GOTO 64 
6690 PR I NT 3960, "YOU CANNOT ENTER A NEGATIVE NUMBER" : •- RETURN! END 
6700 PR I NT i960. "YOUR PROPOSED ACQUISITION EXCEEDS YOUR BUDGi ! ::M MM. 
O 6450 
6710 PRINT3960, "YOU MUST ENTER A WHOLE NUMBER" ;: PR 1NT3820. C*: GOTO 6450 

6750 S(3.YR)=S<3,YR>-<INT( ( ( 6D-M2) /M2 > « 18) » . t>: IF 8(2, V 

6751 IF S(3,YR> 1 THEN S(3.YR>=1 

6755 S(4,YR>=S(4. YR)-<INT< t (BE-M5) /M5> * 18) * . 1) l IF 
«S<3. YR>+,2 

6756 IF B<5,YR)/S1<3 THEN S (4. YR) «S<4. YR) +. 2 

6757 IF 8(4,YR)<1 THEN S(4.YR)»1 

6760 S(l,YR>-(S<l,YR>+S6>-( <S(3. YR) +S (4. YR) -S (3, YR-1 > -S (4, YR- ( 1.01) 

REM SALARY NEGOTIATIONS 

NR-RND(4)+2l 1-1*100: IF I-O THEN U < 1 ) -INT (RND (8) +8) ELSE U< 1 ) "INT <RND< I ) +81 
10060 CLS:LS«0 

PR1NT-Y0UR PRESENT WAGE IS" i S; "DOLLARS PER HOUR" 
10HO FRINT"THE UNION'S INITIAL OFFER IS FOR A" : U ( 1 ) i "PERCENT INCREASE" 
10120 INPUT"WHAT IS YOUR RESPONSE " : M < 1 > 

CLS 
10140 PR I NT "PRESENT SALARY-*" :S 
1016P PRINTiPRINT"UNION". "MANAGEMENT" 
1017O PRINT"POSITION", "POSITION" 
10180 PRINT 
10190 PRINT U<1) .M<1> 

10 FOR X-2 TO NR 
10210 IF X NR THEN lO2"40 

I PR I NT "THIS IS THE LAST ROUND OF NEGOTIATIONS. FAILURE" 
10230 PRINT-TO SETTLE COULD RESULT IN A STRIKE" 
10240 U0-U<X-1)-M(X-1 ) : IF UO-0 THEN 10250 ELSE 1027..I 
1025O U(X)-M<X-1> tU-U(X) 
10260 GOTO 1O440 
10270 IF M(X-l)-M(X-2) >- 5 THEN R3-1 

IF M(X-l)-M<X-2)<5 THEN R3-2 
10290 IF M(X-1 >-M(X-2>< 3 THEN R3-3 
IF M(X-1 >-M(X-2>< 1 THEN R3-4 
IF UO 5 THEN U ( X ) =U ( X- 1 > - ( (RND (40) » . 1 > • I 

10 OR U0<5 THEN U(X)=U(X-l>-( (RND(60> • 
IF UU 15 THEN U(X)«U(X-1)-((RND(80)*. 1) 
IF UO 20 THEN U < X > -U ( X-l ) - ( (RND ( lOO) * . 1 ) /R3> 
i IF U<X> >=*U(X-1) THEN U ( X ) «U < X-l ) -. 5 
IF U<XK»M(X-1> THEN U(X)»M<X-1> 
lO U(X)=INT(U< > I 1100) ».0l 

"0 u=u<x) 

PR I NT U ( X ) , 

■" IF U(X>-M(X-1> THEN 10440 
10400 INPUT M<X) 

IF M<X)->U(X> THEN 10440 

i NEXT X 
10430 IF M(NR) U(NR) THEN 10490 
10440 S»INT(S» ( 100+U) ) *.01 

10450 PR INT" YOU HAVE REACHED AGREEMENT ON A " i U» "PERCENT" 
10460 PRINT"WAGE INCREASE. YOUR HOURLY WAGE RATE IS NOW • 
10480 GOTO 10640 
10490 IF <U(NR)-M(NR> )*RND(0> .5 THEN 10502 

I U(NR)«M(NR) :U=U(NR> 

1 GOTO 10440 

CLSiPRINT CHK*(23):F0R X-40 TO 80i SET < X . 6) i NEXT: FOR Y-7 TO 32: SET • 
TOO. Y) :NEXT:FOR X-40 TO 80:SET ( X, 32) :NEXT : FOR Y-33 TO 45: SET (60. Y i : Ml 
:. PRINT3216. "WORKERS": : PRINT3282. "LOCAL": I PR I NT 3346, " 

• FOR X-l TO 5fPRINTa540,"ON"|lPRINT9600, ,, STRIKE M |tFOF ■' I 1 I'l ' iNEXT 

THEN 10! 
10505 PRINT3540,CHR*(194> ; : PRINT3600. CHR* ( 198) : :FOR XI 

1O530 FOR X-l TO 500:NEXT:M(7)=M(NR>-M( 1 ) lU<7) I DP-U <NR> -M (NR) 

l IF M(7) U<7) THEN SS ( 1 ) - ( DP» (RND (6) « . 1 > ) ELSE SS(1>-(DP< 
10 SS(2)-M(NR)+SS( 1 ) iU=INT <SS(2) *100) » ."I 
1056O LS=RND(5)+RND(DF+1 ; 

1O590 CLS:PRINT"THE STRII E LASTED FOR" ( LS: "DAYS. THE ARBITRATOR" 
LO60O PRINT"HAS ORDERED A SETTLEMENT OF":U:" PERCENT." 
10610 PRINT"THIS RESULTS IN A WAGE OF": 
10620 S-INT (S* (100+U) ) ».01:PRINT USING FC(S 



146 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



■■ 



ALF/ Apple Music 
Synthesizer 



The ALF Apple Music Synthesizer (AMS) is an easy to 
use peripheral which allows you to program music into 
an Apple II computer using standard musical notation. 
The ALF kit includes the synthesizer board (plugs into any 
peripheral slot), exceptional quality software, and an 
extensive user manual. 

Sophisticated Music Entry Program 

Sheet music is easily entered using the Apple game 
paddles. The high-resolution ENTRY program features the 
familiar music staff with a "menu" of musical items listed 
beneath it (note lengths, rests, edit commands, acciden- 
tals, etc.). One game paddle moves a cursor up and down 
the music staff and is used to select the note pitch; the 
second paddle chooses from the menu items (note length, 
etc.) With the ALF hi-res ENTRY program, you won't have 
to use cryptic codes to select note parameters. 

As you program sheet music with ENTRY, measure bars 
are inserted automatically (and note values are tied over 
the bar where necessary). Key signatures are also 
automatic— you don't have to keep writing in every sharp 
or flat! 

Three monophonic, individual parts can be programmed 
with each ALF Music Synthesizer. Two boards are 
required for stereo. A total of three synthesizers can be 
used simultaneously for a maximum of nine voices. By 
controling the envelope (or shape) of each voice, many 
different instrumental sounds can be simulated. 

Eight-octave Range 

The ALF Music Synthesizer has a pitch range of eight 
octaves— a wider range than a grand piano. The ALF can 
also play semitones— "blues notes" or the pitches in 
between the keyboard notes of a piano. (The pitch range is 
from 27.5 to 55,000 Hertz, well beyond the limits of human 
hearing.) Tuning accurancy is virtually perfect within 
two cents of pitch value. 

Every parameter of the ENTRY program can be changed 
again and again during a musical piece. For example, you 
can make changes in key, time signature, volume, and 
timbre (envelope). Parts can be edited at any time, also. 
Notes can be added or deleted, note length can be 
changed, as well as pitch, volume, etc. 

You can save songs on either cassette or disk, and play 
them back using either ENTRY or PLAY. The playback 
speed is adjusted with one of the game paddles, and can 
be varied during the playback, if you wish to change the 
overall tempo. 

Colorful Playback Display 

The ALF Music Synthesizer features a 16-color low-res 
graphic display during song playback. Each musical part 
is represented on a stylized piano "keyboard"— the 
intensity of the note determines the color, and the pitch is 
shown in relation to "middle C". 

The ALF Music Synthesizer requires the use of an 
external audio amplifier. Stereo programming is possible 
with the use of two or three synthesizer boards. 

The ALF software includes the ENTRY and PLAY 
programs, sample songs, an introduction to "envelope 
shaping", and demonstrations of advanced uses of the 
synthesizer. 




With the ALF software, entry of music is easy, 
fast and accurate. 



Nine Voices for only $198 

The new ALF "AM-H" music synthesizer offers an 
unbeatable value for the Apple owner who is a music 
hobbyist. With nine voices on a single music board for 
$198.00, the AM-II is the most economical device for 
creating music with the Apple. 

The AM-II uses the same excellent ENTRY and PLAY 
programs as the more sophisticated ALF Music Synthe- 
sizer (AMS); the same hi-res graphic display from which 
notes are selected with the Apple game paddles (not typed 
with cryptic codes). All of the conveniences of the ENTRY 
program apply— easy editing, playback with low-res 
display, ability to save songs on cassette or disk, etc. 

The AM-II has stereo output (3 voices in left, 3 voices in 
the middle, 3 voices in the right). 

How can the AM-II offer so much for only $198.00? The 
two basic differences between the AM-II and the ALF 
Apple Music Synthesizer (AMS) are pitch accuracy and 
dynamic range. The AM-II has an accurate pitch range of 
about six octaves. Pitch values above the treble staff 
become increasingly inaccurate. Also, the AM-II has a 
dynamic range of 28db, with 16 different volume levels, 
(the AMS has a dynamic range of 78db). 

The AM-II is manufactured with the same high quality 
standards as other products from the ALF Corporation. 
No sacrifice has been made in reliability ; the new AM-II is 
simply a great bargain. 

Professional musicians will still want to use the original 
Apple Music Synthesizer (AMS) for its extended range and 
volume controls (the AMS has a range of 8 octaves). But 
for the Apple owner who is interested in music as a hobby, 
the AM-II is the best music peripheral value available 
today. 

Requires : 16K Apple II or Apple II Plus, cassette or Disk 
II, and an external audio amplifier (all necessary patch 
cords are included). 

AM-II ALF/Apple Synthesizer $198.00 

AMS ALF/Apple Synthesizer 268.00 

To order, send payment plus $3.00 shipping and 
handling to Peripherals Plus, 119 Maple Ave., Morristown, 
NJ 07960. Credit card customers should Include card 
number and expiration date of Visa, MasterCard or 
American Express. Credit card customers may also order 
toll-free: 

800-631-8112 

(In NJ call 201-540-0445) 

Peripheral s Plus 

119 Maple Ave., Morristown, N) 07960 



CIRCLE 23« ON READER SERVICE CARD 



City Streets, continued. 



t~ 









10621 PRINT"AS A RESULT OF THE STRIKE, " ;PRINT 

10623 GOSUB 10634 

10624 T(4.YR)«T(4.YR)+X1;PRINT TAB(5) T«(4);" HAS INCREASED BY": XI 

10625 GOSUB 10634 

10626 T<5,YR>-T(5,VR)+X1«PRINT TAB (5) T* (5) 5 " HAS INCREASED BY";X1 

10627 IF PC<2 THEN 106301 IF LS »7 THE PC-PC-2 ELSE GOTO 10629 

10628 PRINT TAB (5) "CONSTRUCTION PROGRAM LOST ONE MILE":GOTO 1" 

10629 PC=PC-1:PRINT TAB (5) "CONSTRUCTION PROGRAM LOST 1/2 MILE" 
PRINT:GOSUB 10634sS<3, YR) -S(3. YR) +X 1 1 PRINT TAB(5) S»(3>;" HAS INCREAM 

" ; X 1 

10631 GOSUB 10634:S(4,YR)=S(4,YR)+XUPRINT TAB (5) S» <4 ) 1 " HAS INCREASED BY " : X 1 

10633 PRINT! GOTO 10640 

10634 IF LS>-7 THEN Xl-RND(7)«.l ELSE X1-RND(4>».1 

10635 RETURNiEND 

10640 1NPUT"ENTER WHEN READY"; Z 

11000 CLStPRINT TAB UO) "STREET FUND PERFORMANCE FOR YEAR";YR 

11O10 PRINT 

1 102O PRINT TAB (30) "YEAR" ;YR; TAB (40) " YEAR" ; YR- 1 » TAB (50) "PLAN" 

EC PRINT 

FOR X=2 TO 5 
1 1050 PRINT T*(X)jTAB(30)T<X,YR> | TAB (40) T ( X, YR-1 ) ;TAB(SO)T(X, 1 1 ) 
1 1060 NEXT X 

PRINT: INPUVTYPE 'I' TO REVIEW THE STREET MAP, ELSE PRESS ENTER" « Z 1 CLS: IF 
Z=l THEN 13000 ELSE 13330 
13000 G2=0iG4=0;CLSiGl-Gl-MPC/2> 
13010 FOR X-l TO 8 

IF X>5 THEN G5-64 ELSE G5-2 

I tO IF X>5 THEN G6-.5 ELSE G6-.25 

IF X-4 OR X-6 THEN 13120 
FOR Y-A(X.l) TO A(X,2) STEP G5 
>66 G2=62+G6 
IF G20G1 PRINT8Y,"+"| 
113081 131 PRINT3Y, "- "1 
113096 NEXT Y 
■ NEXT X 
1 GOTO 13170 
FOR Y-A(X.l) TO A(X,2) STEP G5 * " « 

I I •■ 1 30 G4-G4+G6 
13140 IF 04<-T<3,YR> PRINTS)Y,"»": 
13150 IF G4 TC.YR) PRINT»Y, "»"; 
13160 GOTO 13090 
13170 PRINT^13. "1-196"; 
13180 PRINT330, "ASH"; 

PRINT346, "OAI "; 
PRINT3128. "1ST"; 
PR1NTS384. "2ND"; 
13220 PRINTS640, "3RD"; 

' PRINT3704. "1-465"; 

PRINT3896, "4TH": 
PRINT3242, "PRIMARIES"; 
' PRINT3311. "+»";G1; 
■0 PRINT3375."-=";44-Gl; 
13280 PR1NT3498. " INTERSTATES" ; 
PRINT3567. "*-"; TC.YR) ; 
■" PRINT3631,"#=": 16-T(3,YR); 
10 PRINT3960, "+.« - COMPLETE -,# ■ 
13320 PRINTS 1004. "PRESS ENTER" ;: INPUT Z 

■" CLS: PRINT TAB ( 12) "TRANSIT PERFORMANCE REVIEW FOR YEAR" ; YR; PRINT 
13340 PRINT TAB ( 30 )" YEAR" ;YR; TAB (40) "YEAR"; YR-1; TAB (50) "PLAN" 

13350 FOR X-l TO 4 

13351 IF X>1 THEN 13360 

13352 PRINT S»(X)|TAB(30) ;:PRINT USING FB; S (X, YR) ;: PRINT TAB (40) ; t PRINT USING FB 
;S(X,YR-1);:PRINT TAB (50) :: PRINT USING FB; S < X . 1 1 ) : GOTO 13 

'" PRINT S»(X);TAB(30)S(X.YR);TAB(40)S(X.YR-1) ;TAB(50)S(X. 11) 
13370 NEXT X 

13375 PRINT S* (5) ; TAB (30) S (5. YR) ; TAB (40) S (5, YR-1 ) 
13380 PRINT: INPUT "PRESS ENTER";Z:CLS 
14000 IF T(2,YRXT(2, 11) THEN 15100 
14005 IF T(3.YRXT(3. 11) THEN 15100 
14010 IF T(4,YR> >T(4. 11) THEN 15100 
14015 IF T(5,YR) >T(5, 11) THEN 15100 
14020 IF S(1,YR) ,5(1, 11) THEN 15100 
14025 IF S(2,YR)>S(2, 11) THEN 151 
EQ IF S(3.YR) >S(3.11) THEN 1S1I 
14035 IF S(4,YR) >S(4. 11) THEN 15100 

14040 CLS:PRINT CHR* (23) : PRlNTlPRINT"CONGRATULAT IOtl 

14045 PRINT:PRINT"YOU HAVE SUCCESSFULLY COMPLETED" : PR I NT "THE TRANSPORTATION PI AN 
1N":PRINTYR:" YEARS. ";PRINT 

IF YR>7 THEN 14< 
14055 PRINT"YOUR PERFORMANCE HAS BEEN SO" : PRINT"GOOD THAT YOU HAVE BEEN ASKFD":P 
RINI"TO BECOME THE NEW SECRETARY" : PR INT "OF TRANSFORTAT ION. ": GOTO 14 
14060 IF YR=10 THEN 14 

14065 PRINT"BECAUSE OF YOUR PERFORMANCE" : PRINT "YOU HAVE BEEN ASKED TO BFCOMI 
INVTHE TRANSPORTATION DIRECTOR OF" : PRINVNEW YORK CITY.";G0TO 14200 

PRINT-YOU HAVE BEEN GIVEN A LARGE" : PR I NT "PAY RAISE AND HAVE BEEN ASKED";PR 
INT'TO CONTINUE AS TRANSPORTAT ION" ; PRINT "DIRECTOR OF RIVER CITY." 

STOP: END 
15100 CLS: IF YR-1 THEN 2990 




INCOMPLETE"; 



148 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Siiper-Text...In A Class E»y Itself . 



SUPER-TEXTII 

WORD PROCESSOR 




Ease of use and a combination of powerful advanced features put Super-Text in a class 
by itself. The basics of text editing are easily learned within minutes. Yet the advanced 
features will meet your expanding word processing requirements far into the future. 

Super-Text is unequalled byword processing systems costing many thousands of dollars 
more. Add the Form Letter Module and Address Book Mailing List for the ultimate in pro- 
fessional word processing. 

Ask for a demonstration at your local computer store or write for specifications and the 
name of your nearest Muse retailer. Now that you're ready for word processing, think 
Super-Text. 



available at your local computer store 



Runs on the Apple II or II plus 
Apple II and II plus ate trademarks 
a! the Apple Computer Corporation 



MUSE 



SOFTWARE' 



CIRCLE 225 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



330 N CHARLES STREET 
BALTIMORE. MD 21201 
(301)659-7212 



Deoler inquiries welcomed 



City Streets, contini 





: " 



\ 






ft. 



m 



i 




15110 PRINT TAB< 15) "PERFORMANCE EVALUATION FOR YEAR" : YRs PRINT 

15120 IF T<4.YRXT(4,YR-1) + . 1 OR T (4, YR-1 XT (4. YR-2) ♦. 1 THEN IS 

15121 CV-CV-1 sPRINT "STREET CONDITIONS HAVE WORSENED FOR TWO STRAIOHI /EARS." 

15130 IF T(5,YRXT<5,YR-l) + .l OR r <5, YR-l ><T<3, YR-2) ♦. 1 THEN 1514" 

15131 CV-CV-1:PRINT"TRAFFIC SAFETY HAG WORSENED TWO STRAIGHT YEARS." 

15140 IF T(4,YRXT(4,YR-1>*1.35 THEN IS 

15141 CV-CV-1 sPRINT "STREET CONDITIONS HAVE WORSENED BY OVER 35 X THIS YFAT 

15150 IF T<5,YRXT<5.YR-1>*1.4 THEN 15160 

15151 CVTCV-liPRINT"TRAFFIC SAFETY HAS WORSENED BY OVER 40 V. THIS YEAR." 

15160 IF T<2,YR> >-T(2,YR-2>+5 THEN 15169 

15161 CV-CV-1 sPRINT"PRIMARY STREET CONSTRUCTION IS NOT PROGRESSING WELL." 

15169 IF YR<7 OR YR-10 THEN 15180 

151 70 IF T<3,YR)>-(YR*2)-4 OR 61 >-13+ ( YR»3> THEN 15180 

15171 CV-CV-liPRINT"TH)RE IS FEELING YOU WILL NOT COMPLETE THE STREET PLAN." 

15180 IF T(4,YRXT(4,YR-1> OR T (3, VRXT <3, YR-1 > OR r < 2. YR> >T (2. YR-2) +4 IHtN 1319 
OB»USRMsCV-CV-lsPRINT"THERE IS GENERAL DISSATISFACTION WITH STREET FUND PERFORMA 
NCE." 

15181 CV-CV-1«PRINT"THERE IS GENERAL DISSATISFACTION WITH STREET FUND PFPFORMANf 
E." 

15190 IF S<1,YR)>S(1,YR-1) OR S ( 1 . YR- 1 ) >S ( 1 , YR-2) THEN lb: 

15191 CV-CV-1 sPRINT "BUS RIDERSHIP HAS DECLINED TWO STRAIGHT YEARS." 

15200 IF Sl2,YRXS<2,0>+4 THEN 15210 

15201 CV-CV-1 sPRINT "THE BUS FLEET HATHEN BEEN ALLOWED TO DETERIORATE." 

15210 IF S(3,YRXS<3.YR-1>+. 1 OR B (3, YR-1) 2)+.l THEN 13 

15211 CV-CV-1: PR INT "BUS DOWNTIME HAS INCRECSED TWO STRAIGHT YEARS." 

15220 IF S(3,YRXS(3,YR-1)«1.35 THEN r 

15221 CV-CV-1 sPRINT "DOWNTIME HAS INCREASED OVER 35 7. THIS YEAR." 

15230 IF "<4.YRXS(4,YR-1>+. 1 OR S(4. YR-1 XS (4, YR-2) +. 1 THEN 15240 

15231 CV-CV-lsPRINT"ON-SCHEDULE PERFORMANCE HAS DECLINED TWO STRAIGHT YEARS." 
13177 IF S<4,YRXS(4,YR-1>*1.35 THEN 15250 

15241 CV-CV-lsPRINT"ON-SCHEDULE PERFORMANCE HAS DECLINED OVER 35 V. THIS YEAR. " 

15250 IF S<1,YRXS<1,YRH1) THEN X1-.3 ELSE Xl-0 

15260 FOR X-2 TO 4s IF S< X, YR) >S( X, YR-1 ) THEN X 1-X 1 + . 3s NEXT X 

15270 IF XK1 THEN 152B0 

15271 CV-CV-1 sPRINT "THERE IS DISSATISFACTION WITH TRANSIT AUTHORITY PERFORMANCE. 

15280 IF TB(2,YRX7.5 OR RND<3)>2 THEN 15290 

15281 CV-CV-2sPRINT"CITIZENS ARE UNHAPPY WITH THE HIGH TAX RAT)." 

15290 IF T<2,YR)+T(3,YRXT(2,YR-2)+T<3,YR-2> + ll OR T <3, YRXT (3, YR-1 ) +2 THEN 1330 


15291 CV-CV+1 sPRINT "OVERALL STREE1 CONSTRUCTION IS PROGJESSING WFLl . " 

15300 IF T(4,YR) ; T <4. YR-1 > -. 1 OR T (4, YR-1 ) >T (4, YR-2) -. 1 THEN 15310 

15301 CV-CV+1 sPRINT "STREET CONDITIONS HAVE IMPROVED TWO STRAIGHT YEARS." 

15310 IF T(4,YR) >T (4, YR-1 ) * . 65 THEN 15320 

15311 CV-CV+1 sPRINT "STREET CONDITIONS HAVE IMPROVED OVER 35 7. THIS YEAR." 

15320 IF T(5,BR) >T <3, YR-1 > -. 1 OR T <5, YR-1 > >T <5, YR-2) -. 1 THEN IS 

15321 CV-CV+lsPRINT"TRAFFIC SAFETY HAS IMPROVED TWO STRAIGHT YEARS." 

15330 IF T(5,YR)>T 5, YR-1)*. 6 THEN 15350 

15331 CV-CV+1 sPRINT "TRAFFIC SAFETY HAS IMPROVED OVER 40 V. THIS YEAR." 

15350 IF S(2,YR)>S(2,YR-1>-. 1 OR S < 2. YR-1 ) >S (2. YH-2) -. 1 THEN 15360 

15351 CV-CV+1 sPRINT "BUS FLEET A6E HAS IMPROVED TWO STRAIGHT YEARS." 

15360 IF 8(3, YR>>8<3. YR-1)-. 1 OR S <3, YR-1 ) >S (3, YR-2) -. 

15361 CV-CV+1 sPRINT "DOWNTIME HAS DECREASED TWO STRAIGHT YEARS." 

15370 IF S(3,YR) >S (3, YR- 1 ) * . 65 THEN 15380 

15371 CV-CV+1 sPRINT "DOWNTIME H(S BEEN REDUCED OVER 357. THIS YEAR." 
15390 IF S(4,YR) >S(4,YR-1)-. 1 OR S (4. YR-1 ) >S(4, YR-2) -. 1 THEN 15390 

15381 CV-CV+1 sPRINT"ON-SCHEDULE PERF01MANCE HAS IMPROVED TWO STRAIGHT YEARS." 

15390 IF S(4, YR) >S <4, YR-1 > *. 65 THEN 15400 

15391 CV-CV+1 sPRINT"ON-SCHEDULE PERFORMANCE HAS IMPROVED HVER 357. THIS YFAR. " 
15400 IF S(l.YR) >S(1,YR-1) THEN X1-.3 ELSE Xl-0 

15410 FOR X-2 TO 4sIF S < X , YRXS < X . YR- 1 ) THEN X 1-X 1 + . 3s NEXT X 

13420 IF KK1 THEN 15430C0SERRTHEN-<CV-CV+1 s PR I NT "TRANS IT AUTHORITY PERFORMANCE 

IS PROGRESSING WELL." 

15421 CV-CV+lsPRINT"TRANSIT AUTHORITY PERFORMANCE IS PROGRESSING WFl 1 

15430 IF TB(2,YR)>3 OR RND<3>>2 THEN 15435 

15431 CV-CV+1 sPRINT "CITIZENS ARE HAPPY WITH THE LOW TAX RATE." 

15435 IF YR-6 OR YR-9 THEN 15436 ELSE 15490 

15436 IF Bl-0 THEN 15490 

15440 IF B2>T<4,YR> AND B2 THEN 15480 

15450 IF B3>T<5 YR) AND B3>0 THEN 15480 

15460 IF T(2,YRXT(2. YR-3)-B4 AND MM) THEN 15480 

15470 IF T(3,YR)>T<3,YR-3)-B5 AND B5 O THEN 15490 

15480 CV-CV-2sPRINTsPRINT"Y0U HAVERENEGED ON YOUR BOND REFERENDUM PLEDGE." 

15490 PRINT3960, "PRESS ENTER" s s INPUT ZsCLSsIF CV 1 1 THEN CV-11 

15491 IF CV<0 THEN CV-0 

15492 IF CV<6 THEN 15494 

15392 IF YR-IO THEN 15498 

15494 PRINTsPRINVAS A RESULT OF YOUR PERFORMANCE THIS YEAR THE CITY" 

15495 IF CV>-6 PRINT-COMMISSION HAS VOTED" s CV; "-" ( 1 1-CVs "TO RFTAIN YOU AND 1 I 
EAR. " 

15496 IF CV<6 PR I NT "COMMISSI ON HAS VOTED TO REQUEST YOUR RESIGNATION." 

15497 IF CV>-6 THEN 15500 ELSE 15301 

15498 PRINT*CHR»<23) s PRINTS PRINT" YOU HAVE NOT SUCCESSFULLY" s PR INT "COMPL I T I T. THE 
TEN YEAR PLAN."sPRINTsPRINT"HOWEVER. THE CITY COMMISSION" s PRINT "HAS VOTt 
"Sll-CGOTOs" TO RETAIN YOU" s PRINT" AS ASSISTANT TRANSPORTATION" s PR I N I " I, I , 

15499 GOTO 15501 

) "rvIWTtlNfUT-FRESS ENTER-.ZtGOTO 2990 
15101 , r T::N T :FRINT-ENTEr< 'RUN' IF YOU UISH TO" :PRINT"TRY AGAIN. "ISTOPIEND 



150 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



MB 



Ms^eKKCKjKA/VV blUKb booam-SSb 




DEVIL'S PALACE 

By Greg Hasset from Adventure World 
Find the Devil's Palace somewhere in the 
deep, dark forest. You will have to use all 
your wits to enter the palace and conquer the 
evil which stalks the dismal corridors. This 
adventure (*10) is written in machine Ian 
guage for super excitement and suspense. 

Level II 16K... $U.9S 



ASYLUM 



from Med Systems 

You are sitting alone. It is 2 am. Your eyes 
are bloodshot. You peer into yor computer 
screen and suddenly scream, "I must be 
crazy!" If this has ever happened to you, or 
the men in white coats from "Deathmaze 5000" 
have hauled you away, it's time to try Asy 
turn, the most ambitious 3 D graphics adven 
ture yet offered by Med Systems. 

Asylum features the 3D perspective graphics 
that have made Deathmaze 5000 and Labyrinth 
bestsellers. You actually see where you are 
and where you are going! 

Asylum places you on a cot in in a small room. 
Periodically, a janitor lobs a hand grenade 
through the window of your locked door. What 
you do next could mean survival or escape! 



Level II 16K.. .$11.95 




DRAGONQUEST 

By Charles Forsythe from Programers Guild 
It's a desperate race as you search for 
SMAECOR , who has kidnapped the Princess of 
the Realm and holds her in a distant and un 
known place. In a quest for honor and glory, 
you must search the land, seeking out the 
tools needed for the ultimate confrontation. 
Clues abound on The River Delta, in the a 
bandoned Temple of the Goddess of the Blade 
everywhere! But WHERE is the Princess? 
Order this new machine lanuage adventure 
now. You may never find the Princess, but 
you'll have fun trying! 




COSMIC FIGHTER 

By Hogue I Konyu from Big Five 
Terrific sound, graphics and unique chal 
lenges mark this new space game a winner! 
White fighting off the alien convoys, each 
more powerful than the last, you must keep 
track of your rocket fuel or risk explosion as 
you maneuver toward the mothership to re 
fuel. Can you dock immediately, or is the sta 
tion overrun by aliens? Find out by ordering 
Cosmic Fighter today . 

Level II 16K tape... $14. 95 
32K disk version. . .$17.95 



THE 

BOOK 



VOLUME 



MISSILE 
ATTACK 



By Philip Oliver from Adventure Int. 
Closely patterned on the latest king of the ar 
cade games, you must use your twin silos of 
ABM's to fend off barrage after barrage of 
enemy missiles that rain down toward your 
cities. As your skill increases so does the dif 
ficulty and speed of this ever machine Ian 
guage arcade game! Watch the skies and may 
your aim be true! Missile Attack has sound 
and fast moving graphics. 



Level II 16K tape.. 
32K disk. ..$20.95 



$11.95 



TECHNICAL 
SOFTWARE 

By Howard Berlin from Sams SOS 
A series of seven different packages de 
signed to increase your aid your technical 
knowledge and skills: 

PLOTTING CRAPHS FOR LINE PRINTER 

ACTIVE FILTER DESIGN 

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS C REGRESSION 

ANALYSIS 
ELECTRONICS I 
ELECTRONICS II 
ELECTRONICS III 
PLOTTING GRAPHS FOR VIDEO DISPLAY 

Both educational and useful, these programs 
include thorough and well written docu 
mentation. 



II 





From Insiders Software 

Everything you want to know about video, 
keyboard, cassette, and print driver rou 
tines. Learn to write your own! Remarkably 
detailed listings illustrate well commented 
source code. Complement Volume I, now. 

$14.95 

SUPERScripf 

Sy Rick Wilkes from Acorn 

Using your Superscript modified Scripsit 
Word Processor and a compatible printer, you 
can now underline, boldface, insert text 
during printout, slash zeros, subscript, set 
type pitch, and of course Superscript! You 
can even read your disk directory and kill 
files without leaving Scripsit. 

Superscript comes with drivers for popular 
serial and parallel printers, and easy in 
structions for patching to your Scripsit pro 
gram (does not include Scripsit) . 

Level I 32k Disk. ..$29.95 



QUICK- 
FIX 




Level II 16K tape. . .$15. 95 32K disk.. .$21.95 Level II 16K .. .$24.95 each 



By Kim Watt from Breeze Computing 
Finally a disk repair and modification util 
ity that doesn't require a PhD to use! Quick 
Fix is a stand alone proaram that has its own 
I/O routines and does not use any ROM or 
DOS calls. As a result, it will operate on 
standard and "CP/M" machines and does not 
even require that the disk be in any drive 
after initalization. 

Quick Fix does just about everything 
Apparat's "Superzap" does, and so much 
more: Eliminate system files, kill files with 
common extensions, zero unused filenames 
and sectors, repair boot and directory auto 
matically, change or eliminate all passwords, 
compute the master password, read 

non standard disks, compare disk sectors, do 
string or sector searches. 

With Quik Fix, you can even reformat disks 
without losing existing files and data! Great 
for repairing damaged disks and refreshing 
old ones. Order this essential utility today. 

Level II 32k Disk. . .$34.9$ 



Visit Our New Store: W.Bell Plaza- 6600 Security Blvd Baltimore, MD 



QS« TO ORDER CALL TOLL FREE 800 424-2738 ca^ot^ii 



MAIL ORDERS: Send check or M.O. for total purchase 
price, plus $1 .OX) postage & handling. O.C. residents, add 
6% tax. Charge card customers: include all embossed 
information on card. 



THE PROGRAM STORE 

4200 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Dept. R10 Box 9609 
Washington, D.C. 20016 



U 



CIRCLE 175 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



fog 

INDEX 



ft B. Nottingham 



On page 17 of the November 1980 
issue. I mentioned an article in The 
Wall Street Journal on readability. 
Mr. Nottingham has now taken the 
"Fog Index" described in the article 
and computerized it. He computed 
the index for several pieces in Crea- 
tive and other publications but 
excluded his own article. Why not use 
his program to compute it and com- 
pare it to your own writing. Hint: Mr. 
Nottingham will be tough to 
beat.-DHA 



Recently, The Wall Street Journal had 
an article on clarity of writing and its 
importance to industry. It cited a "Fog 
Index," developed by the Gunning- 
Mueller Clear Writing Institute. The Fog 
Index is roughly equal to the years of 
schooling required to read a piece of 
writing. 

It is simply the average sentence 
length plus the percentage of words 
having three or more syllables, all multi- 
plied by .4. 

Now I am not a game player. I like to 
solve problems but only if they have 
some practical application. Programming 
the Fog Index seemed like a trivial but 
useful piece of work. Now how do you 
count the number of syllables in a word? 

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Fog Index, continued... 

If you would like to make a game of this, 
solve the problem before reading further 
or looking at the program. 

Let us say. that a syllable always has a 
vowel. The number of syllables equals 
the number of vowels. Uhuh, how about 
the word "pear"? Two vowels but only 
one syllable. All right, wc will not count 
double vowels; that is, two vowels in suc- 
cession. Fine. How about the word 
"piece"? O.K. so we don't count final 
"e"s. Then consider "syllable." If we 
don't count the final "e" it would have 
only two syllables. Sooo— we make an 
exception for "le." if it is final "le." 

After some hours of head scratching 1 
finally arrived at the following theorem: 
Any word having three or more vowels 
(a.e.i.o.u.y) has three or more syllables if: 

Double vowels are counted as one. 

Final "e" and final "ed" are not 
counted except in the case of "ded," 
"ted." and "le." 

Now I know this theorem is not cor- 
rect. It doesn't cope with double "e" as in 
Whoopee! However. I feel that it is close 
enough for practical purposes. If a reader 
would like to take a few thousand words 
of text, mark the words of three or more 
syllables, then apply the theorem and 
determine the percentage error, I would 
be grateful. And amazed. Seriously, any 
suggestions for significant improvement 
will be gratefully received. 

Now, unless you have a computer with 
good string handling abilities, including 
RIGHTS, skip the next few paragraphs 
and go to the results at the end. If you 
have a TRS-80, the program is in its lan- 
guage. Microsoft Level II Basic. The 
short program shown, is liberally sprin- 
kled with remarks, but at the risk of 
redundancy, we will explain it. 

To begin, please note (and applaud) 
that the program is uniformly numbered 
in increments of 10 with no missing lines. 
The peculiar appearance of lines 50-60 is 
due to the screen format of the TRS-80 
plus the addition of returns to accommo- 
date my printer. Line 70 begins the input, 
line 1 10 puts it on the screen. Line 100 
builds the characters into a string. 

Line 120 detects the ASCII for "space" 
to count words. Line 180 similarly counts 
sentences. Now the fun of counting sylla- 
bles begins. Line 140 detects vowels and 
tentatively counts syllables. V is incre- 
mented to detect double vowels. Line 140 
decrements the syllable count for two 
consecutive vowels. Line 160 detects 
"ded" or "ted" and by jumping to line 
180. bypasses 170 which rejects "ed." 
Note that the sub-strings must include a 
space since we are only concerned here 
with word endings. Line 180 similarly 
bypasses 190 to keep "le" from being 
rejected under the final "e" rule. 

Now things get easier. Line 200 detects 
word ends via the ASCII for "space," 
tests for three or more syllables in the 



10 ' *** FOG INDEX *** 

20 ' BY R. B. NOTTINGHAM, LIGHTHOUSE POINT, FLORIDA 
30 REM A-LAST LETTER. B* LETTERS. S-SYLLABLES. L=W0RD LENGTH 
NS=NUMBER OF SENTENCES. W-NUMBER OF WORDS. LW=NUMBER OF 
LONG WORDS. V-VOWEL COUNTER. 
40 CLS 
50 PRINT"THIS PROGRAM CALCULATES THE FOG INDEX OF TEXT. THIS 

IS EQUAL TOTHE GRADE LEVEL OF READER FOR WHICH IT IS SUITABLE. 

IN TYPING TEXT, USE ONLY ONE SPACE AFTER A PERIOD AND IGNORE 

ALL OTHER PUNCTUATION. THE PROGRAM WILL STOP WHEN YOU HAVE"; 
60 PRINT" A 100 WORD SAMPLE. IF YOU MAQKE AN ERROR, DO NOT 

BACKSPACE TO CORRECT IT. ITWILL MAKE LITTLE DIFFERENCE IN THE 

SCORE.": PRINT 
70 INPUT'PRESS ENTER TO BEGIN" ;QZ$ 
80 CLS: DEFSTR A-B : DEFINT C-Z 
90 A»INKEY$: IF A="" THEN GOTO 90 
100 PRINT A; 

110 B=B+A : IF LEN(B) >4 THEN B=RIGHT$(B,4) 
120 IF A=CHR$(32) THEN W-W+l : REM SPACE W-NUMBER OF WORDS 
130 IF A=CHR$(46) THEN NS«NS+1:REM 46=PERI0D S»N0 OF 

SENTENCES 
140 IF A»"A"0R A="E" OR A- "I" OR A-'0" OR A="U" OR A»"Y" 

THEN S-S+l : V=V+1 :ELSE V»0 : GOTO 160 : REM COUNTS VOWELS 

CONSIDERED EQUAL TO SYLLABLES 

150 IF V=2 THEN S=S-1 :V»0 :REM ELIMINATES DOUBLE VOWEL 
160 IF RIGHT$(B,4)="DED " OR RIGHT$(B,4)»"TED " THEN GOTO 180 
17- IF RIGHT$(B,3)="ED " THEN S*S-1 
180 IF RIGHT$(B,3)="LE "THEN GOTO 200 
190 IF RIGHT$(B,2)«"E "THEN S=S-1 
200 IF A*CHR$(32) AND S>2 THEN LW-LW+1 :REM COUNTS LONG WORDS 

3 OR MORE SYLABLES 
210 IF A=CHR$(32) THEN S=0 

220 IF W=>100 AND A=CHR$(46) THEN GOTO 260 : REM STOPS 
AT END OF SENTENCE WITH 100 OR MORE WORDS. 

230 IF A=CHR$(13) THEN GOTO 260 : REM STOPS IF ENTER IS PRESSED 
240 A-"" 
250 GOTO 90 

260 PRINT:PRINT"NUMBER OF SENTENCES *";NS 
270 PRINT"NUMBER 0F WORDS" ;W 
280 PRINT"W0RDS PER SENTENCE =";W/NS 
290 PRINT "NUMBER OF LONG WORDS =";LW 

300 F=(W/NS +1O0*LW/W)*.4:REM CALCULATES THE "FOG INDEX" 
310 PRINT'TOG INDEX »";F 



word and if found, increments the "long 
word" count. Line 210 resets the syllable 
count for the next word. Line 220 tests 
for 100 or more words (minimum size for 
an adequate sample) and stops at the end 
of the sentence. 

Line 230 detects the ASCII for "enter" 
and makes it possible to break off the 
testing before 100 words so that you may 
test the program or satisfy your curiosity. 
Line 250 goes back for the next letter. 
You will note that many things are hap- 
pening between one character and the 
next. If you are a speed typist, you may 
have to slow your pace. Pretend you are 
running an old-fashioned Teletype. One 
note, which you may wish to add to the 
instructions, is that where a sentence has 
a clearly independent clause, it should be 
treated as a separate sentence. Use per- 
iods to break it into two sentences. 

Now for results. A logical source for 
samples was the August issue of Creative 
Computing. First, the expert. E.H. Weiss. 
Ph.D.. on page 138. Not bad. Based 
chiefly on the last section of the column 
the Fog Index is 14.3. About right for a 
junior college graduate which is probably 



a conservative estimate of the average 
reader. How about the Big Boss himself, 
on p. 134? Very good. 11.2, perhaps he 
deserves a raise. Doug Green on p. 26? 
Very good, 14.8. George Blank, on p. 
154? Fine, 11.5. You knew it was a good 
magazine didn't you? 

How does this compare with the rest of 
the world? The Fort Lauderdale Sunday 
paper: a wire service writer, 21.3! A local 
reporter. 11.5; the editorial page editor, 
14.6, and Max Rafferty's column, 10.4. A 
British authority writing to jet pilots, 
16.4, and a random sample from one of 
our government's Aircraft Accident 
Reports 22.8! What else would you 
expect from a bureaucrat? 

Since I am not a Junior Citizen it gives 
me pleasure to note that mature writers 
seem to write more simply than younger 
ones. Probably for several reasons; sim- 
plicity requires self-assurance. If you are 
not sure that you really have anything to 
say. make it impressively difficult to read. 
Older writers on the average received a 
better education, including the study of 
Latin and the classics. Well, "Sic transit 
gloria Tuesday." Have fun. Q 



154 



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CIRCLE 210 ON READER SERVICE CARD 








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DjjiiuiiirfliJ 



Jake Jacobs 



I have always wanted to learn how to 
fly an airplane but never took the time. 
After I had my Apple computer for a few 
weeks and had impressed myself with its 
capabilities. I undertook the task of 
developing a simple landing simulator in 
Applesoft Basic. To keep it simple and also 
to minimize the flicker on the screen I 
eliminated banking and turning. The 
controls are the "stick" which moves only 
forwards and backwards (not left or right) 
and the 'throttle' which controls power 
from to 100 percent. Both controls are 
simulated by the game paddles. Paddle is 
the stick and paddle I is the throttle. 

The screen displays the pilot's view of 
the runway using hi-res graphics. The 
lower four text lines simulate the pilot's 
instruments. These are: ALTitude in feet, 
rate of CLIMB or descent, in feet; minute. 
VELocity in knots, DME (distance 
measuring equipment) which indicates the 
distance in nautical miles from the front 



Jake Jacobs. 1903 Fordham Way. Mountain View. CA 
94040. 



end of the runway, and percent POWER 
applied by the throttle. There is also a 
glide-slope indicator which shows the pilot 
whether he or she is on the 3.5 degree glide 
slope when approaching the runway. 

There are two principle parameters to 
be computed: distance from the runway 



/ undertook the task of 

developing a simple 

landing simulator in 

Applesoft Basic 



(X) and altitude (ALT). The program is a 
continuous loop. During every pass 
through this loop the program calculates 
the new values of X and ALT from the old 
values. For example X is calculated from 
the old X by the statement X = X + V, where 
V is the current velocity. Similarly, the new 



altitude is calculated by adding the rate of 
climb to the old altitude. These values are 
derived from the two input variables, the 
stick and the throttle. Once the values of X 
and ALT are computed, the view of the 
runway as seen by the pilot is then 
calculated and displayed in hi-res graphics. 
But first the old image of the runway is 
erased by redrawing it with HCOLOR set 
equal to 0. 

The runway appears as a trapezoid in 
most cases. Since banking and turning are 
not simulated, the view of the runway is 
always symmetrical about an imaginary 
vertical line down the center of the screen 
(see Photo I). Therefore only four values 
have to be calculated: the vertical positions 
of the horizontal lines which simulate the 
rear and front of the runway, and the 
widths of the rear and front of the runway. 

Interestingly, no trigonometric 
functions have to be used. Only the simple 
geometry of similar triangles is applied. 
Figure I depicts a side view of the aircraft 
and the runway. The pilot's eye is assumed 
to be one foot away from the windshield 





f'hoio I. View of the runway asthcaircrafiisabouttoland. Noteihe negative rate 
of CLIMB. 



Photo 2. Photograph of author's "slick" and "throttle" box which replaces the 
game paddles. However the game paddles work just fine so you need not build 
your own box. 



156 



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APRIL 1981 



CIRCLE 270ON REAOER SERVICE CARD 

157 



Landing, continu 




RUNWAY 



Figure I. Side view of aircraft illustrating how the screen position of the front of 
the runway. YF, is calculated. Only simple similar triangles are used. 



(i.e., the TV monitor, but you don't have to 
sit that close to your screen; the one foot is 
for calculation purposes only). Therefore 
the Y offset from the topof thescreen(YF) 
of the front of the runway view is 
calculated from similar triangles as 
follows: 



YF 



ALT 



YFmust be scaled by multiplying it by 159, 
the maximum Y value that can be 
HPLOTed. If you have followed this so 
far, you will realize that for some values of 
X and ALT, YF could have a value that 
would plot off the bottom of the screen. In 
fact much of the program loop is taken up 
calculating what parts of the view of the 
runway are off the screen and correcting 
for this so that the HPLOT statements do 
not "blow up." 

In a similar fashion, YR, the Y offset 
of the rear of the runway, is calculated. The 
same principle of similar triangles is 
employed to calculate the widths of the 
front and rear of the runway, and will not 
be described here. 

A word about programming. Note 
that all constants used in the program are 
actually variables that are initialized at the 
beginning of the program. This was done 
for three reasons. 

1. During run-time, variables are 
accessed faster than the time it takes for 
numeric constant strings to be evaluated. 

2. When writing the program it was 
much easier to change a single assignment 
statement at the beginning of the program 
than to find all occurences of a particular 
constant throughout the program. 

3. Using variables instead of numeric 
constants makes the program much more 



readable and self documenting. Note that 
some constants have the same value as 
others, but are given different names. 
(Remarks were included in the original 
program but many were deleted for this 
article to allow the program to run on a 
16K machine.) 



Here we introduce 
exponential smoothing, 
which is a fancy term for 
something quite simple. 



If, for example, one wished to change 
the length of the runway from 4000 feet to 
6000 feet, one would merely change the 
assignment statement 280 to RW - 6000. 
All occurences of the "constant" RW (and 
there are many) will be changed correctly. 

Flying the Airplane 

You start at a random distance from 
the runway and at a random altitude. The 
runway starts out as a small dot or line on 
the screen. As you approach the runway it 
will become larger and take on the 
appearance of a trapezoid. The program is 
calculating what the runway should really 
look like from your given altitude and 
distance from the runway. The throttle 
controls primarily your rate of climb and 
descent. The stick controls primarily your 
airspeed but also your rate of climb and 
descent. This is just the opposite of what 
most people think, but that is how an 
airplane really works. The best way to "fly" 
the plane is to place paddle I (throttle) on 

158 



the table and put the stick (paddle 0) in 
your left hand and control it with your 
right hand. Then you can reach up to the 
table to adjust the throttle with your right 
hand. The author has built a "stick" and 
"throttle" in a small metal box as shown in 
Photo 2, but the game paddles work just 
fine. 

The ALTitudeand CLIMB indicators 
work together. Your altitude is shown in 
feet (from the ground) and the CLIMB 
indicator shows your rate of climb in feet 
per minute if positive or descent if 
negative. The VELocity indicator shows 
airspeed in knots or nautical miles per 
hour. A nautical mile is 6000 feet. The 
DME indicator is the Distance Measuring 
Equipment and indicates your distance 
from the front end of the runway in 
nautical miles. After you pass over the 
front of the runway the DME will begin to 
increase in value, rather than decrease as 
you approach the runway, because you are 
moving away from the front of the runway. 
The POWER indicators merely parrots the 
throttle setting from to 100 percent. The 
last indicator on the right is the glide-slope 
indicator. Imagine an invisible line with a 
3.5 degree slope raising towards you from 
the front of the runway. As you land you 
should stay on this imaginary line. The 
glide-slope indicator tells you if you are on 
this line and if not, what you should do: 

— means you are on the glide-slope 
«• means that you should climb 

(you are too low) 
V means that you should go down 

(you are too high). 

When you are very close to the 
runway, you should ignore the glide-slope 
indicator since it applies to the front of the 
runway and you never actually land at the 
very front of the runway. 

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Landing, continued... 

There are three markers on the 
runway, one every 1000 feet. These give 
you some idea how much runway you have 
ieft when landing. If you decide to change 
the length of the runway (see below), the 
markers will space themselves correctly 'A, 
[ /> and % the distance down the runway. 

When cruising your throttle should be 
set at about 75 percent. When climbing 
you should be at 100 percent throttle. 
When landing. 20 percent is about right. 
You must land with a descent of less than 
150 feet minute, otherwise you will crash. 
If your velocity falls below 60 knots you 
will stall and your rate of descent will 
become 2000 feet minute. But you can 
recover by pushing the stick foward to 
increase your lift. You can crash in other 
ways. If you hit the ground before you 
are over the runway you have crashed. If 
you touchdown on the runway but there is 
too little runway remaining you will crash 
off the end of the runway. And of course 
you can always fly over the runway and not 
touch down at all. All of these conditions 
arc indicated by messages on the screen. 

The Program 

Lines 10 through 410 initialize 
variables that are used as constants. Some 
that might be of interest if you wish to 
modify the program are Line 310. VM — 
stall velocity. Line 380, AM - minimum 
altitude, below which you are considered 
to be on the ground, and Line 400, RC — 
crash descent, above which you have 
landed too hard. Lines 450 and 460 
establish the initial values for X and ALT. 
You may choose to change the algorithms 
for these initial conditions. 

Line 500 starts the main loop of the 
program, which runs down to line 840. 
This loop is for a trapezoidal runway view. 
There are a couple of branches to lines 850 
or 1040 if the run way view is partially off of 
the screen. The main loop calculates and 
plots the runway view. Subroutine 1200 is 
the main subroutine in the program. It sets 
P0 and PI to the paddle values and uses 
these to calculate a new velocity, V. from 
the old V. Here we introduce exponential 
smoothing, which is a fancy term for 
something quite simple. Smoothing 
creates lag or inertia into some variables. 
For example, the velocity should not 
change instantaneously (nor should the 
rate of change of altitude or the pitch angle 
of the aircraft). These variables arc 
permitted to change only gradually. Let us 
look at a simplified version of line 1 240 for 
calculating V. 

V - .95 V + .05 DV 

where DV is the change of velocity (based 
on the stick and throttle positions) and is 
used here for illustrative purposes only. 
The new velocity is the old velocity plus the 
change in velocity, DV. But we only let the 
DV term influence 5 percent of the new 
velocity and let the old velocity influence 





HEM VARS. FO, HO, RO, X0: SECOND CHARACTER IS A LETTER "OH-j P0: SECOND 

CHARACTER IS DIGIT "ZERO" 
10 TEXT : HOME 
20 G0SUB 1700 
30 REM CONSTANTS 
40 CZ ■ I 
B0 CI • 
60 C2 = .03 
70 C3 = .7 
80 C4 ■ .09 
90 CS ■ .39 
100 CB = 30 
110 C9 = .09 
120 DC ■ 100 

130 REM EXPONENTIAL SMOOTHING 
140 = .95 
150 00 » 1 - 
160 E = .8 
170 EE = 1 - E 

190 FF = 1 - F 

200 H1 ■ .3 

210 P5 = .055 

220 P7 = .085 

230 REM HI-RES CONSTA 

240 CE = 139.0> 

250 VE = 191 

260 HO ■ 279 

REM RUNWAY LENGTH 
280 RW = 4000 
290 M2 = RW / 8>M1 « RW 
300 REM STALL VEt, 
310 VM - 60 

320 vc = 1 aer-*. 3° 

330 ST = 20 

340 01 = 255 

350 03 = 3 

360 06 = 600 

370 REM STALL DESCENT 

380 AM = 5 

390 REM CRASH DESCENT 

400 RC = 150 

410 C ■ 7000 

420 REM INITIAL C0N0X. 

430 V = 100 

440 HR = H1 • (01 - POL (01) 

450 X = 20000 ♦ 20000 * RND (1) 

460 ALT ■ 1000 ♦ 1000 * RND (1) 

470 X1 = 0:X2 = X1 :X3 = X1 :X4 - X1 :Y1 = X1 :Y2 = Y1 :Y3 = Y1 :Y4 = Y1 :X5 = X1 :Y5 

= Y1 
480 HGR 
490 HOME 

500 REM START MAIN LOOP 
510 IF ALT < AM THEN 1400 
520 YR ■ ALT / X * VE + HR 
530 IF YR > VE OR YR < 
540 YF = ALT / (X - RW) 
550 F1 ■ 0:F2 = F1 :F3 = F1 
560 R1 = ALT / (X - M1 ) 

F1 = 1 
570 R2 = ALT / (X 
F2 = 1 
580 R3 ■ ALT / (X - M3) • VE ♦ HR: IF R3 > AND R3 < VE AND X > MS THEN 

F3 = 1 
590 IF X - RW < ALT THEN YF 
600 F0 = (C / (X + ALT / 03 
610 R0 = C / (X + ALT / 03) 
620 IF X - RW < ALT THEN F0 
630 IF R0 < THEN R0 ■ CE 
640 FL = CE - F0 
650 FR = CE + FO 
660 RL = CE - R0 
670 RR = CE + R0 
680 IF R0 > = CE GOTO 1570 
690 IF FO > CE THEN 850 
700 IF YF > VE THEN 1040 

HC0L0R= 

IF E1 THEN HPL0T CE.N1 

IF E2 THEN HPL0T CE.N2 

IF E3 THEN HPL0T CE.N3 

HPLOT X1.V1 TO X2.Y2 TO X3.Y3 TO X4.Y4 TO X1 ,Y1 : IF Y5 < VE THEN 
0,Y5 TO H0,Y5 
760 HC0L0R= COL 

IF F1 THEN HPLOT CE.R1 

IF F2 THEN HPLOT CE.R2 

IF F3 THEN HPLOT CE.R3 

HPLOT RL.YR TO RH.YR TO FR.YF TO FL.YF TO RL.YR 
810 X1 ■ FL:Y1 =■ YF:X2 = RL:Y2 = YR:X3 = RR:Y3 = YR:X4 = FR:Y4 = YF:Y5 = 

VE 
820 N1 = R1:N2 = R2:N3 = R3:E1 = F1 :E2 = F2:E3 = F3 



THEN YR 
VE + HR 



VE 



VE + HR: IF R1 > AN0 R1 < VE AND X > M1 THEN 



M2) • VE + HR: IF R2 > AND R2 < VE AND X > M2 THEN 



= VE 
RW)) 



C / (ALT + ALT / 03) 



710 
720 
730 
740 
750 



770 
780 
790 
BOO 



HPLOT 



160 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



A one-hour LP record of eight synthesizers may 
change your views about computer music forever 

Binary Beatles 



by David AM 

Computer music. Who needs it? It's mostly 
boring beep, beep, beeps or wildly modern 
stuff. It's certainly nothing you'd want to 
listen to more than once. That's what I thought 
about computer music and most of my friends 
agreed. 

In 1978 1 entered Yankee Doodle Dandy 
into my Software Technology system just 
to be different. Dick Moberg heard of it and 
asked me to perform in the Philadelphia 
Computer Music Festival. I agreed expecting 
to be the only one with something out of 
the ordinary. I was wrong. 

Computer Accompanist 

Nine individuals and groups performed 
in the festival. There were the usual Bach 
pieces but even they were different. Gooitzen 
van der Wal performed the last movement 
of the 2nd Bach Suite in a unique way. He 
played the flute solo while using the computer 
as accompaniment. 

Then Dorothy Siegel did the same thing, 
playing the clarinet solo part of Wanhal's 
Sonata in b flat. The audience went wild. 

Hal Chamberlin played Bach's Tocarta 
and Fugue in d minor. But also with a differ- 
ence. He used a large computer before 
hand to "compute" the waveform of every 



instrument playing every note. It took one 
hour of computation time for each two min- 
utes of playback time. The result could hardly 
be distinguished from the organ in the 
Hapsburg Cathedral. 

Don Schertz had a home brewed synthe- 
sizer truly mounted on a breadboard that 
allowed him to control 25 parameters of 
each note. It produced spectacular sounds 
in his arrangement of Red Wing. 

Singing Computer 

In 1962, D.H. Van Lenten at Bell Labora- 
tories produced the first talking computer. 
Bell engineers taught it to recite the soliloquy 
from Hamlet. Then they went one step further 
and taught it to sing Daisy both alone and 
accompanied by another computer. This 
was also performed at the festival. 

Yes, the Beatles were represented. Andrew 
Molda played Hey Jude on his COSMAC 
VIP system with a program called PIN-8 
(Play it Now). 

Superb Quality Recording 

All these pieces and twelve others were 
recorded with broadcast quality equipment. 
Because of audience noise, eight were re- 
recorded later in a studio. We then took 
these tapes to Tru-Tone, a top recording 



studio and cut a lacquer master. It was a 
long session since the recording engineers 
insisted upon analyzing the sound from every 
source and setting up the equilization curves 
accordingly. It took over 1 2 hours to produce 
a one-hour lacquer master. 

Finished recordings were then pressed 
on top-quality vinyl and inserted into liners 
and record jackets. These were then shrink 
wrapped in plastic for maximum protection. 
We guaranteee that every LP record is free 
from defects or we will replace it free of 
charge. 

The extensive descriptionsof each of the 
eight synthesizers and the festival would 
not all fit on the jacket so we've included an 
extra sheet with each record. This entire 
package is mailed in a protective corrugated 
package to insure that it reaches you in 
mint condition. The cost is a modest $6.00 
postpaid in the U.S. and $7.00 foreign. Send 
order with payment or Visa. MasterCard or 
American Express number to Creative Com- 
puting, Morris Rains. NJ 07950. 

This LP record contains one hour of eight 
computer music synthesizers that you'll listen 
to over and over again. Send in your order 
today at no risk whatsoever. 

creative 
computing 



Morris Plains. NJ 07950 
Toll-free 800-631 -81 1 2 
(In NJ 201-540-0445) 



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APRIL 1981 



CIRCLE 187 ON READER SERVICE CARI 

161 




Hiding, continu 



880 
890 
900 
910 
920 
930 



950 



970 
980 




IF Y5 < VE THEN HPLOT 



YR:X4 = HO:Y4 ■ YB:Y5 = 



F2:E3 = F3 



830 GOSUB 1200 
840 GOTO 500 
850 REM 

860 YB = YF - (YF - YR) • (FO - CE) / IFO - RO) 
870 IF YB < THEN YB = 
IF YB > VE THEN 1040 
HC0L0R= 

IF E1 THEN HPLOT CE.N1 
IF E2 THEN HPLOT CE.N2 
IF E3 THEN HPLOT CE.N3 

HPLOT X1.Y1 TO X2.Y2 TO X3.Y3 TO X4.Y4 TO X1 ,Y1 : 
0,Y5 TO H0.Y5 
940 HCOLOR= COL 

IF F1 THEN HPLOT CE.R1 
IF F2 THEN HPLOT CE.R2 
IF F3 THEN HPLOT CE.R3 
HPLOT 0,YB TO RL.YR TO RR.YR TO HO.YB 
990 IF YF < VE THEN HPLOT O.YF TO HO.YF 
1000 X1 = 0:Y1 = YB:X2 = RL:Y2 = YR:X3 = RR:Y3 
YF 

1010 N1 ■ R1:N2 = R2:N3 = R3:E1 = F1 :E2 
1020 GOSUB 1200 
1030 GOTO 500 
1040 REM 

1050 XO - (VE - YR) • (FO - RO) / IYF - YR) ♦ RO 
1060 HCOLOR= 

IF E1 THEN HPLOT CE.N1 
IF E2 THEN HPLOT CE.N2 
IF E3 THEN HPLOT CE.N3 

HPLOT X1.Y1 TO X2.Y2 TO X3.Y3 TO X4.Y4 TO X1 ,Y1 : 
0.Y5 TO H0.Y6 
1110 HCOLOR= COL 

IF F1 THEN HPLOT CE.R1 
IF F2 THEN HPLOT CE.R2 
IF F3 THEN HPLOT CE.R3 

HPLOT CE - XO.VE TO RL.YR TO RR.YR TO CE ♦ XO.VE 
1160 X1 = CE - X0:Y1 = VE:X2 = RL:Y2 = YR:X3 

= VE 
1170 N1 = R1:N2 = R2:N3 = R3:E1 = F1 :E2 = F2:E3 = F3 
1180 GOSUB 1200 
1190 GOTO 500 
1200 REM MAIN SUBROUTINE 
1210 P1 = POL (1) 
1220 PW ■ INT IP1 • C5) 
1230 PO = POL (0) 
1240 V = D»V + DO"(PO 
1250 CL = DC • DALT 
1260 ALT - ALT ♦ DALT 
1270 W = V • VC 
1280 VTAB 22: HTAB 1 
1290 PRINT TAB! 2);"ALT"; TAB! 8);"CLIM8"; TAB( 16)i"VEL"; TAB! 22);"DME" 



1070 
1080 
1090 
1100 



1120 
1130 
1140 
1150 



IF Y5 < VE THEN HPLOT 



RR:Y3 « YR:X4 « CE + X0:Y4 



C3 



C8 + C4 • PI) 



TAB! 


28) 


; "POWER" 






1300 


VTAB 23: 


HTAB 


1 




1310 


AR* 


— H_n 








1320 


IF 


ALT > 


P7 • 


ABS 


[X 


1330 


IF 


ALT < 


P5 • 


ABS 


(X 



RW) THEN Afll = "V" 
RW) THEN AR$ = "*" 
1340 PRINT TAB! 1)j INT (ALT); TAB( 8); INT (CD j TAB! 16); INT (W); TABt 

22); INT ( ABS (IX + ALT / 03 - RW) / 06)) / 10; TAB( 30);PW;" "; TAB( 

38);ARI 
1350 X = X - V 

1360 DALT = E • DALT + EE • (C2 • PI - V • C1 - C9 • PO + CZ) 
1370 IF V < VM THEN DALT = - ST 
1380 HR = F • HR + FF • H1 • (01 - PO) 
1380 RETURN 



1400 


REM LANDED I 




1410 


IF X > RW GOTO 1510 




1420 X = X - 10 • V 




1430 


IF X < GOTO 1630 




1440 


IF CL < - RC GOTO 1780 




1450 


PRINT "YOU LANDED AT "; INT (W 


);" MPH ANO STOPPED " 


1460 


PRINT INT (X);" FEET FROM THE 


END OF THE RUNWAY." 


1470 


PRINT "YOU WERE DESCENDING AT " 


; - INT (CL);" FEET/MINUTE 


1480 


GET Zl 




1490 


TEXT : HOME 




1500 


GOTO 20 


1510 


REM 


1520 


TEXT : HOME 




1530 


GOSUB 1850 




1540 


PRINT "YOU CRASHED "; INT (X - 


RW);" FEET SHORT" 


1550 


PRINT "OF THE RUNWAY AT "; INT 


(W);" MPH. TRY AGAIN" 


1560 


GOTO 20 




1570 


REM 




1580 


TEXT : HOME 




1590 


PRINT "YOU OVERFLEW THE RUNWAY 


AT "; INT (W) 


1600 


PRINT "MPH AT AN ALTITUOE OF " 


; INT (ALT) 


1610 


PRINT "FEET. THY AGAINIII" 




1620 


GOTO 20 




1630 


REM 




1640 


TEXT : HOME 




1650 


GOSUB 1850 





162 



the new velocity 95 percent. This puts lag 
into the rate at which the velocity can 
change which tends to simulate the real 
world. You can change the smoothing 
constants in lines 1 40. 1 60. and 1 80. 

The main subroutine calculates the 
instrument values and displays them in line 
1 340. The pitch angle of the aircraft is 
simulated by variable HR in line 1380 
which offsets the view of the runway on the 
screen. This offset calculation is highly 
simplified and is a function of the stick 
only. In a real aircraft the pitch angle is a 
function of airspeed, throttle, and other 
variables. You may wish to try a more 
realistic expression for HR here. 

Finally, there are a number of 
terminating messages. You have "landed" 
when your altitude is less than AM (line 
510). Line 1400 begins the checks of what 
kind of landing you made (normal or 
crash). Line 14 10 checks if you are short of 
the runway. Line 1420 assumes it takes ten 
times your velocity to stop and then line 
1430 checks if you flew off the end of the 
runway. Finally line 1440 checks if you 
landed too hard. If you get past these 
checks, lines 1450 through 1470 print the 
safe landing message. Line 680 checks to 
see if you have flown off the end of the 
runway. 

Program Modifications 

The author has made many variations 
of this program such as adding instrument 
approach (where you cannot see the 
runway until you are very close to it), 
visual only approach (where the instru- 
ments do not work), a visual marker two 
miles from the runway, a marker which 
flashes an indicator when the plane is five 
or a half mile from the runway, and so on. 
One variation allows you to take off from 
one runway and land at another. You may 
want to experiment with such variables as 

RW — runway length (4000 feet) 
X — starting distance from 

runway 
ALT — starting altitude 
V — velocity (make a jet!) 

Try changing various constants in expres- 
sions for V and DALT (rate of climb). (Do 
not delete any remarks in the program 
because some remarks are GOTO targets.) 
Sublogic Company (201 W. Spring- 
field Ave.. Champaign. IL 61820) has on 
the market the FS-I Flight Simulator 
which is fantastic. It simulates turns, 
banks, and much more. I highly recom- 
mend it if you want to "fly." But since FS-1 
is written in assembly language with no 
listings supplied, you cannot learn much 
about how it works (although their rather 
extensive operating manual has block 
diagrams of the simulator's structure). I 
started writing my Flying Simulator before 
I had heard of FS-I, but have to admit 1 
spend more time "flying" FS-1 than my 
own. Happy landings. D 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



o 

I 

8 

u 



( epeueo ui jog&n A|iu.6<is sesud A|uo epeueo put s D leiueuuuoo ui poo6 J»HO) 

dtt WIS 

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The most comprehensive and useful 
computer reference in the world. 




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APRIL 1981 



165 



Landing, continued 




initialize constant 
[10-170 




initialize graphics node 
[180] 



START OF MAIN LOOP 
[500] 



yes 



' landed ' 

[1400] 



"crashed short 
of runway" 
risiO-15601 



"crashed beyond 

runway" 

f 16^0-16901 



"crash landed" 
[1780-1810] 





lonpute YR, YF, Y-displacement 

of front and rear of runway 

view [520-580] 



compute R1, R2, R3, Y-displace 

■ent of view of runway marker 

[560-580] 



I 



;rs 



compute F0, RO, front and rear 

offsets from center of screen 

[600-610] 



"landed safely" 
[1*00-1500] 



X 



compute FL, FR, RL, RR, 

X-displacement of front 

and rearof runway view 

[640-670] 



wait for any key 
[1480] 



(go 
_I1 



goto beginning 
500 --> 20] 



J 



yes 



"overflew the runway" 
[1570-1620] 



plot view when FO 

is too large 

[890-1020] 



c 



goto Main Loop 
[500] 



J 



yes 



PRINT "YOU CRASHED "; - INT (X);" FEET BEYOND" 

PRINT "THE END Of THE RUNWAY AT "; INT (VV) 

PRINT "MPH. TRY AGAIN" 

GOTO 20 

REM 

PRINT : PRINT : PRINT 

PRINT " FLIGHT SIMULATOR BY JAKE JACOBS" 

PRINT TAB! 10) ; "COPYRIGHT (C) 1980" 

PRINT " PRESS ANY KEY TO START" 

GET Z* 
1760 COL 3 
1770 RETURN 

REM 

TEXT : HOME 

G0SUB 1850 

PRINT "YOU CRASH LANDED AT AT "; INT (VV);" MPH. 

PRINT "AT A RATE OF "; - INT (CL);" FEET/MIN." 

PRINT "TRY AGAIN" 

GOTO 20 

REM CRASH NOISE 

FOR I = 1 TO 60:ZZ = PEEK ( - 16336) + PEEK ( 
PEEK [ - 16336): NEXT : RETURN 



1660 
1670 
1680 
1690 
1700 
1710 
1720 
1730 
1740 
1750 



1780 
1790 
1800 
1810 
1820 
1830 
1840 
1850 
1860 



plot view when front 

of runway is off screen 

[1040-1180] 



c 



x 



goto Main Loop 
[500] 



D 




unplot view 

(erase screen) 

[710-750] 



ZC. 



plot new view 
[760-820] 



16336) 



PEEK ( 



m 



[subroutine at 1200] 

read paddles 
compute V, CL, ALT 

display instruments 
compute DALT 



- 16336) 
1870 END 



c 



^ 



goto Main Loop 
[500] 



J 



166 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



GET BUGS KICKED IN YOUR FACE? 



Ok. so you've tried running marathons on your TRS-80 keyboard. And your 
workout even included lifting code off of the printed page. But your fingers are 
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Back issues available— ask Tor our list.* 

TRS80 is a trademark of Tandy Corporation 

California residents add 6% to single copies and anthologies. 

Programs are for Level II 1 6K and occasionally for disks. 

*24 Level I back issues also available. 
Mastercard/Visa Welcome. Also Cash & Gold. 




MAGAZINE INC. O 1961 
P.O. Box 1267 Goteta, CA 931 16 




(805) 964-2761 



CIRCLE 1130N READER SERVICE CARD 



DISCOVER THE 6809 IN YOUR COLOR COMPUTER 

Now you can explore the Radio Shack Color Computer's impressive potentials— as an inexpensive 
development system, a color peripheral, a process controller— ad infinitum. The Micro Works introduces 
these powerful software tools for utilizing the color computer at the assembly language level. 



MONITOR TAPE: A cassette tape which 
allows you to: 

• Examine or change memory using a 
formatted hex display 

• Save areas of memory to cassette in 
binary (a "CSAVEM") 

• Download/upload data or programs to 
a host system 

• Move the video display page 
throughout RAM 

• Send or receive RS-232 at up to 9600 
baud 

• Investigate and activate features of 
your computer, such as hi-res graphics 
or machine-language music 

• Use your color computer as an intel- 
ligent peripheral for another computer, 
a color display or a 6809 program 
development tool 

The monitor has 19 commands in all, and is 
relocatable and re-entrant. 
80C Monitor Tape Price: $29.95 



THE 






MONITOR ROM: The 

same program as the 
monitor tape, supplied 
on ROM. This allows 
BASIC to use the entire 
RAM space. And you 
don't need to re-load the 
monitor each time you 
use it. The ROM plugs 
into the Extended Basic 
ROM Socket or a modi- 
fied ROM PACK. 
80C Monitor ROM 
Price: $39.95 

as* 



INSIDE THE COLOR COMPUTER: This 
package is a disassembler which runs 
on the color computer and enables 
you to generate your own source 
listing of the BASIC interpreter ROM. 
Also included is a documentation 
package which gives useful ROM 
entry points, complete memory map, 
I/O hardware details and more. Dis- 
assembler features include cross- 
referencing of variables and labels: 
output code which can be re- 
assembled; output to an 80-column 
printer, small printer or screen; and a 
data table area specification which 
defaults to the table boundaries in the 
interpreter ROM. A 16K system is 
required for the use of this cassette. 
80C Disassembler Price: $49.95 



Mastercharge and BankAmericard 



P.O. BOX 1 1 1 DEL MAR, CA 92014 714-942-2400 



CIRCLE 245 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




COMPUTERS 



PORTABLE BUSINESS SYSTEM 




Systel Computers. Inc.. announces the 
Report/SO. a fully-integrated, portable 
business computer system priced at less 
than $10,000. 

Designed as a "first" computer system 
for small businesses, the Report/80 com- 
bines two central processing units, memory . 
keyboard, video display, two mini-floppy 
diskette drives, dot matrix printer, and 
two RS-232C ports in a single unit that 
weighs less than fifty pounds and fits on a 
standard typewriter table. 

The system runs CP/M and Systel offers 
a selection of integrated business programs 
including compatible general ledger, 
accounts receivable, accounts payable, 
payroll, inventory, purchase order, sales 
order, word processing, and mailing list 
programs. 

The Report/80 is available in two models. 
Model 1 1 and Model 15. Model 1 1 includes 
two double-sided, double-density drives, 
which provide a total of 740 kilobytes of 
(formatted) storage. $8950. Model 15 
includes two double-sided, quad-density 
drives, which provide twice the capacity: 
a total of 1.4 megabytes of (formatted) 
storage. $9950. 

Systel Computers. Inc.. 20370 Town 
Center Lane. Cupertino. CA 95014. (408) 
253-0992. 

V CIRCLE 301 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



BUSINESS COMPUTER 

An expandable small business computer 
from Sharp Electronics, featuring a unique 
step-by-step programming aid. will be 
available in early 1981. The complete 
system, designated the Sharp YX-3200 
Business Computer, includes a Central 
Processing Unit, high-resolution CRT 
display with green characters, dual-drive 
floppy disk and an impact printer. 

According to a company spokesperson, 
the YX-3200 System was designed with 
the businessman's needs in mind, but also 
offers him the abiltiy to expand as his 
business grows. 

The desk-top system, designed with 
expandable 32K ROM and 64K RAM. 
features the Automatic Program Generator 
which poses questions to the user that, 
when answered design the desired program. 
Once entered into the unit's Z-80 processor, 
the program can be stored indefinitely or 
used at the operator's convenience. The 
YX-3200 also features extended Basic. 




The YX-3200 can accommodate up to 
72K ROM and 128K RAM. The Sharp 
5(6" floppy disk drives— dual-sided, double 
density— can store up to 285K bytes per 
diskette. The YX-3200 can accommodate 
a maximum of eight disk drives. 

The high -rosoult ion 12" CRT display 
offers upper- and lower-case characters 
on an 80-column. 24-line screen for a total 
of 1.920 characters. Another feature of 
the easy-to-read display is its capability to 
increase character size for group viewing 
or dramatic graphic purposes. With this 
feature in use. the CRT can display up to 



40characters per column on a 1 5-line display 
for a total of 600 characters. 

The bi-directional, dot-matrix 80-charac- 
ter per second printer offers an 80/132 
column per line capability. 

CIRCLE 302 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

COMPUTER FOR DOCTORS 




A practice management computer 
designed specifically for doctors, the 
System WKX). has been announced by 
Computer Information Systems. Inc. 

The System WXKI's practice manage- 
ment capabilities include receivables 
aging reports, receivables patient status 
list, receivables day sheet, patient state- 
ments. AMA and Blue Cross/Blue Shield 
insurance forms, practice analysis reports 
and patient recall reports. 

In addition, the System WKX) handles 
accounts payable, general ledger/ 
financial statements, payroll, check- 
writing and word processing. $13,500. 

CISI. 20 E. Main St.. Mesa. AZ 85201. 
(602) 834-8958. 

CIRCLE 303 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

SMALL BUSINESS COMPUTER 

The Model ABC-26 small business com- 
puter consists of Z80A microprocessor. 
64K byte standard RAM. floating point 
arithmetic processing hardware, separable 
keyboard. 12" CRT screen. 8" dual floppy 
drives, two serial I/O ports, twin-channel 
parallel port and IEEE 488 bus. with 
complementary peripheral support includ- 
ing up to 1 megabyte RAM extension. v 



168 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 






META TECHNOLOGIES 

26111 Brush Avenue, Euclid Ohio 44132 

CALL TOLL FREE 1 -800-321 -3552 TO ORDER 

IN OHIO, call (216) 289-7500 (COLLECT) 



FILE BOX 

DISKETTE STORAGE SYSTEM 




$24 

$29.95 



95 

for 5 l A" disks 
. for 8" disks 



MTC brings you the ULTIMATE diskette 
storage system, at an affordable price. Stor- 
ing 50 to 60 diskettes, this durable, smoke 
colored acrylic unit provides easy access 
through the use of index dividers and ad- 
justable tabs. Unique lid design provides 
dust-free protection and doubles as a carry- 
ing handle. 



MICROPARAPHERNALIA 

DISKETTES (box of ten) 

5'/," PLAIN JANETM $21.95 

5'/4" DATALIFE"* MD 525-01 . . $26.95 
8" DATALIFETM FD34 1000 .... $33.95 
8" DATALIFE 1 * FD34 8000 .... $43.95 

NEWDOS by APPARAT 

NEWDOS/80 * SPECIAL $129.95 

NEWDOS + to 

NEWDOS/80 UPGRADE CALL 

NEWDOS + with ALL UTILITIES 

35-track $69.95 

40 track $79.95 

BOOKS 

TRS-80TM DISK 

AND OTHER MYSTERIES . . $19.95 
MICROSOFT"* BASIC DECODED $29.95 
1001 THINGS TO DO WITH YOUR 

PERSONAL COMPUTER ... $ 7.95 



'RINGS' & 
THINGS 

Help prevent data loss and media damage 
due to improper diskette centering and 
rotation with the FLOPPY SAVER™ rein- 
forcing hub ring kit. 7-mil mylar rings in- 
stall in seconds. Kit is complete with 
centering tool, pressure ring, 25 adhesive 
backed hub rings and instructions. 

HUB RING KIT for 5'/." diskettes . $10.95 
REFILLS (50 Hub Rings) $ 5.95 

Protect your expensive disk drives and 
your valuable diskettes with our diskette 
drive head cleaning kit The kit, consisting 
of a pair of special "diskettes", cleaning 
solution and instructions, can be used for 
52 cleanings. Removes contamination 
from recording surfaces in seconds 
without harming drives. 

CLEANING KIT for 5 1 . drives $24 95 



PLASTIC LIBRARY CASES 

(not shown) 
An economical form of storage for 10 to 15 
diskettes, and is suitable for your bookshelf! 
Case opens into a vertical holder for easy ac- 
cess. 

5'/4-inch diskette case $3.50 

8-inch diskette case $3.95 



Let Your TRS-80™ Test Itself With 

THE FLOPPY DOCTOR & 
MEMORY DIAGNOSTIC 

by THE MICRO CLINIC 

A complete checkup for your Model I. THE 
FLOPPY DOCTOR completely checks every sec 
tor of 35- or 40 track disk drives. Tests motor 
speed, head positioning, controller functions, 
status bits and provides complete error logging 
THE MEMORY DIAGNOSTIC checks for proper 
write read, refresh, executability and exclusivity 
of all address locations. Includes both 
diagnostics and complete instruction manual. 
SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS $19.95 

An improved version of the SYSTEM 
DIAGNOSTICS above. Designed for single 
or double density, 35-. 40-, 77-, or 80 
track disk drives. Includes new and 
modified tests. Features THE FLOPPY 
DOCTOR, Version 3.0. 

SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS- V3. . $24.95 



Single Sided. Soft Sectored 5' .-inch, 
(for TRS-80TM) Mini-floppy 

DISKETTES 
$21 



95 

box of 10 



These are factory fresh, absolutely first 
quality (no seconds!) mini-floppies. They are 
complete with envelopes, labels and write 
protect tabs in a shrink-wrapped box. 



PLAIN JANE™ 

DISKETTES 

The Beautiful Floppy 

with the Magnetic PersonalityTM 

Thousands of people have switched to this 
low-cost alternative. These quality diskettes 
are packaged in a plain white box ... no fan- 
cy printing, fancy names or fancy labels, not 
even our own (labels cost money). Trust us. 

PLAIN JANETM Diskettes $21.95 

lOboxesof 10 (each box)$21.50 

VERBATIMS PREMIUM DISKETTES AT 
AFFORDABLE PRICES 

DATALIFE™ 

Seven data-shielding improvements mean 

freater durability and longer data life, 
hese individually. 100% error-free cer- 
tified diskettes feature thicker oxide 
coating, longer-lasting lubricant, improved 
liner, superior polishing and more! Meets 
or exceeds IBM. Shugart. ANSI, ECMA 
and ISO standards. Reinforcing HUB 
RINGS help prevent data loss ana media 
damage, reducing errors. 
Buy the best buy DATALIFE™ 

VERBATIM DATALIFETM DISKETTES 

5 ' /.-inch (box of 10) 

MD525-01 $26.95 

10 boxes of 10 (each box)$25.95 

8-inch FLOPPIES 

Single-Density. FD34 1000 . . $33.95 
Double Density. FD 34 8000 $43.95 



CALL FOR INFORMATION ON 
OTHER PRODUCTS 



TRS 80 is a trademark ol the 

Radio Shack Division of Tandy 

Corporation DATALIFE is a 

trademark ol VERBATIM PLAIN 

JANE. AIDS I. AIDS III. CALCS III. 

CALCS IV MERGE III are 

trademarks ol MTC 
1981 by MeUtechnologies 
Corporation. Inc. 



MOST ORDERS 

SHIPPED WITHIN 

ONE BUSINESS DAY 

Products damaged in 
transit will be exchanged. 



PRICES IN EFFECT 

April 1. 1981 THRU 

April 30. 1981. 

Prices, Specifications. 

and Offerings subject to 

change without notice. 



WE ACCEPT 

• VISA 

• MASTER CHARGE 

• CHECKS 

• MONEY ORDERS 

• C-O-D. 



•Add S3 00 for shipping 

& handling 
•$3.00 EXTRA for COD. 
•Ohio residents add 6' ,% 

sales tax. 



CIRCLE 228* ON READER SERVICE CARD 



\6 



The most complex computer circuit can be 
explained with just nine cents 



Common 
Cents 



The penny switch. " It sounds strange. 
But its not 

Joe Weisbecker. the designer of the RCA 
1 802 microcomputer, was trying to explain 
to some children just how a computer works. 
He wasn t having much success. 

Computers Aren't Magic 

Joe's hobby is magic. He thought, "maybe 
I can use some kind of illusion to show how 
a computer works." But he didn't really want 
to use an illusion. He didn't want the chil- 
dren to think of a computer as magic. 

So he hit upon the idea of a simple flip- 
flop switch (the most common circuit in a 
computer) represented by the head or tail 
of a penny. This flip-flop circuit uses just 
one penny. Every time it receives an impulse 
it changes from head to tail or tail to head. 
Simple. 

But then Joe went on and put two of 
these simple flip flops together to make a 
circuit that adds two numbers together. And 
another that subtracts numbers. Kids loved 
these circuits and played with them like 
games. 

Games With Pennies 

Before long, Joe devised circuits to play 
more complicated games like Tic Tac Toe. 

ISTOPl 

"Heads Up Game. " Starting with tails in all 
positions, how many times through to get 
all four pennies heads up? 




Guess A Number and Create A Pattern. 
Pretty soon he had 30 circuits (or games) 
that explained everything about computers 
from a basic adder to complex error correc- 
tion The most complex circuit uses just 
nine pennies (or dimes for the big spender). 

These circuits, each one with a full size 
playing diagram, have been collected to- 
gether in a book called Computer Coin 
Games. With this book children or adults 
can easily understand the workings of even 
the most complex computer circuits 

Games Magazine said, "whether or not 
you have any experience with computer 
technology, you'll be both amazed and de- 
lighted with the simplicity of the format and 
the complexity of the play. All you need is 
some common cents." 

Dr. Dobbs Journal agreed, saying. Com- 
puter Coin Games is a simple approach to a 
complicated concept. The book is liberally 
sprinkled with clever illustrations and dia- 
grams, and provides a relatively painless 
route to understanding how computer cir- 
cuits function." 

Money back Guarantee 

We're convinced that you'll understand 
the inner workings of a computer after playing 
these 30 games. If you don't, send the book 
back and we'll refund the complete price 
plus your postage to send it back. 

To order your copy of Computer Coin 
Games, just send $3 95 plus $2.00 for one. 
$3.00 for two or more for shipping and 
handling to Creative Computing Press, 
Morris Plains, NJ 07950. Visa, MasterCard 
and American Expess orders may be 
called toll free to 800-631-8112 (in NJ. 
201-540-0445). 

With its wonderful illustrations by Sunstone 
Graphics, Computer Coin Games makes an 
ideal gift. The Association tor Educational 
Data Systems calls the book "an ideal intro- 
duction to the concepts of computer 
circuitry." 

Order your copy today. 

creative 
computing 

Morris Plains. NJ 07950 
Toll-free 800-631 -81 12 
(In NJ 201-540-0445) 




System features include Ai's original 
DOSKET-20. CP/M. UCSD Pascal, and a 
variety of high level languages, including 
Basic-80. MBasic. Cobol-80. PL/3. Fortran 
IV. ("Basic. Macro ASM and Pascal plus 
XASM-Z8000. XLoader-Z8000 and 
XJMacro-86. 

Ai Electronics Corporration. 2-28-16 
Shimomaruko. Ohta-ku. Tokyo 146. 
Japan. 



TERMINALS & I/O 



GRAPHICS TERMINAL 
PACKAGE FOR EDUCATION 




CIRCLE 350 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



170 



Digital Equipment Corporation has 
introduced its first graphics terminal 
package designed specifically for the 
educational marketplace. Called GIGI 
(for General Imaging Generator and 
Interpreter), the portable unit is a 
microprocessor-based "intelligent key- 
board" that can be used with user- 
supplied color or monochrome video 
monitors. 

GIGI provides interactive graphics 
and incorporates such educational 
functionalities as an integral graphics 
instruction set called ReGIS (Remote 
Graphics Instruction Set). 

It has multiple character sets, local 
intelligence (including a Basic read- 
only memory implementation), eight- 
level color and shading support, and a 
set of educationally oriented applica- 
tion software packages. It has provi- 
sions for interfacing either a graphics 
tablet or a graphics printer. 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



GIGI and its associated software are 
supported under the RSTS/E. 
VAX/VMS, and TOPS-20 operating 
systems, and extend the capabilities of 
Digital's interactive educational com- 
puter systems based on the PDP-11. 
VAX-1I, and DECSYSTEM-20 compu- 
ter^. 

Concurrent with the announcement 
of the intelligent keyboard. Digital has 
introduced a receive-only graphics 
printer for GIGI that provides users 
with a hard copy of images that appear 
on the monitor screen. Called the GIGI 
DECwriter IV Graphics Printer, the 
unit is a microprocessor-driven printer 
based on a dot-matrix impact printing 
technique. 

GIGI is available to educational insti- 
tutions in "5-packs." Each 5-pack 
includes five GIGIs with associated 
cables and connectors, one GIGI 
graphics printer, discount certificates 
toward additional GIGI units, and a 
choice of one of two software options. 
Educational customers can purchase 5- 
packs at $25,000. 

Digital Equipment Corporation. May- 
nard. MA 01754. 

CIRCLE 305 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



VOICE ENTRY TERMINAL FOR 
APPLE 




Scott Instruments offers an enhancement 
to its line of VET/2 Vice Entry Terminals 
which permits its voice units to interface 
directly with any 48K Apple II computer. 

Measuring .-»/ 4 " by 8" by 10". the VET/2 
plugs into any slot in the Apple II and is 
linked functionally to the keyboard. The 
direct keyboard link allows the user to 
choose keyboard input or voice input at 
any time. 

The peripheral is said to allow the user 
to run Integer Basic. Applesoft and machine- 
code programs by voice input with no 
modifications to the programs. $895. 

Scott Instruments. 81 5 North Elm. Den- 
ton. TX 76201. (817) 387-9514. 
^ CIRCLE 308 ON READER SERVICE CARD ^ 

APRIL 1981 



COMPILERS 

ACCEL2: Compiler lor THS 80 Disk BASIC Compiles 
selected subset to 280 machine code in all tour variable types, 
compact 1K run-time component controls interpreter to stream- 
line all other statements and functions Technique minimises 
code expansion without impairing huge speedups tor true double 
optimisation Six diagnostic messages. Local/Global options 
increase compatibility with subject programs Output save to 
Disk, tapes Professionals note No royalties on the derived 
code It's like having a too mm clock SM 95 

ACCEL: Compiler tor TRS-80 Level II BASIC Same huge 
speedups as ACCEL2 but in INTEGER variable type only Run 
time component |ust 256 bytes, ideal lor graphics, games in 
16K Developed in Britain by Southern Software 44 95 

TSAVE: VWites compiler output to SYSTEMtape J9 95 

SOFTWARE CPU'" 

Super STEP: Animated Z80 Programming Models. Disas- 
sembler. Single step /TRACE modes with intelligent RAM 
Window. 5 user selectable Windows, single and cumulative 
instruction times in microseconds. Reference Space, much 
more Big booklet, a 280 Software CPU 16K Level II TRS-80. 
TBUG required No BL-0 J19 95 

Super TIE6S: Relocates TBUG. Super STEP J9 95 

EMU 02: Animated 6502 Programming Models Disassembles 
to 6502 mnemonics Single-step/TRACE modes. 6502 coun- 
terparts to »B , »J . #R . #F and *G commands, fast Cross inter 
preter. keyboard scan port with p instructions DB.EB control, 
paging in virtual address space, more Big book let&SYNERTEK 
card, a 6502 Software CPU 
16K Level II TRS-80. TBUG required No BL-1 (24 95 

COLOR COMPUTER 

COCOBUG: 6809 Debugging monitor for TRS-80 Color Com 
puter Examine, modify memory/CPU registers, place break- 
points, execute single instructions or entire machine language 
programs in real lime Includes 6809 Reference card, runs in 
4K J1995 

MASTERCARD/VISA 

Incl. .75 postage, CA add 6% 



ALLEN GELDER SOFTWARE 
Box 11721 Main Post Office 
San Francisco. CA 94101 



TRS-80. TBUG tm Radio Shack/Tandy Corp 
Software CPU tm Allen Gelder Software 
••••••••••••••••••••••••a 

CIRCLE 108 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MASTERTYPE 

A Game That Teaches Typing 




Now you can learn to type while 
playing a game on your APPLE II. In 
MASTERTYPE. enemy words are at- 
tacking your base. You must type the 
words in order to repel and destroy the 
attackers. You get to see what you 
type in the center box. but if you take 
the time to look at your fingers you will 
probably be destroyed. Learning to 
type used to be incredibly dull and 
boring. MASTERTYPE makes it fun. 

The MASTERTYPE diskette comes 
complete with 17 lessons taking you 
from simple letters through punctu- 
ation marks, plus a program for mak- 
ing your own lessons. To order your 
copy, send check or money order for 
$34.95 to: 
MASTERTYPE 

P.O. Box 5223. Stanford. CA 94305 
Specify 13 or 16 sector (16 is default). 
Requires Applesoft (not n^ cassette 
version) and at least 32K. 
CIRCLE 178 ON READER SERVICE CAR 



'J 




Finally The Hi res Baseball that's as good as the Apple' 

by Arthur Wells 



$24.95 32K Disk Applesoft or Integer 

^ /Micro- League' 




A 

H different pitches, 6 different 

swings 

3D effect on fly baits 

Player controlled fielding 

and throwing 

Vocal umpire 

Complete electronic score 

board 

Beautiful stadium in full color 



A great hi res lunar lander, just like the arcade game! 
bu Bill Budge creator of Trilogy and Penny Arcade 

$24.95 48K Disk Applesoft or Integer 



• landscape scrolling 

• Auto zoom for landing site 
close up 

• Player control of 360* craft 
rotation 

i Spectacular crashes 
■ Always challenging 

Improve your scores as you 

•mprove your skill' 




AdbJftA.<MJr*>r a , MoCOO » -■ J f--J- •'iwiij 

I w CeWcft. Mw*ry Onlrr. VISA or MAS I UK AKD fW*> 

" tfmthorvKonlttMAliJtirVQt «C<ttWmi> 

ATTtl l«e ap-i n ti t\ ii I «f Ape^ti^nii *■ 



CIRCLE 270 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





171 



computer 

Sand Service 




The Apple II Inflation Fighter 

Continuing in our effort to offer quality mer- 
chandise at low affordable price*. Our INFLA- 
TION FIGHTER SYSTEM consists o« an 
APPLE II PLUS computer with 48K. A-VIDD 
MEMORY UPGRADE. DISK DRIVE WITH 
CONTROLLER (DOS 3.3). and RF 
MODULATOR. 

Reg. Price $2205 00 

SALE PRICE $1725.00 

• PRICE INCLUDES 24 HOUR BURN IN 

• ROM & RAM TEST 

• 1 YEAR GUARANTEE ON A VIDD 
MEMORY 

Extended warranty for Apple II $195 

Now Taking Orders For The 

Apple / / / 

The Information Analyst Package: 

• 96KAPP1I computer 

• 12 inch SANYO B&W monitor 

• VISICALl 

• BUSINESS BASIC 

• SYSTEM SOFTWARE & MANUALS 

Reg. Price $4240.00 

SALE PRICE $3995.00 

INFORMATION ANALYST WITH 
128K MEMORY 

Reg. Price $4740.00 

SALE PRICE $4466.00 

Hardware Specials 

Item: He». Sale 

Apple Graphics Tablet $ 795 $695 
Apple Disk 

a Controller DOS 3.3 $ 645 $540 

Apple Disk II Drive $ 525 $475 
Apple Basic Firmware 

Cards $ 200 $150 
Apple Pascal Language 

Card $ 495 $382 

Microsoft Z 80 Card $ 350 $285 

DC Hayes Micromodem II $ 379 $308 

Centronics 737 Printer $1025 $850 

Software Specials 

Apple Fortran $200 $155 

Apple DOS 3.3 $ 60 $ 50 

Apple Plot $ 70 $ 55 

Apple DOS Tool Kit $ 75 $ 57 

Apple Writer $ 75 $ 57 

Vistcalc $150 $120 

Immediate delivery. Phone and mail orders 
accepted. Please call or write lor shipping 
rates. We ship world wide (F.O.B. Long 

2210Bellflower 

Boulevard 
Long Beach. CA 

90815 
(213)598-0444 
(714)821-0870 
Three blocks South of the S.in Dk 
Freeway In the Los Altos Centei 

Mon Thurs S30AM 5 30 PM 

Hours: Frl N :«> AM ')()(> HM 

Saturday It) (K) AM 5 :«>HM 



VISA 



CIRCLE 197 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



A-VIDD 

electronics co. 



PERIPHERALS 

APPLE INTERFACE 

Connecticut microcomputer. has 
introduced APMOD. an interface for 
Apple microcomputers which allows the 
processing of real world variables. 

With APMOD. an Apple can read tem- 
perature, light levels, pressures, and 
voltages, and can control lamps, motors, 
pumps, heaters, and appliances. Its pur- 
pose is to generate a bus from the Apple. 
The APMOD plugs into one of the I/O 
slots of the Apple, providing the neces- 
sary port. $49.50 

Connecticut microcomputer. Inc.. 34 
Del Mar Dr.. Brookfield. CT 06804. 

CIRCLE 307 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

DIRECT CONNECT MODEM FOR 
ATARI 

The Microperipheral Corporation has 
announced the Atari Connection, a 
direct connect modem for interfacing the 
Atari personal computer to the national 
telephone network. 

The Atari-Connection is Bell 103 com- 
patible and operates in the originate or 
answer mode at 300 baud. It can be used 
for accessing The Source. MicroNet. 
computer bulletin boards and other com- 
puters for data transfer with data bases in 
.this country and Europe. 




The product does not require the Atari 
Model 850 parallel/serial RS-232C com- 
patible interface unit. The modem is con- 
nected in series with the Model 800 
computer console data port and the Atari 
4!0 program recorder or disk drive. An 
RS-232 direct connect modem is avail- 
able for Atari owners with the interface 
module. This configuration employs the 
Atari Telelink cartridge. $249. 

The Microperipheral Corporation. 
2643 151st Place N.E.. Redmond. WA 
98052.(206)881-7544. 

CIRCLE 308 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Consumer Report & Guide 

on Business 

Application Software 



Don't buy ■ software blackbox! 
Don't wast* thousands off 
dollars! Educate yourself before 
you buy! 

Report Features: 

• evaluation of the BIG FIVE: 
GL, A/R. A/P. Inventory, Payroll 

• memory and diskette requirements 

• shortcomings of the software 

• matching expectations with available 
products 

• how to avoid software traps 

• buying through dealer or mail order 

• comparison of products from major 
vendors 

• dealer and vendor support 

To order: Mail $10 to: 

Christine Enterprises 

24 Jean Lane 
Monsey, NY. 10952 

SATISFACTION GUARANTEED! 

CIRCLE 135 ON READER SERVICE CARD 
172 



AT LAST. 

22H% DISCOUNT ON 

MOST ITEMS HARDWARE 

AND SOFTWARE 

Same Discount Within Product Lines 

COMPARE 

TOTAL SYSTEM PRICES 

As a reader of mail order ads you know 
how confusing most price lists can be. 
The star attraction is the computer itself 
at an admittedly low price. But when 
you look at all the accessories and 
peripherals you need, you find that the 
prices on these items are not so low. We 
offer one, standard, across the board 
discount on most items. Take whatever 
you need, computers, peripherals, 
accessories, software add up the 
suggested list price. Take our discount 
and that is our price for your total 
system. Compare total system prices. 
Send for details by circling the number 
or call to place your order right now. 
We guarantee satisfaction. 

personalized 




computer 

a****** MervMna- MSfU 

303-428-0066 



CIRCLE 216 ON READER SERVICE CARD 
CREATIVE COMPUTING 



MUSIC SWEETENER 



' 6 o 

c Music 
Svxxtener 



Newtech Computer Systems Inc. 
announces the Music Sweetener, a low- 
pass filter designed to improve the 
sound quality of Software Affair's 
Orchestra-80 and other commercial and 
homebrew digital-to-analog-converter 
music synthesizers that do not already 
incorporate a filter into their design. 
$39.95 

Newtech Computer Systems Inc.. 230 
Clinton St.. Brooklyn. NY 11201. (212) 
625-6220. 

CIRCLE 309 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

6809 PROCESSOR FOR APPLE 

Stellation Two announces The Mill, a 
plug-in processor board for the Apple 
computer. Installed in any Apple peri- 
feral slot. The Mill is said to super- 
charge the computer with the Motorola 
6809E processor, a high speed device 
optimized for real time data acquisi- 



tion, stack type languages such as Forth 
and Pascal, and concurrent program- 
ming tasks. 

Users may run existing 6502 pro- 
grams or use software developed for the 
Motorola 6800 processor: the assem- 
bler for The Mill's 6809 will compile 
6800 instructions into 6809 object code. 
$275. 

Stellation Two. P.O. Box 2342. Santa 
Barbara. C A 93120. 

CIRCLE 310 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



LIGHT PEN FOR OSI 




A deluxe version of the L.C.S. Light Pen 
Kit designed for Ohio Scientific computers 
is now available. Its features include coiled 
cord and Kwik-Disconnect plug. $29.95. 

Faragher Associates. Inc.. 7635 West 
Bluemound Rd.. Milwaukee. WI 53213. 
(800) 558-0870. 

CIRCLE 311 ON READER SERVICE CARD . 



MEMOREX 
DISKETTES 

m 

CARTRIDGES 

for your computer or word processor 



BUY THE BEST FOR LESS 
Lowest prices. WE WILL 
NOT BE UNDERSOLD*! Buy 
any quantity 1 - 1000. Visa, 
Mastercharge accepted. Call 
free (800) 235-4137 for prices 
and information. All orders 
sent postage paid 



PACIFIC 
EXCHANGES 

100 Foothill Btvd 
San Luis Obispo. CA 
93401 (In Cat cal 
(805)543-1037.) 




USR-330D Modem 



Auto-Dtal/Auto Answer $399 

Connect your THS-80. Apple, or any other 
computer to the phone lines. 

• 0-300 Baud-Bell 103/1 13 compatible 

• Serial RS232 

• Hall/Full Duplex 

• 1 year warranty 

FCC Certified 
Direct connection to 
phone lines via RJ11C 
standard extension 
phone jack 

USR-330A Modem 

Same as 330D 

but Manual-Onginate/Auto-Answer 

Radio Shack Model II Users - 

We have software to connect you directly 
to the phone lines. 




S339 




CIRCLE 185 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE 1690N READER SERVICE CARD 
APRIL 1981 



! 



HUNflNeiCN 
CCHI)LTINf7 



I 



PROGRAMS LISTED BELOW ARC ON C 

SUPER SCRIPT $«'> .-,., „ 

Apple Galaxian jj 4 95 „ 

EPYX (Automated Simulations) SPECIAL - 
While they last Ryn Morioc Rx}e» all three 



Galaxy Wars 

Hyper Head On 

Galactic Empire 

Galactic Trader 

Galactic Revolution 

DB Uasler 

Tranquility Base 

Aristotle s Apple 

The Data Factory 

Mission Asteroid 

Vinyl holders tor 20 draka in 

beaulitul deluxe padded binder 
DOS Tool Kit 
Olympic Decathlon 
Compu Math Arithmetic 
Apple Plot 

College Boards iKrem 
Time Traveler 
Sword olZedek 
French Wurard A The Princess 



!a»i 

S?l«i. 
$24 95« 

S24 95 . 
UtH. 

Siasoon 

$24 95- 
134 99„ 

$'50 00 » 
Sl9"ft r. 



$7S00« 

roes < 

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srsoo. 
$79 95x 
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tii.ee 91 

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tine £ 
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We Strive to Have 

the Fastest Service, 

the Best Prices, and 

the Biggest Inventory. 



French Mystery House 
French Mission Asterord 
Sands ol Mart 

Little Crystal 
House ol Usher 

Galactic Ouest 
Sumer 

Later wars 
World War III 
Beneath the Pyramid 

All Time Super Star Baseball 
The Tarturian 



T I PROGRAMMER 
Retail S6S 00 

The Prisoner 

The Wuard t The Princess 

Compu Spaa 

Computer Ambush 

Compuiw tamer! 

Computer Napc+eomcs 

Computer Ouarterback 

Flight Simulator Ida* j 

StarCrutser 

Space Album 

Odyssey 

Larai ■ ■ LCA 

VU#3 

SpaceEggs 

Data Capture 

Meikcal Office Management 

The Warn Factor 

Micro League Baseball 

Saigon II 

Program Line Edrtor 

2 60 Softcard with CP/M 

VksuSOCoI Board 

Head On 

3D Super Graphic 

Compu Math I or II 

HI RES CrrObage 

Phantom Five 

St.ir Gazer ', Guxle 

UHStJOl Kaima 

Tdrv.ua s Last Redoubt 



$24 95xxxx 

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Hexicecxnal/Octal Calculator 



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Apple Pt£ A Formatter {Reg $129 951 Specuj 

ABM IM 



aiMuse) 

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Computer Conflict 
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Baker s Trilogy 

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ANOROMEOA 16K RAM Expansion Board for Apple II 

Retail is S! 95 - Our once f1tva.ee 

NEC 12 Green. Black $260 xo. flle.ee 

Centronics 737 Prmtex $995 mx fiee.ee 

aht Pad tor Act* ..... t iae.ee 

S200 xx- fiie.ee 

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Send tor THS-A0 PET and ATARI Catalog also 

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Is add 6". tax Include $2 00 lor post 



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24 hour order senrace Cat 



9 



173 



CIRCLE 144 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

See us at the West Coast Computer Faire-booth 931. 



--■ 



% REVOLUTIONARY * 
PROGRAMS 

FROM 

CONTINENTAL 
SOFTWARE 

(or youi Apple Compuicr 

^ THOROUGHLY TESTED 

*> WELL DOCUMENTED 

^ WRITTEN BY 

PROFESSIONALS 

• USER ORIENTED 

AVAILABLE NOW! 

L.A. LAND MONOPOLY 
$29.93 

Th<* object of L.A. Land Monopoly is In 
become the richest player in Ihe game rn 
terms of total asset* — cash, property, and 
buildings- and to drive all your opponents 
into bankruptcy Hi Res Graphics' 

HYKKSPACE WARS 
1 29.95 
4MSMI 

The Terraunion is being attacked by a 
deadly Klepton invasion force As com- 
mander of the United Starship Excalibur. it 
is your mission to destroy this invasion 
force Hi Res Graphics' 

i-0 SfACI BATTLE 
A high resolution three dimensional ^ 
^t W" 9* m « whew the player searches for ^ 
^ an alien ship using the onboard scanners 

THE MAILROOM 
$29.93 

* Up to bSO names per disk * Ability 
to sort on any of 12 items and/ or special yL. 
sorts on a portion of total entries * Prints 
labels 1. 2. or 3 across * Sorts names ir 
16 seconds 

THE HOME MONEY MINDER 
$04.95 

* Transactions for month by each type of 
expense, check, credit card & cash 

Transactions lor month by check. 
edit card and cash sorted by budget 
itegory * Bank reconciliation 

Budget for year * Comparison of 
>tal expenses tor month and year to date 
Hied by budget category 

GENERAL LEDGER 

Complete Program $175 

Manual Only $15 

e>|( We challenge the competition with the first 
revolutionary general ledger program lor 
the Apple that your accountant will like as 
much as you will 

* Complete step by step Instructions 

* Automatic double entry * Complete 
audit trails * Menu Driven * Easiest lo 
use by far # Hi Res charting of all ac 
counts # Maintains Complete Year's 

| all transactions * Excellent 
error checking 

See All 
CONTINENTAL SOFTWARE 
■*" at your Local Dealer or Order 
from 

CONTINENTAL 

SOFTWARE 

30448 Via Victoria 

Rancho Palos Verdes. 

CA 90274 

Phone (213) 371-5612 

California residents add 6% 

Apple is a registered trademark 

■ of the Apple Corporation 




TRS-80 CONTROL INTERFACE CALENDAR/CLOCK FOR APPLE 




The IDS Calendar/Clock Card for 
Apple II provides automatic real-time 
calendar/clock capability to document 
events. reports, transactions, ap- 
pontments, etc. 

The card comes equipped with a 2708 
ROM chip. No additional programming is 
necessary. However, a 2716 ROM chip is 
available which will provide over 2000 
bytes of user ROM for additional resident 
programs. Multiple interrupts can be se- 
lected to facilitate specific user func- 
tions. 



The Black Box Energizer plugs into 
any Level II TRS-80 to control 256 sep- 
arate appliances and lamps. A built-in 
timer measures time from seconds to 
days, with 1/60 second accuracy. 

The Black Box Energizer works with 
any "Appliance" or "Lamp" control 
module manufactured by BSR. and sold 
separately by Sears and Radio Shack. 
The Black Box broadcasts control sig- 
nals directly over electrical wiring. It is 
supplied with complete software that 
works with any Level II TRS-80 and any 
size memory. $49.95. 

Oasis Systems. 2765 Reynard Way. 
San Diego. CA 92103. (714) 291-9489. 

CIRCLE 312 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Output information includes: hour, 
minute, second, AM/PM, day, month, 
date, and, year. Output formats include 
both standard and military designators. 
Price Calendar/Clock card is $215. for 
cards equipped with 2708 ROM chips and 
$250. for cards equipped with 2716 ROM 
chips. 

Instructional Development Systems, 
2927 Virginia Beach Blvd. Virginia 
Beach, VA 23452. (804) 340-1977. 

CIRCLE 3130N READER SERVICE CARD 




Graphic Games 



Cassette CS- 5001 $11 95 6 Programs 



Requires 8K 




Pie Lob. Splatter your opponent with pie 
filling by choosing the correct angle and 
strength of your throw over a computer- 
generated hill. 

Dodgem. Choose the dimensions ot the 
grid, then apply your best strategy to get 
ail your pieces off the board before your 
opponent does. 



LEM. Use information provided by the 
computer to execute a perfect landing on 
the surface of the moon. 



Nuclear Reaction. Wipe out your oppon- 
ent's pieces by causing explosive chain 
reactions. 



Bounce. An intriguing graphics demon- Checkers. Pit your skill against the com- 
stration which traces the path of a ball as it puter version of this all time favorite, 
bounces around the screen. 

To order use handy order form in the back of the magazine. 



CIRCLE 158 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

West Coast Computer Faire Booth # 1 535. 



CIRCLE 300 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



174 



CREATIVE COMPUT.NG 



SYSTEMS 
SOFTWARE 



LANGUAGES 

Tiny c associates announces tiny c two. 
a new compiler version of the tiny c 
structured programming language. New 
features include 32-bit integers, new opera- 
tors and redirectable and direct access 
input/output. The product is initially 
available in CP/M for the 8080 on 8" single 
density disks. $250. Tiny c associates. Box 
269. Holmdel, NJ 07733. 

CIRCLE 314 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

BaZic is a software package which is 
said to allow the North Star Horizon to 
execute programs 25% to 30% faster. It is 
available for North Star double density /quad 
capacity systems on 5 I /4" disk. $150. Micro 
Mikes. 905 South Buchanan. Amarillo. 
TX 79101. (806) 372-3533. 

CIRCLE 315 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Abacus Software has announced Tiny 
Pascal Plus, an enhanced version of Tiny 
Pascal which features support forgraphics. 
It is available for the 32K PET or Apple. 
$50. Abacus Software. P.O. Box 721 1 . Grand 
Rapids. MI 49510. 

CIRCLE 316 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Paratronics Computer Services offer 
English for use with its Servant 3.2. system. 
It is available for the TRS-80 Model I and 
Model II. North Star and Apple II. $49.95. 
Paratronics Computer Services, 2938 Bever- 
ly Glen Cir., Los Angeles, CA 90024. 

CIRCLE 317 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Fortran and C'obol are now available 
for the Apple computer. Both languages, 
which run under the CP/M operating 
system, are designed to be used with 
Microsoft's SoftCard on a 48K Apple. The 
Cobol-80 package includes the Cobol-80 
compiler. Link-80 linking load 

er. Macro-80 macro assembler. Lib library 
manager. Cref-80 cross reference assembler 
and reference documentation. $750. The 
Fortran-80 package includes the Fortran- 
80 compiler. Link-80 linking loader and 
reference manual. $195. Microsoft Con- 
sumer Products. 400 108th Ave.. NE. Suite 
200, Bellevue. WA 98004. (206)454-1315. 

CIRCLE 318 ON REAOER SERVICE CARD 

TForth. a Fig-Standard version of Forth, 
is now available for the TRS-80. It contains 
built-in operating system, assembler, text 
editor, floating point math package, I/O 
package, phoneme assembler (support for 
voice synthesizer) and graphics links into 
RS routines. $130. Sirius Systems, 7528 
Oak Ridge Hwy.. Knoxville, TN 37921. 
(615)693-6583. 
CIRCLE 3190N READER SERVICE CARD J 



N 
DISKETTES? 



"BASF 

MEMOREX 

%Dysan 



Visa. Mastercharge accepted. Call 
free (800)235-4 1 37 for prices and 
information All orders sent postage 
paid 

PACIFIC 
EXCHANGES 

100 Foothill 

Silll.uisOb:-; 

93401 

• H037 I 



CIRCLE 204 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




FULL SCREEN TEXT EDITORS 
FOR THE TRS-80* 



Now there are products that will allow you to program 
like the professionals do it you enjoy the sophistic* 
tion of writing your own programs then you are in for a 
real treat when you use our editors Features include 
full screen display, complete control over scrolling 
and cursor movement, character change, insert, de- 
lete, insert, delate, copy, move lines or blocks of lines, 
renumber; global find and change 
BASIC editor runs from tape or disk Once loaded, a 
single command invokes our extended edit mode, with 
powers and abilities tar beyond those of conventional 
editing! Advanced features include user definable 
macro keys and the powerful program restructuring 
tool SELECTIVE RENUMBER 

EOT ASM editors are compatible with EOT ASM source 
tape tiles Disk version includes patch to run Radio 
Shack* EDTASM from disk' All products are shipped 
on tape for level 2 machines and include a comprehen 
sive owner's manual 

The Text Editor for BASIC Order #1010-20 24.95 

The Text Editors lor EDTASM Source Files: 

Tape Version Order #1010-30 24.95 

Disk Version (Req. 32K and up) Order #1010-31 34.95 

New: XBUG sell-relocating debugging tool with 

multi-speed single step facility. 

Order #1020-10 $19 95 

Send check or money order (no COOs) to 

f^l § COMPUTER 
IJLI APPLICATIONS 
L^KJ UNUMITED 

Post Ollice So> 214. Depl 188 Rye. New Vork 10580 



N v State residents please add applicable sales tax 
Please alto* 4-6 wee*s delivery Dealer inquiries invited 
'Radio Shack tnd TRS 90 er* fgisttfd trademarks ot 
L. Tht Tandy Corp. 



CIRCLE 211 ON READER SERVICE CARD 
175 




Please send: 



Namp _ 

Addraa . 
City 



Complete System S496 00 
User's Manual only S35 00 
Detailed information 



Sl.it.- . 



Z'P- 



applied analytics incorporated 

5406 Roblre Oi . Uppei Mjilbim,. M0 20170 



SYSTEMS 

Disk Zap 2.3 is an editor for the TRS-HO 
Model 1 equipped with the Percom Doublet- 
that will work with either single or double 
density disks. It is track and sector oriented, 
offers access to all parts of the disk, and 
has the ability to format and back up disks 
as well as edit them. $19.95. Micro-Systems 
Software. Inc.. 5846 Funston St.. Hollywood. 
FL 33023. (305) 983-3390. 

CIRCLE 320 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

EDAS 3.4 is a text editor and assembler 
for the TRS-HO Models I and III. It provides 
text editing facilities for the modification 
of alpha-numeric text files in RAM. as 
well as text block move, global change 
with line range directive, string search, 
and line scroll capabilities. $75. Serious 
Software, 5904 Edgehill Dr.. Alexandria. 
VA 22303. (703) 960-2998. 

. CIRCLE 321 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Prism integrates the features of a data 
base management system with those of a 
program development system. This is said 
to enable users to develop applications 
such as mail lists, patient records or real 
estate listings without programming. Prism 
runs on computers using CP/M and CBasic- 
2 with 48K memory and two or more disk 
drives. Micro Applications Group. 7300 
Caldus Ave.. Van Nuys. CA 91406. (213) 
881-8076. 

CIRCLE 322 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

HEXDOS 23 for OSI systems is designed 
for use with ROM Basic and supports such 
features as real-time clock, named disk 
files, trace and single-stepping of programs, 
tone generator, multiple data files, editing 
capabilities and chaining of programs. 
$27.50. The 6502 Program Exchange. 2920 
West Moana. Reno. NV 89509. 

CIRCLE 323 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



3R ScftTifcre 

presents 

198 English Lessons to TRS-80* 
Level II Users 

ENGLISH USAGE EXERCISES 

• Volume 1—96 Sessions 

• Volume 11—102 Sessions 

• Teacher's Manual lor Volume I 
- 148 pgs. 

• Teacher s Manual for Volume II 
— 195 pgs. 

DEMONSTRATION OISKS & TAPES AVAILABLE 

WRITE FOR A BROCHURE: 
3R SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 3115 
Jamaica, New York 11431 

•TRS-80 is a registered trademark ol Tandy 
Corp. 



FLEXIBLE UENU DRIVEN PROGRAM ALLOWS USER ABILITY TO 
SORT A LARTE NUMBER Of DATA ITEMS WITH SPECIFIABLE FIELDS 
t SORT ON ANY FIELD-FORMAT PRINT STORE EDIT MAIL LIST 
INOEK RANK CLASSIFY DATA 

MIN SYSTEM REQUIREMENT MOD 14.EV?-tSK-tKISK ON OISMETTE 
WITH DOCUMENTATPON-llSvSINCl SNIPPING 

FAULWR ENTERPRISES 
PO BOSS 

AMBLER. PA 1MOZ 



CIRCLE 196 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Textan is a multi-faceted, machine 
language editor designed to operate on 
the TRS-80 with at least 16K of memory. 
It is video-oriented, and reads program 
tapes written in Level II Basic and returns 
to Basic with the program fully loaded 
upon completion of the edit function. 
Features include 32 command functions 
and 26 reserved word keys $40. Southeastern 
Software. 512 Conway Lane. Birmingham. 
AL 35210. (205) 956-2389. 

CIRCLE 324 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Lifeboat Associates announces CP/M 2 
for Ohio Scientific C3 computers. The 
system includes CP/M disk-to-disk copy 
routine, a memory test program for the 
Z80 and I/O drives for all common OSI 
peripheral devices. $200. Lifeboat Associ- 
ates, 1651 Third Ave.. New York. NY 
10028.(212)8600300. 

CIRCLE 325 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PET/CBM 
PERIPHERALS 



USt YOUR COMMODORE PIT CBM 
AS A TERMINAL ALSO CONNECT 
TO PRINTERS. PLOTTERS TERMINALS 
MODEMS AND TELEPHONE LINES. 

RS 232 OUTPUT ONLY $129 
RS-232 INPUT/OUTPUT $229 
RS-232 DUAL CHANNEL $369 
TELEPHONE MODEM $389 

...AND SOFTWARE TOO! ! 

• •• 

FROM TNW CORPORATION 

3351 Hancock St • San Diaso CA 92110 

7 14225 1W0 • TWX B10 335 1194 • SoufCS TCB199 

Full One Year Warranty • Visa' Mastarcharge 



CIRCLE 268 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE 229 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



©Creativt? Computing 



REAL ESTATE SOFTWARE 



PROPERTY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (PMS) 

PMS is the most comprehensive income property management system developed for a microcomputer It includes a full 9 ei "L er <3' 

ledger, accounts receivable (tenants), budgeting, checkwriter and many additional features PMS was designed to meet IREM 

requirements Price: $650. demonstration diskette $35 00 

RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT (RPM) 

RPM has most of the features of PAS but designed for one unit properties like houses or condominiums One or several common 

checking accounts can be used Price $650 00. demonstration diskette and manual $35 00 

MINI-WAREHOUSES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (MMS) 

MMS has many of the PMS features but designed for one common general ledger Each renter has his own file including home address 

for mailings Price $650 

PROPERTY ANALYSIS SYSTEM (PAS) 

PAS is a system for modeling and projecting cash flow, appreciation, tax considerations, future equity, etc for all types of income 
properties This program was designed for the sophisticated investor Price $250 00 

All programs written in CBASIC under CP/M and compatible with TRS-80II For additional information please contact: 
A-T Enterprises ■ 221 N. Lois • La Habra, CA 90631 • 213/947-2762 

CIRCLE 115 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



176 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



■■■ 



DEC 



i3;h'iik7:iKia;nh'iii;f:KKi:ni 

PURCHASE PLAN • 12-24 MONTH FULL OWNERSHIP PLAN • 36 MONTH LEASE PLAN 

puactusf PIB MOUTH 

OfSCMFIIM PWCf HMOS Z4HOI MHOS 

LA36 DECwnler II $1,095 S105 S 58 S 40 

LA34 DECwnler IV 995 95 53 36 

LA34 DECwnler IV Forms Ctrl .1.095 105 56 40 

LA120 DECwnler III KSR 2.295 220 122 S3 

LA120 DECwnler III RO 2.095 200 112 75 

VTIOOCRTDECscope 1.595 153 65 51 

VT132 CRT DECscoea 1.995 190 106 72 

TI745 Portable Terminal 1,595 163 65 56 

TI765 Bubble Memory Terminal 2.595 249 136 93 

TI763 Portable KSR. 120 CPS... 1.745 167 93 63 

T17SS Portable KSR. 120 CPS 2.395 230 128 66 

TI787 Portable KSR 120 CPS 2.645 273 152 102 

TMIOROPrlntar 1.695 162 102 69 

TI820 KSR Printer 2.195 211 117 60 

730 Desk Top Pnnler 715 69 39 26 

737 W P Desk Top Printer 695 66 46 32 

704 RS232-C Printer 1.795 172 96 65 

6061 High Speed Band Printer . . 5.495 527 293 196 

DT80 1 CRT Terminal 1.69$ 162 90 61 

DT60 1L 15 Screen CRT 2.295 220 122 S3 

DT80 5APLCRT 2.095 200 112 75 

ADM3A CRT Terminal 675 64 47 32 

ADM5 CRT Terminal 975 93 52 35 

ADM31CRT Terminal 1.450 139 76 53 

ADM42 CRT Terminal 2.195 211 117 79 

1420 CRT Terminal 945 91 51 34 

1500 CRT Terminal 1.095 105 56 40 

1552 CRT Terminal 1.295 125 70 46 

_ Letter Quality KSR. 55 CPS 3.395 326 181 123 

■ Letter Quality RO. 55 CPS 2,895 278 154 104 

2621A CRT Terminal 1.495 144 60 54 

2621P CRT Terminal 2.650 255 142 96 

FULL OWNERSHIP AFTER 12 OR 24 MONTHS • 10". PURCHASE OPTION AFTER 36 MONTHS 
ACCESSORIES AND PERIPHERAL EQUIPMENT 

ACOUSTIC COUPURS ■ MODEMS • THERMAL PAPER • RIBBONS • INTERFACE MODULES • FLOPPY DISK UNITS 

OTHER POPU LAR TERMINALS. COMPUTER PERIPHERALS AND COMPUTERS AVAILABLE 

n 

CIRCLE 181 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



TEXAS 

INSTRUMENTS 



CENTRONICS 



DATAMEDIA 



LEARSIEGLER 



HAZELTINE 



HEWLETT PACKARD 



ransNeti 



! /C/I/V^V Vt I CORPORATION 
1945 ROUTE 22. UNION. N.J. 07083 • (201) 688-7800 




charming place. There is free information, a casino, library, theater, a 
church, a lovely hospital ... All we wait Is informatien. We play 
sack delightful games . . . Please cooperate . . . Obedience la in 
the kasl interest at the Island's security. 

Bizarre? You needn't worry. We don't wait ta damage yaa . . . 
permanently. Sa have a lovely time. Yaa see, yea'll never leave. 
Wa axpact you'll aavar even Had the bare . . . 

Pthe 
risoncr 
BY DAVID MULLICH 
Requires Applesoft 48K, Disk Drive S29.95 
Available il computer itirei in finer >il!iiis enerywtirt 



213-346-6783 



wwsxm 



^<t 



DEALER 
INQUIRIES 
WELCOME 



EOU-WARE SERVICES. INC. 22222 Sherman Way #102 Canaga Para. Cl 91303 



Every PET" 
Needs a Friend. 




CURSOR is the best friend your Commodore PE r will ever 
have. Since July, 1978 we have published 150 of the most 
user-friendly programs for the PET available anywhere. 
When we write or edit a program, we spend lots of time 
fussing about how it will treat you. We pay attention to lots 
of little things that help make using a computer a pleasure 
instead of a pain. 

Naturally, CURSOR programs are technically excellent. 
Each program that we purchase is extensively edited or re- 
written by a professional programmer. But imagination is 
just as important as being user-friendly and technically 
good! We delight in bringing you off-beat, unusual 
programs that "show off" the abilities of your PET or CBM. 
CURSOR is user-friendly, technically great and full of 
imaginative programs. And every issue of CURSOR is still 
available! We continue to upgrade previously published 
programs so that they'll work on the three varieties of 
Commodore ROM's (Old, New, and 4.0). New issues also 
work on the 80 column CBM. 

For only $4.95 you can buy a sample issue and judge for 
yourself. Or send $27 for a six-issue subscription. Each 
CURSOR comes to you as a C-30 cassette with five 
programs and a graphic Front Cover, ready to LOAD and 
RUN on your PET. 

Who knows? After your PET meets CURSOR, things may 
never be the same! 



Published By: 



Distributed by: 

AUDIOGENIC Ltd. 
P. O. Box 88 

Reading. Berkshire 

SYSTEMS FORMUIATT Corp. 
Shin-Makicho Bldg . 1-8-17 
Yaesu, Chuo-Ku. Tokyo 103 



theCODE 
WORKS 

Box 550 

Goleta, CA 93116 
805-683-1585 



APRIL 1981 C,RCLE 164 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



■ CIRCLE 179 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




177 



Sourcebook 
off Ideas 

Many mathematics ideas can be better illustrated 
with a computer than with a text book. 



APPLICATIONS 
SOFTWARE 



ii MaUioniatlcs. 

A Sourcebook of 

U>ln> t» D«k1 H AM 




Consider Baseball cards. If there are 50 
cards in a set. how many packs of bubble 
gum must be purchased to obtain a complete 
set of players? Many students will guess 
over 1 million packs yet on average it's only 
329 

The formula to solve this problem is not 
easy. The computer simulation is. Yet you 
as a teacher probably don't have time to 
devise programs to illustrate concepts like 
this. 

Between grades 1 and 12 there are 142 
mathematical concepts in which the com- 
puter can play an important role. Things 
like arithmetic practice. X-Y coordinates, 
proving geometic theorems, probability, 
compounding and computation of pi by 
inscribed polygons. 

Endorsed by NCTM 

The National Council of Teachers of 
Mathematics has strongly endorsed the use 
of computers in the classroom. Unfortunately 
most textbooks have not yet responded to 
this endorsement and do not include pro- 
grams or computer teaching techniques. 
You probably don t have the time to develop 
all these ideas either. What to do? 

For the past six years. Creative Computing 
magazine has been running two or three 
articles per issue written by math teachers. 
These are classroom proven, tested ideas 
complete with flowcharts, programs and 
sample runs 

Teachers have been ordering back issues 
with those applications for years. However. 



many of these issues are now sold out or in 
very short supply. 

So we took the most popular 1 34 articles 
and applications and reprinted them in a 
giant 224-page book called Computers in 
Mathematics: A Sourcebook of Ideas. 

Ready-to-use-material 

This book contains pragmatic, ready to 
use. classroom tested ideas on everything 
from simply binary counting to advanced 
techniques like multiple regression analysis 
and differential equations. 

The book includes many activities that 
don't require a computer. And if you re 
considering expanding your computer 
facilities, you'll find a section on how to 
select a computer complete with an invalu- 
able microcomputer comparison chart. 

Another section presents over 250 
problems, puzzles, and programming ideas, 
more than are found in most "problem collec- 
tion" books. 

Computers in Mathematics: A Sourcebook 
of Ideas is edited by David Ahl, one of the 
pioneers in computer education and the 
founder of Creative Computing. 

The book is not cheap. It costs $15.95 
However if you were to order just half of the 
back issues from which articles were drawn 
they would cost you over $30. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed 

If you are teaching mathematics in any 
grade between 1 and 12, we're convinced 
you II find this book of tremendous value. If, 
after receiving it and using it for 30 days 
you do not agree, you may return it for a full 
refund plus your return postage. 

To order, send your check for $15.95 
plus $1 .00 postage and handling to Creative 
Computing Press, Morris Plains, NJ 07950 
Visa. MasterCard, and American Express 
orders may be called in toll-free to 800- 
631-8112 (in NJ 201-540-0445). School 
purchase orders should add an additional 
$ 1 00 billing fee for a total of $1 7.95. 

Don t put it off. Order this valuable source- 
book today. 

creative 
computing 

Morris Plains, NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800-631 -81 12 

(InNJ 201-540-0445) 



GAMES & RECREATIONAL 

Adventure is available for all OSI compu- 
ters with at least 32K and one disk drive. 
$19.95. FailsaIe+2. available for 8K OSI 
computers, is a complex simulation of the 
electronic warfare environment encoun- 
tered by combat crew members during 
nuclear war. Cassette. $8.95; disk. $1 1.95. 
Aurora Software Associates. P.O. Box 
9955.1 Cleveland. OH 44199. (216) 221- 
6981. 

CIRCLE 326 ON HEADER SERVICE CARD 

Strategic Simulations has recently 
released three war games on disk for the 
48K Apple II. Computer Conflict consists 
of two introductory games. Rebel Force, 
in which the player commands a Soviet 
regiment which must re-take a vital town 
overrun by a computer-directed uprising, 
and Red Attack, a two-player game that 
simulates an invasion by a mixed Soviet 
lank and infantry force against a defending 
battalion. $39.95. Computer Air Combat 
is an advance game of World War 11 aerial 
combat. $59.95. In the Warp Factor, one 
or two players command starships in 
scenarios that range from space skirmishes 
to full-scale star wars. $39.95. Strategic 
Simulations. Inc.. 465 Fairchild Dr.. Suite 
108. Mountain View. C A 94043. (415) 964- 
1353. 

CIRCLE 327 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Asteron is a version of "Asteroids" 
featuring hi-res graphics for single player 
or tournament play ($27.50). Star Avenger 
is a real time space strategy game which 
pits the player against the computer ($27.50). 
All games are written in machine language 
for the 48K Apple with disk drive. Western 
MicroData Enterprises, Ltd.. P.O. Box G33, 
Postal Station G. Calgary, Alberta. Canada. 
T3A2G1. 

CIRCLE 328 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

The Wizard is a question and answer 
game designed to test the wisdom of up to 
four players in four pre-programmed cate- 
gories using the TRS-80 Model I. A built- 
in utility program allows the user to feed 
in his own data base in any area of expertise. 
Programs Unlimited, 125 South Service 
Rd.. Jericho. NY 1 1753. (516) 997-8668. 

CIRCLE 329 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

The Prisoner consist of 20 interlinked 
games on one disk for the 48K Apple. The 
program places the player on an island 
which houses a psychological prison camp, 
and challenges him to escape. $29.95. Edu- 
Ware Services, Inc.. 22035 Burbank Blvd.. 
#223. Woodland Hills. CA 91367. (213) 
346-6783. 

CIRCLE 330 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



178 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



EDUCATIONAL 

The first of a planned series of microcom- 
puter educational programs is geared to 
practical day-to-day living situations. 
Included in the series are: Poison-proof 
your home. Income meets expenses. You 
can bank on it. Home safe home. Money 
management assessment series and Job 
readiness assessment and development. The 
programs are available for 48K Apple with 
Applesoft and disk drive, and TRS-NO Model 
1. 16K Level II with cassette. They contain 
four to eight disks or cassettes and range 
in price from $125 to $340. Interpretive 
Education. Dept. NR. 2306 Winters Dr., 
Kalamazoo. MI 49002. (616) 345-8681. 

CIRCLE 331 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Microsoft has announced an Applesoft 
version of Typing Tutor, the software 
package designed both to teach typing 
and to build typing speed through individu- 
alized lessons and drills. The new version 
requires an Apple II or Apple II Plus. 
Applesoft. 32K RAM and one disk drive. 
$19.95. Microsoft Consumer Products, 400 
108th Ave., NE. Suite 200, Bellevue. WA 
98004. (206) 454-1315. 

CIRCLE 332 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Words for the Wise is a spelling tutor 
system for the elementary school student. 
It features five spelling activities, including 
Missing Letters, Scrambled Words. Match 
the Letters, Alphabetizing and Hangman, 
and is written for the TRS-80 1 6K Level II. 
$14.95. TYC Software, 40 Stuyvesant 
Manor, Geneseo. NY 14454. 

CIRCLE 333 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Educational Programs announces two 
programs for the TRS-80 which are designed 
to develop mathematical reasoning and 
teach important mathematical concepts. 
The Estimation Game develops number 
sense and estimation in computation with 
whole numbers. The Distance Game pro- 
vides experience with two- and three-dimen- 
sional graphing by locating a point using 
distance information. $9.95. Educational 
Programs. Box 2345. West Lafayette. IN 
47906. 

CIRCLE 334 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Instructional Development Systems 
announces Assisted Instructional Develop- 
ment System, a curriculum authoring system 
designed to allow an educator who has no 
programming knowledge to create lessons 
or curricula with a 48K Apple II with 
single disk drive. Lessons may contain 
multiple screen pages of instructional text, 
multiple correct answers and replies, 
multiple incorrect answers and replies, 
unexpected replies and failure messages. 
The system also maintains records on 
student performance and equipment use. 
$495. Instructional Development Systems. 
2927 Virginia Beach Blvd., Virginia Beach. 
VA 23452. (804) 340-1977. 

, CIRCLE 335 ON REA DER SERVICE CARD j 
APRIL 1981 



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CIRCLE 107 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



We're the 
MAGNOLIA people 
you've been 
looking for. . . 

Add the CP/M" disk operating 
system to your Zenith/Heath '89 
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179 



GLOBAL" 

DATABASE 

MANAGEMENT 

SYSTEM 

Extremely comprehensive, versatile 
user-oriented management system for 
database creation and list main- 
tenance. Runs under CP/M* and 
CBASIC2" on a microcomputer 
system in only 48K RAM. 

Supplied on standard 8" IBM disk (TRS-80 
Model II). complete with BASIC subroutine 
library in source code, with 
comprehensive manual. <■ 



300 



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CIRCLE 198 ON READER SERVICE CARO 



What do you want 

your computer and 

video player to do 

that they can't do now? 



□ A. Display videotape segments 

then automatically switch to 
computer text. 

□ B. Display multiple-choice options 

at each stage of the presenta- 
tion, then, depending on the 
choice made, replay any portion 
of text and/or video, or move on 
to new material. 

□ C. Show any portion of the com- 

puter text and/or videotape 
(randomly accessed) depend- 
ing on the pace and/or choices 
of the user. 



□ D. ALL OF THE ABOVE 
do it all on one screen. 



and 



If you checked D, contact us for more 
information on Cavri Interactive Video. 
We offer a reasonably priced, sophisti- 
cated system that links an Apple* or an 
RS-232 interfacing computer with a 
Sony or Panasonic VCR and TV 
screen — with no modification. In- 
cluded are simple, straightforward in- 
structions for writing your programs. 
Plus frame-accurate stops and 
switches with no accumulated error. 

Write or call today and join the many 
companies, large and small, that are 
improving their audiovisual training 
and testing with the new technology 
pioneered by Cavri. 



Training, of course, is only one appli- 
cation. Now you can catalogue any- 
thing — tor example, a museum can 
videotape its paintings, sculptures, 
and artifacts, then show them by artist, 
subject, date, or any other grouping, 
regardless of the sequence in which 
they were recorded on the videotape. 
Tell us your application, and we can 
help by supplying the system and 
guidance on programming and video- 
tape or videodisc production. 



Cayii 

interactive * 1«lc<» 

26 Trumbull Street, New Haven, CT0651 1 
(203) 562-4979 



"TM — Apple Computer Co. 
CIRCLE 132 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CAI Biology consists of 15 tutorial 
programs for high school and junior college 
students. Each lesson covers one of the 
main topics in beginning biology. Single 
programs cost $19.95, and the set of 15 is 
$160. J & S Software. 140 Reid Ave.. Port 
Washington. NY 1 1050. 

CIRCLE 336 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Compu-Spell for the 48K Apple with 
disk drive is designed to teach spelling 
skills to children in grades 4 through 8. It 
features an additional unit aimed at the 
adult user, as well as upper and lower case 
display and a file management system for 
monitoring progress. $39.95. Edu-Ware 
Services. Inc.. 22035 Burbank Blvd., #223. 
Woodland Hills. CA 91367. (213) 346- 
6783. 

CIRCLE 337 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Phase 1 of the Basic English Skills Series 
consists of 25 lessons which focus on the 
functional identification and use of five 
parts of speech : nouns, pronouns, adjectives, 
adverbs and verbs. Lessons may be used 
as part of regular reinforcement practice 
sessions as well as to expand or establish 
remedial instruction programs. The package 
requires a 48K Apple II Plus with disk 
drive and ROM+ with keyboard filter. 
Convergent Systems. 245 East Sixth St.. 
Suite 257. St. Paul. MN 55101. 

CIRCLE 338 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



WORD PROCESSING 

The Word Processing Program for PET 

computers includes print directives such 
as line length, line spacing, left margin, 
centering and skip. Edit commands allow 
the user to insert lines, delete lines, move 
lines and paragraphs, change strings, save 
files on cassette, load files from cassette, 
move up or down, print and type. A 16/32K 
version features string search for editing, 
keyboard entry during printing for letter 
salutations, justification and multiple 
printing. The 8K version lists for $29.50; 
the 16/32K version for $39.50. Connecticut 
microcomputer. Inc.. 34 Del Mar Dr., 
Brookfield. CT 06804. 

CIRCLE 339 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Scribewriler IX Word Processing System 
provides on-screen formatting of printed 
text, complete with all spacing, titles, page 
numbering, centering and justification. 
Among the features offered is Auto-Insert 
which allows the user to print letters based 
on the use of standard paragraphs or based 
on the use of mailing lists which are created 
directly as Scribewriter files, or both. The 
program is available on a single-sided. 5 
1/4" disk in North Star format. $200. 
Friedman Ads/Promotions. P.O. Box 234. 
Shiba. Tokyo. Japan. 105-91. 



World Class 



Your ATARI is a world class personal computer. But you 
need great software in order to exploit its capabilities. 
And you need information about how it all works. 

IRIDIS is a series of software packages that will help you 
enjoy and understand your ATARI more fully. The 
programs are outstanding, just as you would expect from 
the people who have published 23 issues of the widely 
acclaimed CURSOR Magazine for the Pet since 1978. But 
IRIDIS is more than just a collection of excellent 
programs. IRIDIS *2 comes with a 56-page manual that 
has clear, detailed explanations of how each program 
works. The explanations tell you line-by-line what each 
program does, and how it does it. 

IRIDIS and your ATARI: A winning team. World Class! 



IRIDIS #2- Fondedit and Knotwork programs. 
Includes 56 page User Manual. 
$15.95 Cassette, $18.95 disk. 
Mastercharge and Visa welcome. 



Published By: 



theCODE 
WORKS 



Box 550 

Goleta, CA 93116 
805-683-1585 



CIRCLE 209 ON READER SEHVICE CARD 



180 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



.TAR I OWNERS! ! 

HELP it tiara! HELP 
It a proana that Hill alva 
ititaaant croRR-refarencinQ, 
proqraa ratiuabanng, atrina 
itirch and adit, and audi 
aora. A aanual ia includad 
to halp you loarn aora about 
proaraa operation, atringa, 
and filai. Only #34.94 
through April. (139.99 after 
that J Specify CASSETTE or 
DISK and add « for SW. 

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brito or call for dataila. 

Computer ' ■ 

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2370 Ella, Flint, III 48904 

Phonal (313) -238-3583 

CIRCLE 127 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE 

TRS-80. COLOR COMPUTER. PET 
& APPLE II 



ELEMENTARY 

SCIENCE 

GEOGRAPHY 

ECONOMICS 

FOREIGN LANG. 

GRAMMAR 



MATH 

BIOLOGY 

HISTORY 

ACCOUNTING 

BUSINESS ED. 

FARM RECORDS 



COIN INVENTORY 

Write for FREE Catalogue: 

MICRO LEARNINGWARE, Box 

2134, N Mankato, MN 56001 

(507) 625-2205 

VISA & MASTER CARD ACCEPTED 

We pay 15% royalty for Educational 
Programs listed with us. 
TRS-80 is a registered trademark of 
TANDY CORP. 

PET is a trademark of COMMO- 
DORE BUS. MACHINES. 
APPLE is a trademark of APPLE 
COMPUTER CO. 



CIRCLE 27? ON READER SERVICE CARD 



No TRS-80® 
Word processor 

is complete without 

PROOFREADER 

I*t your TRS-80 proofread your St'RIPSIT. 
Klectric Pencil or other documents. Proof- 
reader uws a 38,000 word dictionary and 
lists misspelled words on a file, screen, 
or printer. (Requires 32K, 1 disk, 
MOIUX- P 134.00 

RATFOR 

Rational Fortran preprocessor allows strue 
tured programming usinR Fortran. One 
of the beat versions available, with full 
manual. iRequire. Fortran. 48K. 2 disks. 
MOIIKI.-II M9.00 



SOFT-TOOLS are professional quality soft 
ware tools developed for the TRS-W by 
a Phi) in t'omputer Science. Versions for 
MOIIKI. Ill available soon. 



Order Postpaid: 



SOFT-TOOLS 

MIIF. Box 14 
Tijeraa. NM 87059 



CIRCLE 262 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



APRIL 1981 




"E = mc, as it were. " 

©Creative Computing 



HEWLETT PACKAJUTS HP-41C. 
A CALCULATOR A SYSTEM. 





White PIMM. N.Y. 10*01 

(114JWMV DATA 



CIRCLE 126 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



FREE 

business software 
directory 

• Radio Shack's Model-I, II, III. 

• Heath's MBASIC and HDOS. 

• CPM 

Data base manager, integrated 
accounting package, inventory, 
word processing, and advanced 
mailing list. 



£* 



Micro Architect Inc. 

96 Dothan St. 
Arlington, MA 02174 



CIRCLE 222 ON READER SERVICE CARD 
181 



APPLE SOFTWARE TRS-80 SOFTWARE PET SOFTWARE 

m» aaa vwaav* a ■»■■■* iaa r- a aa n a« > »aaw 

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MUSE SOFTWARE "SUPER TEXT II" 
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CHARLES MANN & ASSOCIATES SOFTWARE 

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CIRCLE 223 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



WHY SPEND $ 1 30 OR MORE FOR AN 

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INFORMATION MASTER may do your job 
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magazine article abstracts, slide collections, 
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applications 

Use a program optimized for retrieval of 
free-format text based on combinations of key- 
words. Read the review in the Nov/Dec 80 
issue of S-100 Microsystems, p14-16. or 
request our free application notes. 

INFORMATION MASTER runs on 8080 or 
Z-80 microcomputers using a CP/M* com- 
patible operating system and having at least 
32K of memory with two disk drives. Comes 
ready to run with users manual and demon- 
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many 5" format disks 

$37.50. postage paid 
ISLAND CYBERNETICS 

P.O Box 208. Port Aransas. 
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•CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital 
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CIRCLE 220 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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few of the many new features added 
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SPOOLING DESPOOLING (disk verslon)- 
Allows printer output to be "spooled" to disk 
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NEW TRACK UTILITY— Now trace more than 
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fields, limited by 255-character maximum per 
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merge files, sum or average any fields 
Customised forupe, tape A disk, Zoom. TCI Poor 
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program (CIE) $19.95 ($ 21 15 CA) 

book, detalla uses (CIE) $1 1 .IS ($12.17 CA) 

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CIRCLE 124 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PERSONAL 

Tax/Saver is said to lead the user through 
the maze of the tax return and the regula- 
tions step-by-step with several levels of 
help available. The program, written for 
TRS-80 Level II. completes the long and 
short forms, including: itemized deductions, 
interest and dividends, tax calculation. 
Schedule A, Form 4684. Schedule B. and 
Schedule TC (both parts). Available on 
cassette or disk for $49. Micromatic Pro- 
gramming Co., P.O. Box 158, Georgetown, 
CT 06829. (800) 233-5594; in New York, 
(212) 249-8890. 

CIRCLE 341 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Astronomy Package for 8K Atari or PET 
is a Basic language program which allows 
the user to predict the location of any 
celestial object at any time. $6. Kinetic 
Designs, 401 Monument Rd.,# 171, Jackson- 
ville. FL 32211. 

CIRCLE 342 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Genealogy— Compiling Roots and 
Branches is designed to allow the user to 
build information on his family tree and to 
output that information in several ways. It 
runs on the TRS-80 Model II with one disk 
drive and 64K RAM plus an 80-column 
printer. $250. John J. Armstrong, 3700 
Whispering Pine Rd.. #47B, Mobile, AL 
36608. 

CIRCLE 343 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MUSIC & GRAPHICS 

Plot and Draw is a graphic editor for the 
Atari, which allows the user to generate 
and save graphics in three colors plus a 
background. It is available on 8K cassette 
and requires a joystick. $18. Mosaic Elec- 
tronics, Box 748. Oregon City, OR 97045. 

CIRCLE 344 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

TellStar is a high resolution graphics 
program which responds interactively with 
the user via text and joystick or game 
paddles to locate, identify and provide 
information on stellar objects. The program 
is designed for Apple computers with 48K 
memory, Applesoft firmware card and one 
disk drive. $39.95. Information Unlimited 
Software. 281 Arlington Ave.. Berkeley, 
CA 94707. (415) 525-9452. 

CIRCLE 345 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

MicroPainter employs high resolution 
graphics to paint pictures in 21 colors on 
the Apple. The program, written in both 
Basic and machine language, includes a 
magnification feature for dot-by-dot 
coloring and inverse coloring. Pictures can 
be saved or displayed in any combination 
of colors. $34.95. Datasoft, 16606 Schoen- 
born St.. Sepulveda, CA 91343. (800) 423- 
5630. 

CIRCLE 346 ON REAOER SERVICE CARD 



MICROSTAT 
NOW AVAILABLE FOR CBASIC2* 

MICROSTAT is the statistics package for microcomputers, and is 
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and a growing list of other organizations MICROSTAT's Data Man- 
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produced by DMS can then be used to generate statistics in all com- 
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multiple regression, probability and hypothesis tests, nonparametrics 
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industrial quality control. MICROSTAT is the statistics package for you 

MICROSTAT sells for $250 00 and is supplied on 8" SD or 5'. ' 
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Foreign inquiries, please write directly to us 




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ASYLUM! 



You are sitting alone. It is 2:00 AM. Your eyes are blood- 
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Asylum features one of the most advanced input routines 
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CIRCLE 221 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




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UTILITIES & MISCELLANEOUS 

Graham-Dorian Software Systems intro- 
duces UltraSort, an assembly language 
program that stands alone or incorporates 
into existing CBasic-2 progrrams. Sorting 
may be done alphabetically, numerically, 
in ascending or descending order, and can 
start anywhere in a file. Graham-Dorian 
Software Systems, Inc., 21 1 N. Broadway, 
Wichita, KS 67202. (316) 265-8633. 

CIRCLE 347 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Datacomm is a data communications 
software package for use with Hayes 
Micromodem II- or Pascal-equipped Apple 
II computers. The package consists of a 
disk and Pascal owner's manual which 
includes two levels of program commands: 
the Datacomm Terminal Program, which 
allows Pascal users to exchange data and 
programs; and the Pascal Micromodem II 
Routines, which permit the more advanced 
programmer to include data communica- 
tions commands in original Pascal programs. 
$50. Hayes Microcomputer Products, 5835 
Peachtree Corners East, Norcross, GA 
30092.(404)449-8791. 

CIRCLE 348 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Pascal Utility Express Package, a package 
of utilities and other software for the Apple, 
is designed to help users with some program- 
ming experience in Basic to get acquainted 



with UCSD Pascal. $45. Software Express. 
P.O. Box 50453, Palo Alto, CA 94303. 
(415) 856-9244. 

CIRCLE 349 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

VU#3 allows Apple users to enter data 
into Visicalc from any program by inserting 
data into an array. The program then places 
the array into Visicalc. It will also transfer 
data generated by Visicalc into another 
program. Progressive Software, P.O. Box 
273, Plymouth Meeting, PA 19462. 

CIRCLE 351 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Stem is a terminal emulator for connect- 
ing an Apple to any mainframe computer 
at up to 1200 bits per second. Features 
include a switch to print all data as received 
or entered, conversion of lower to upper 
case, discard of unused control codes, single 
key Break and auto restart. $15 on tape or 
disk. Video Business Systems, 59 Noyes 
St., Concord, NH 03301. (603) 228-0606. 

CIRCLE 352 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Omniterm is an intelligent terminal 
program designed to allow a TRS-80 to 
communicate with and transfer files to 
almost any computer system without writing 
any special software on the remote compu- 
ter. The program runs on a 32K TRS-80 
with one disk drive and RS-232 interface. 
$95. Lindbergh Systems, 49 Beechmont 
St., Worcester. MA 01609. (617) 799-2217. 

CIRCLE 353 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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prints irate letters 


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EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE 

for the APPLE* II and TRS-80* 

VERBAL SKILLS 

Diskettes with Basic programs and data base can be used to improve 
verbal skills interactively. Intended as study aids for college board type 
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CIRCLE 192 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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orurri 



The comments and opinions of the 
author are given for educational pur- 
poses only and are not meant to be 
legal advice. Specific legal questions 
should be referred to your personal 
attorney. 



Harold Novick 



In the "Input/Output" column of the 
November. 1980 issue of Creative Com- 
puting magazine. Barry Bayer observed 
that "I have seen little from you or your 
magazine with respect to protection of 
software consumers." Yes Barry, there is 
a Santa Claus for software consumers 
too! In fact, this year Santa Claus even 
visited those horrible, nasty software pro- 
ducing critters. He gave them a new law 
that specifically states that computer 
programs can be copyrighted. 

First, however, back to Mr. Bayer's 
problem. The history of the column 
started when Dave Ahl approached this 
columnist in one of his many tizzies com- 
plaining bitterly about the rip-off artists 
that were giving personal computerists a 
bad name and taking money out of the 
pockets of the poor software developers 
and producers. Dave wanted a Forum to 
discuss these and other problems, and it 
just takes a lot of words to cover them 
adequately, and still make it enjoyable 
reading. So the column was born to give 
an outlet to frustrated software pro- 
ducers (and lawyers!). You can see that 
time, space, and oiling the squeaky wheel 
demanded that the area of non-squeaking 
software consumer protection be left for 
later times. 

Unfortunatly. Barry, most of your 
letter is merely a lament about the 
inability to evaluate software before pur- 
chasing it and about the manufacturer's 
broad disclaimers of warranty. You never 
mentioned one actual legal problem that 
you had. Therefore. I suggest you put 
your investigative mind and abilities to 
work and use your new wordy word pro- 
cessing program to write something that 
can be published and discussed in the 
"Forum." However, you do deserve a 

Harold Novick. Patent Attorney. Larson & 
Taylor. Arlington. VA 22202. 



Thank You for providing part of this 
month's topic, and next month's, and the 
month after that, and ... 

The area of software consumer protec- 
tion, like the area of software producer 
protection, is extremely involved and 
complicated. This month's column can 
only broadly discuss the legal ramifica- 
tions. 

A discussion about software consumer 
protection involves a discussion about 
whether software is a "service" or 
"goods." For example, if you go to the 
hospital and get a blood transfusion or go 
to the hair dresser and get a hair color 
transformation, have you purchased a 
service that only incidentally uses goods 
or have you purchased goods (blood and 
hair dye) that only incidentally has an 
accompanying service. The distinction is 
far from being theoretical or esoteric. If 
it is goods, you are in court and you can 
enforce your well known rights under the 
Uniform Commercial Code (individually 
enacted by 49 states, the Virgin Islands 
and the District of Columbia— sorry 
Louisiana). What if it is services? Sorry, 
but that body of law does not apply. (So 
what are blood and dye— some states say 
services, some say goods, some don't 
say.) 

The next discussion involves whether 
there is a "consumer." While a company 
purchasing an accounting package is 
clearly not a consumer, what about an 
unincorporated part-time consultant? 
What about the sibling of a consumer 
who purchased the software? Do the pro- 
tections that would flow to the purchaser 
continue downstream to the user? Some- 
times. But. only sometimes. 

There should also be a discussion of 
the myriad laws that apply and of 
agencies that stand (sit?) ready to help. 
The Federal government has passed the 
Federal Trade Commssion Act, the Con- 
sumer Product Safety Act, and the 
Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act. As men- 
tioned above, most states have passed the 
Uniform Commercial Code and some 



have also passed special consumer laws 
relating to warranty disclaimers. 

All of the states have a form of the 

"Common Law," or judge-made law. 
through which certain rights can be 
obtained. If the software causes an 
injury, there are the tort common laws of 
negligence, strict products liability, and 
malpractice. If the software produces a 
disagreement, then there is the contract 
common law for obtaining redress. 

Some of these laws have placed the 
burden on the software producer to pro- 
vide a product: that will do what the 
producer specifically says it will do 
(implied warranty of fitness for particular 
purpose); that the producers owns and 
can sell (implied warranty of title); that is 
free from any adverse patent or copy- 
right claims (implied warranty of non- 
infringement); and that is commercially 
acceptable and salable (implied warranty 
of merchantability). Some of the laws 
address what damages can and cannot be 
recovered. Surprisingly for some, a soft- 
ware producer is not an insurer and just 
because something goes wrong does not 
mean one can collect any or all the 
losses. For example, assume you pur- 
chase some $100 graphics software to 
perform a $100,000 contract you have 
just won. The next bidder's price was 
$125,000. The software does not work 
and you have to pay the additional 
$25,000 to have the other company per- 
form the contract. The software provider 
is only liable for $100. There is some 
difference between $100 and $25,000; but 
that's the law! 

The practical resolution of software 
consumer problems usually resides out- 
side the courtroom in tete-a-tete bargain- 
ing with the software producer. If you 
deal with reputable computer stores 
(instead of Fanny's five-finger, midnight 
discount), you can usually not only see 
the software work before you buy it. you 
can also usually get a satisfactory resolu- 
tion of any difficulties. , 



186 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



r Th e other leg of this months bi- 
I furcated column deals with copyright 
protection of computer software. No 
Virginia (or Barry or whoever), before 
December. Kris Kringle never guar- 
anteed that software was copyrightable. 
Even if it were copyrightable, it was not 
clear whether transferring the program 
from a floppy disk to the active computer 
memory was "copy" and was permissible. 
As of December 12. 19H0. all of that has 
been changed. On that date the President 
signed into law a bill to "amend the 
patent and trademark laws." which also 
amended the Copyright Act of 1976. 

The amendment to the Copyright Act 
added the following definition of a com- 
puter program: 

"A computer program" is a set of state- 
ments or instructions to be used directly 
or indirectly in a computer in order to 
bring about a certain result." 

Section 1 17 of the Act has also been 
replaced with the following limitation on 
the exclusive rights obtained from a 
copyright (i.e.. Section 106): 

"Notwithstanding the provisions of sec- 
tion 106. it is not an infringement for the 
owner of a copy of a computer program 
to make or authorize the making of 
another copy or adaptation of that com- 
puter program provided: 



( 1 ) that such a new copy or adaptation 
is created as an essential step in the uti- 
lization of the computer program in con- 
junction with a machine and that it is 
used in no other mannner. or 

"(2) that such new copy or adaptation 
is for archival purposes only and that all 
archival copies are destroyed in the event 
that continued possession of the compu- 
ter program should cease to be rightful. 

"Any exact copies prepared in accor- 
dance with the provisions of the section 
may be leased, sold, or otherwise trans- 
ferred, along with the copy from which 
such copies were prepared, only as part 
of the lease, sale, or other transfer of all 
rights in the program. Adaptation so pre- 
pared may be transferred only with the 
authorization of the copyright owner." 

With one minor change, the new copy- 
right law as passed is identical to the 
change proposed by the National Com- 
mission on New Technological Uses of 
Copyrighted Works (CONTU). CONTU 
was created by Congress to study the old 
and new copyright laws, and to propose 
changes in the new law regarding "copy- 
righted works used in conjunction with 
computer and machine duplication 
systems." 

According to CONTU. the new com- 
puter program amendments to the Copy- 
right Act of 1976 "make it explicit that 



computer programs, to the extent that 
they embody an author's original crea- 
tion, are proper subject matter of copy- 
right." In addition, the law now applies to 
all computer uses of copyrighted pro- 
grams and "the rightful possessors 
(changed to 'owners' by Congress! of 
copies of computer programs may use or 
adapt these copies for their use." 

These changes should completely wipe 
the slate clean of the debris from the 
Compuchess decision (See the Dec. 1980 
"Forum"). As readers of the "Forum" 
know, the lower court judge in that case 
ruled that a ROM is not a "copy" of a 
computer program and is not covered 
under the new act. This now is no longer 
the law and thus is no longer a problem. 
Software producers can market their pro- 
grams in any form they choose. Software 
producers can now celebrate and rest 
easier. 

As the pronouncements from the 
Supreme Court relating to the patent- 
ability of software are being awaited, this 
column will continue to delve deeper into 
the copyright protection of computer 
programs (for example, into the copy- 
nghtability of computer programs 
written by other computer programs) and 
into the warranty problem for software 
consumers. 



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APRIL 1981 



187 



CIRCLE 300 ON READER SERVICE CARD* 




For the 28th column, we mourn the 
death of the Model 1. look at Microsoft's 
Level 111 Basic, examine six Hayden 
programs, and check out a short program 
that creates "wallpaper" graphics. 

Death of Model I 

To introduce the three new TRS-80 
computers in the November 1980 column 
(p 182), I used the subhead "Now We Are 

Five." 

Had I known early enough what was 
happening, the December column might 
have included a piece called "Now We Are 
Four," because, as you probably know by 
now. Radio Shack stopped production of 
the Model 1 computers, both Level 1 and 
Level II. well before the end of 1980. 

The reason is quite simple: Radio 
Shack couldn't sell the Model I computers 
after January 1. 1981, because of their 
excessive high-frequency radiation, which 
causes, among other things, heavy "snow" 
on nearby TV screens. 

The Model 111 is a complete redesign 
of the Model I computers so as to. among 
other things, comply with FCC regula- 
tions, by using filters, shielding, a 
groundplane. etc. 

Radio Shack thought there were 
enough of the Model 1 computers on hand 
until the Model HI would be available, but 
couldn't deliver the HI in time, so there was 
a gap. One dealer told me. "We haven't 
been able to get any Model I computers 
from the warehouse since the middle of 
November." 

The death of Model 1 came as no 
surprise to those of you who are familiar 
with the FCC regulations, and who took a 
close look at the specifications of the 
Model 111 and the Color Computer. 

Model 111 Basic, by the way, is not 
Microsoft's Level 111 Basic. 

Level III Basic 
V Because the Level II TRS-80 can 



address only I2K. bytes of ROM memory. 
Radio Shack had to remove several 
features from Microsoft's Basic to make it 

fit. 

If you have a I6K Level II TRS-80, 
now you can have all of the original 
Microsoft Basic, called Level 111 Basic, 
recorded in both cassette and disk versions 
on one cassette, at $49.95. 

Look for it at your local computer 
shop. Or. for an additional $2.50 for 
postage and handling, you can get it from 
Microsoft Consumer Products. 10800 
Northeast Eighth. Suite 819. Bellevue, WA 

98004 

The first version of Level III Basic was 

written by Bill Gates when he was 19, and it 
became the basis for founding Microsoft in 
1974. Bill Gates is president of the 
company, whose Basic is now in the 
'TRS-80, Commodore PET. Apple II. 
NCR 7200. Compucolor II, OSI and many 
others. 

Although Level 111 Basic itself can be 
stored and retrieved from disk, programs 
generated with Level 111 have to be stored 
and retrieved from cassette tape, not disk. 
You do not have access to disk-storage 
commands while in Level II Basic. 

Three features of Level 111 Basic can 
be used only if you have the expansion 
interface: a built-in digital clock /calendar, 
output to RS-232 port, and a command for 
turning the system clock on and off. 

After you load the machine-language 
Level 111 Basic, just write your program 
and RUN. But first you should know what 
new features Level III has that Level II 
doesn't. 

Abbreviated Entries 

Level HI Basic has 26 abbreviated 
entries that you use just by pressing SH IFT 
and one of the letter keys A through Z. Just 
in case you don't have a list of the 26 
nearby while you're programming, you can 
call it up with LSET LIST and ENTER. 
This tells you that, in SHIFT mode. A is 



AUTO. C is ELSE, G is GOSUB, N is 
NEXT. W is LEFT$(. etc. 

This makes program-writing much 
faster. You can create your own abbrevi- 
ated entries, by changing any of the 26 to 
your own. 

Automatic Program Renumbering 

Using the NAME command, you can 
renumber program lines, either for an 
entire program, or from a particular line 
number to the end of the program. 

NAME also changes all line-number 
references following statements such as 
GOTO, GOSUB. THEN. ELSE, etc. 

Full Error Messages 

Whereas Level II Basic prints abbre- 
viations of errors, such as NF, SN. RG, 
etc.. Level III prints the complete error 
message: NEXT without FOR. Syntax 
error. Return without GOSUB, etc. 

Advanced Computer Graphics 

In Level III Basic, you can draw a line 
between any two locations on the screen in 
both character mode (16 by 64) and 
graphics mode (48 by 128). 

To draw a line in graphics mode 
between points (34.15) and (1 10.36). just 
use: I0LINE(34.I5)-(II0,38).SET 
and to erase the line, change SET to 
RESET. 

To draw a box with those two points 
as top-left and bottom-right corners, add B 

to the line: 

10 L1NE(34.I5)-(II0.38).SET.B 

and to erase the rectangle, again change the 

SET to RESET. 

To fill in that rectangle with graphics 
blocks, add an F at the end: 
10 L1NE(34.!5MH0.38),SET,BF 
and once more, to erase the solid box, 
change SET to RESET. 

In character mode, you cant use SET 
or RESET. Instead, you generate lines of 
printing characters or graphics symbols. 



188 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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Radio /hack 

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Lessons • Music • Games 
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Call or Write: 

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Dept. C • Box 668 
Encinitas, CA 92024 
(714) 436-3512 




CIRCLE 177 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PACKER: Automatically Mils all or pan of your Basic 
program to aaaa adltlng, run faster, or save memory Has 5 
sections UNPACK-unpacks multiple statement lines Into 
single statements maintaining program logic. Inser t s spaces 
and renumbers lines for easier editing. SHORT— shortens 
your program by editing out all REM statements, unneces- 
sary words and spaces PACK— executes UNPACK > SHORT 
then packs lines Into multiple statement lines, maintains 
program logic. RENUM— renumbers program lines Including 
all branches You specify Increment. MOVE— moves any line 
or block of lines to any new location in the program and 
renumbers lines. Written in machine language. Supplied on 
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For TRS-eoTevol II or Disk Basic 129 96 

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TRa-SoT, a trademark of Radio Shack, a Tandy Corp. 



CIRCLE 161 ON REA0ER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE 112 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



/tRS-80 Strings, continued... 

By using BF, you can fill in the rectangle 
with alphanumeric^ or symbols. 

Using GET, a specified section of the 
display can be stored in an array in 
memory, and retrieved, using PUT, to 
place the array back on the screen in any 
specified location. 

When you PUT in graphics mode, an 
"action indicator" is required in the 
statement. SET puts the array on the 
screen as it was saved, RESET puts the 
complement of the array on the screen, 
AND will AND each position in the array 
with the current status of that position on 
the screen, OR is similar to AND, and so is 
XOR (exclusive OR). 

Thus you can make a figure appear to 
blink by PUTting it on the screen with two 
PUT statements that alternate SET and 
RESET, or by XORing it with the 
surrounding area. 

The 77-page booklet that accom- 
panies the Level 111 cassette includes nine 
pages of graphics programs that illustrate 
the features mentioned here, including a 
space ship, an airplane, and a flying duck. 

There's nothing you can do with Level 
III graphics that you can't do with Level II 
graphics, but Level HI makes it much 
easier to do and also uses less memory. 

From Disk Basic 

Among the Level III features bor- 
rowed from Disk Basic are the use of #LEN 
to impose a limit on the length of time 
allowed before a response must be given to 
an INPUT statement; replacing a portion 
of one string with another string, by using 
an additional capability of MIDS; search- 
ing a string for a substring using INSTR; 
and up to 10 machine-language user 
routines with USR. 

Expansion Interface Features 

Using TIMES, Level II provides a 
string that keeps track of date and time. 
With CMD-T" and CMD"R", the clock 
can be turned off and then back on again, 
for certain tape operations. 

Lastly, in Level III Basic you'll find 
that keyboard bounce has been corrected 
with firmware, so your keyboard will no 
longer generate NEXXT or FFOR. 

Level III contains all the other 
features of Level II, including transcen- 
dentals, and trig and string functions. 

All in all. Level III Basic provides 
extra features well worth the $49.95, to 
anybody interested in getting all the Basic 
he (or she) can out of a I6K Level II 
TRS-80. It comes neatly boxed, with a 
booklet of instructions and a 16-page fold- 
out reference card. 

Hayden Software 

Let's take a look at six 16K Level II 
program tapes from Hayden Book Co. 



Some are fairly new, some not so new. 

Keynote 

An interesting program by John D. 
Way of Microflair Associates is Keynote, a 
music-making tape, S9.95 at your local 
computer store or from the Sales Dept.. 
Hayden Book Co. Inc., SO Essex St., 
Rochelle Park. NJ 07662. 

Keynote is very much like Radio 
Shack's Micro Music program. Both are 
$9.95, both are monophonic (only one note 
can be played at a time), both cover five 
octaves, both use the standard letter names 
for the notes (C,D,E. etc., rather than 
arbitrary numbers), both use # for the 
sharp sign and - for flats, and both indicate 
a dotted note by putting a period after the 
note. 

But whereas Micro Music uses 
upward and downward arrows to shift to 
the next higher or lower octave. Keynote 
numbers the octaves from 1 to 5, so a 
quarter-note middle C is designated as 
C3Q. Keynote uses the letters W, H, Q, E, 
S and T for note values from a whole note 
to a 32nd, whereas Micro Music uses only 
2, 4, and 8 for half, quarter and eighth 
notes (the absence of a preceding number 
means a whole note). Also, Micro Music 
can be played on either Level I or Level II 
machines. 

Micro Music includes one sample 
tune, Rimsky-Korsakov's Flight of the 
Bumblebee. Keynote includes three: the 
same bumblebee piece, Beethoven's Fuer 
Elise. and Dixie. That last tune is played in 
a marvelous way that shows how much can 
be done with monophonic music; it sounds 
as though originally written for the 
bagpipe, and is so intricately done that at 
times you'd swear you're hearing two 
instruments played simultaneously. 

Up to this point the two programs are 
almost equal, and the manuals are both 
skimpy, although Micro Music's is a little 
better. 

But Keynote contains an ingenious 
feature that Micro Music doesnt: when 
played, the three sample tunes, and any 
you write, are displayed graphically on the 
screen, by graphics blocks in a pattern that 
closely resembles the written notes, 
without the staff lines. This display has no 
musical purpose, but it's quite clever and 
also gives you something fascinating to 
look at while listening. 

The display feature, if it appeals to 
you, may give Keynote a slight edge over 
Micro Music. On the other hand, the 
sound provided by Keynote is a standard 
squarewave tone, while Micro Music's 
tone quality can be changed to "thinner" 
and "even thinner", as the manual puts it. 

The three tone qualities are created by 
square-waves with duty cycles of 50, 25 and 
12.5 percent, respectively (or so they seem 
on my old 'scope). The lower duty cycles 



generate less of the fundamental and more 
the higher frequencies, making the sound 
seem "thinner." 



\\W\yy' 



aW\ 



Keynote 

With Keynote, you can write a tune 
1,500 notes long, which, when examined in 
revicw-and-cdit mode, is filed in "pages" of 
40 notes each. You can change, delete or 
insert notes, and then write the piece to a 
cassette tape, for later playback into the 
computer. Micro Music has a similar 
editing feature. 

Although I like the way Keynote 
displays an approximation of the printed 
music. Micro Music is easier to use. To 
repeat a segment in the latter, you use 
parentheses and a number to indicate how 
many times you want it repeated, as in 
(4CDE). for example. 

With Keynote, you write a segment, 
and then if you want it repeated you have 
to go into review-and-edit mode, select the 
starting and ending note numbers of the 
segment to be repeated, and the segment is 
then "automatically copied to the end of 
the current end of the song." which is a 
very clumsy way of handling repeats. 

Sargon II 

In David Levy's book. More Chess 
ami Computers (reviewed in the Jan. 1981 
issue), he describes Sargon as "currently 
the best of the microcomputer programs 
available." 




Sargon II 



Sargon II, a 16K Level II game by 
Dan and Kathe Spracklen. and priced at 
$29.95. has all the features you'd probably 
want if you're into computer chess: seven^ 



190 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



'feiw^f OPTIONS sns. 

^^J? COMMODITIES ^fri^F 

CYCLICAL ANALYSIS W 

FORECAST 1 

Easy Data Input & Editing* 
High - Low - (Volume, Optional) 
Full Use of Graphics 
Centered Moving Averages 
Two Types of Bandpass Filters 
Cycle Adder for Comparison & Prediction 
FORECAST 2 

Complete Cyclical Analysis 

Select the Dominant Cycles 

Periodigram: Cycle Amplitude & Phase 

versus Period 

Simultaneous Least Squares Fit of 

Multiple Cycles to Data 

Uses Data Base of FORECAST 1 
48K Apple II or Apple II Plus with Applesoft. DOS 3 2 or 
3.3 $69.96 ea. complete, $9.95 ea. manual only $1 19 95 
both Visa & Master Charge accepted. 
* You may be able to use or convert your present data 
base. Write with specifics. We have more technical analysis 
programs on the way. Get on our mailing list. 

JAYLET CO. 

P.O. BOX 607 
BLOOMFIELD. CT. 06002 

Apple 1 1 . Apple 1 1 Plus & Applesoft are trademarks of Apple 
Computer, Inc. 



CIRCLE 227 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



What is a 




CLOCALPEEP? 

Another name for 
the CCB-II which is: 

• a clock 
hour, minute, second 

• a calendar 
day, day of week, 
month, year 

• an audio alarm 
All on one board for your 

TRS-80 Model II 

It includes a pacemaker battery which will 
give over 8 years of continuous timekeeping. 

From the folks who brought you the best 
CP/M* for the Model II. 

$175 plus shipping 
Prepaid. COD, Mastercharge or Visa orders 
accepted. California residents add 6% 
sales tax. 

TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 
CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research Inc. 

PICKLES & TROUT 

PO BOX 1206. GOLETA. CA 931 16. (805) 9679563 
waVranfi W.'^.n^.'."^" 95 OP*" 1 "!? "><> Model II. wh.ch may void its 

s&^.ffi,:^cciMi you """' ah ,h ' *""""" v oe " od h " e " p ' red 



fen* 



CIRCLE 242 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

See us at the West Coast Computer Faire— booth #212. 




ST80 III ■ 

The Ultimate Communications Utility 

The Smart Terminal Communication Package 
from SBSG, Inc., can turn your TRS-80* 
Model I or Model II Microcomputer into a 
very intelligent distribution processor. Easy to 
use commands and a built-in HELP function 
insure successful operation even by the most 
inexperienced personnel. Full user control of all 
communication options insure that whatever 
your communication requirements, ST80 III '" 
can provide for them. Well get you there. 
ST80 III can test your communication 
hardwareand notify you of hardware fault. 
ST80 III can transfer files from memory to 
other computers and process received 
information or store it on disk. ST80 Ill'can 
support prompted or unattended modes of 
operation, or remote control from a host 
computer. ST80 IH'can take full printer 
control. User definable control tables can be 
used to establish special control functions. User 
definable function keys can also be used. 

SBSG, Inc., provides full user support and 
markets three other ST80 products. Any 
computer with communication capability can 
be accessed by ST80 IlI'via your TRS-80* 

•TKSW) || a reirnlwd trademark nf Kadm Shaek. a 

CIRCLE 260 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



TRS-80 Strings, continued- 
levels of play (from Level O with imme- 
diate response, to Level 7 with about four 
hours to make a move); en passant 
capturing; pushing passed pawns toward 
queening; and a hint mode. 

That last one, hint mode, is for players 
who need help, and operates at all levels of 
play except 0. When it's your turn to play, 
press the : key and the computer will 
display the move it considers good, but 
which is not necessarily the best move to be 
made. If you like the move, press ENTER 
and the piece is moved, or backspace and 
enter your own move, if you have a better 
one. 

The hint mode isn't available until 
after several moves have been made. You 
can use it to make the computer play 
against itself, but because the response is 
instant and not thought out as thoroughly 
as when the computer is making its own 
moves, the computer will usually (always?) 
beat hint-mode playing. 

One fascinating feature of Sargon II is 
that it shows the computer "thinking" 
about making one move after another, 
displaying them all, while flashing an 
asterisk, until its final choice is made. 

Sargon is also available in a $34.95 
disk version. The older version (in case you 
want to compare) is $19.95 for a Level II 
cassette. Hayden also has a $15.95 book on 
Sargon by the Spracklens, containing the 
older version in assembly language, with a 
block diagram and sample printouts. 

Setting up the chessboard to analyze a 
particular situation has been simplified 
from the previous method of stepping 
through each square on the board. Any- 
square can now be reached directly. 



Backgammon 

Another 16K Level II game from 
Hayden, Backgammon is by Norman J. 
Wazaney, Jr.. and is $10.95. 



tion for those who like to look at a 
LISTing, which is nicely full of REMs. 

The dice roll can be controlled by the 
player or by the computer. 

The most interesting feature of this 
version is that if you enter an H in the 
FROM box. the computer will display all 
your valid moves, which is most helpful if 
you're learning the game, or are at any time 
unsure of what you can do next. 

Once youVe really learned the game, 
you can use the author's hints on how to 
add new strategies, by inserting lines in the 
program according to his directions. 

The computer won one game by 
waiting until I'd gotten all my pieces off the 
board, and then pretending 1 had a man on 
the bar and no valid moves. Sneaky. 

Energy Miser 

Written by James A. Gast of Super- 
Soft Associates, this $19.95 Hayden 
program is a "complete heating /cooling 
analysis program you may easily custo- 



Next it asks for system efficiency 
figures for the heating, BTUs from solar 
equipment, etc., and comes up with 
monthly and annual bills. 

You can change any of the values to 
see how it affects the statistics, and you 
soon find out what savings can be made 
with changes to take care of poor 
insulation, leaky doors and windows, etc. 

MCAP 

For engineers and technicians, this 
$24.95 Hayden tape by Karl Savon, called 




Backgammon 

For some unexplained reason, Wa- 
zaney calls his version Brutus. It's about as 
complete as possible, with a manual that 
may be unique among computer-back- 
gammon manuals (because it explains the 
^rules), and a two-page program descrip- 



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Energy Miser 



mize to fit your location. Calculates annual 
savings on utility bills for improvements or 
modifications including solar power, 
furnace type, better insulation, window 
furnishings, and more. Calculates return 
on investment and Energy Tax Credit." 
according to the cover of the accompany 
manual. 

Before running the program, you have 
to "customize it to your geography,"as the 
20-page manual (with 15 pages of ap- 
pendixes) puts it. You look up various 
figures in the appendixes, then change 
several program lines accordingly. 

When you RUN the program, it asks 
you for all sorts of data on your house, 
starting with the size of windows facing the 
four directions, window types, window 
shading, weatherstripping or not, and then 
comes up with figures that show how much 
window heat is gained or lost for each 
month of the year. 

Then it does about the same thing for 
doors, roof, walls, floor, and provides 
totals of heat losses and gains for the whole 
house, for each month of the year. 




MCAP 

MCAP: A Microcomputer Circuit Anal- 
ysis Program, performs a linear voltage, 
impedance or transfer-impedance analysis 
of an electronic circuit. 

You enter the circuit description in 
nodal notation, for the resistors, capaci- 
tors, inductors, transistors, FETs, op- 
amps, etc., by putting them in DATA lines, 
and the program calculates, lists and plots 
the circuit's frequency response. 

Circuits with up to 15 nodes can be 
analyzed. Because all circuit elements are 
entered in DATA statements, you can 
make additional runs with small circuit 
changes just by editing the appropriate 
line. 

MADAF 

Although MADAF isn't the acronym 
of this $16.95 engineering program, it 
could be. since the name is Microcom- 
puter-Aided Design of Active Filters. 

The author is Jules H. Gilder, who last 
November switched from being editorial 
director of Hayden's software division, to 
editor of Personal Computing, which 
Hayden bought from Benwill Publishing 
Corp. 

MADAF consists of eight programs: 
three will design active bandpass filters, 
two design notch filters, and the last three 
design active low-pass filters, including 
one for FET input. 

The manual includes, for each pro- 
gram, a schematic and a typical printout. 

A menu of eight programs is dis- 
played. You choose one, enter variables 
such as frequency, gain, bandwidth and, 



192 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



resistor tolerance, and the program 
computes the capacitor and resistor values, 
in the case of an active bandpass filter. 




ever, back before I emerged from the 
darkness of Level 1 into the daybreak of 
Level II, 1 found myself playing with the 
graphics mode of my machine and wrote 
several programs, one of which I have 
included here: 



symmetric etlect is created by the fact that 
all the numbers the RND function can 
choose go evenly into 120 (the size of each 
'line'). This may or may not introduce 
problems when increasing the value of the 
function. I personally do not mind a bit of 



130 CIS: REH THE NEW FUTURE IN WALLPAPER BY R. BURKE 

102 RZH 9-21-7B 13 YRB. HOLTVILLEt CA 92250 

105 FOR X»l TO 121t SET(X.O): NEXT X 

110 FOR Y=l TO 40 

120 FOR X=l TO 120 STEP RND<5)*1 

130 SET(X.Y): NEXT Xt SET(121,Y>: NEXT Y 

135 FOR X-l TO 1211 8ET<Xt*l>: NEXT X 

110 PRINT a 960 . 'PRE8S ANY KEY TO SEE ANOTHER PATTERN. 

150 X»*INKEY»t IF X»-" GOTO ISO 

160 IF X*«'X' THEN PRINT "BYE't ENDJ ELSE 100 



PRESS X TO END'! 



MADAK 

For a couple of the filter designs, the 
program supplies component values for 
nine standard values of capacitor CI, 
giving you nine different circuit designs for 
the same parameters. 

Short Program #16 

Here's a clever program from Robin 
Burke, which came on paper headed 
"Robin Burke Enterprises": 

"1 was very interested in the 'graphics- 
character graphics' section of your TRS-80 
Strings column. Being a TRS-80 owner 
myself, I have found the graphics codes of 
great utility in my own programs. How- 



**lt has been converted to Level II but 
can be easily converted back. Change lines 
140. ISO and 160 to read like this: 

140 X=5: PRINT at 960,"PRESS ENTER 

TO SEE ANOTHER PATTERN. 

PRESS 'X' AND ENTER 

TO STOP." 
150 INPUT Q: IF Q=5 PRINT 

"BYE": END 
160 GOTO 100 

"What the program does is use a 
FOR/ NEXT loop just as if it were filling 
the whole screen in solid, but the loop has a 
random step to create the design. Lines 105 
and 135 simply add lines to the top and 
bottom to dress up the display somewhat. 

"I have found these lines of code 
invaluable on a rainy day because of the 
endless possible modifications that can be 
made. As you may have observed, the 



asymmetricity here and there but some 
people might. To correct this, one might 
add line 115 and modify 120 thusly: 
II5T=RND(7)+I: IFT=7 GOTO 115 
120. . . STEPT 

"I add a one to the random number to 
prevent a step of one, which does not 
appeal to me. Changing this value can also 
have interesting results. Another modifica- 
tion changes line 115 to read in this way: 
II5T=RND(RND(20))+I: . . . 

"This causes the value of T to tend 
toward the lower numbers, with an 
occasional larger value thrown in to make 
things interesting. The IF clause can then 
also be modified to account for the larger 
numbers by having it check for II. 13, 14. 
17, 19, as well as 7. 

"I progressed a good deal in pro- 
gramming since I bought my computer a 
year ago but I don't consider this a bad 
effort since 1 was 13 at the time." Oj 



Outdoor Games 

Cassette CS-4010 $14.95 4 Programs Requires 16K Apple II or Apple II Plus 





Forest Fire. Use chemical retardants and Treasure Island I. Your map shows buried 



backfires to control raging forest fires. 




!t i frrtt.»iun*invi. t wr j ?i 



Fishing Trip. Try to catch flounder and 
salmon while avoiding logs, sharks, bad 
weather and running out of fuel. 



treasure but unfortunately you don't know 
where you are. Try to find the treasure 
while moving about and observing your 
surroundings. You have a 3-day supply of 
food and water. You may find useful objects 
(compass, weapons, a horse) but watch out 
for hazards (robot guards, pirates, caves, 
crocodiles, mountain lions and more). 

Treasure Island II. Same game except you 
have to use a metal detector to find the 
treasure. 



Outdoor Games is available with Haunted 
House on disk for $24.95. To order use 
handy order form in the back of the 
magazine. 



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Outpost -Atari 







h. v . 




George Blank 



Personal Greetings from the Outpost 

This month's column may be heavy 
going for beginning programmers. I 
apologize for that, but my mail has con- 
tained many requests for a description of 
the special graphics features of the Atari 
computers and I need all of this month's 
space. Unfortunately, we need more sub- 
scribers interested in the Atari to justify a 
large Atari column. Most of you will want 
to save this material for future reference, 
even if you cannot use it yet. 

Operating System Reference Manual 

The long awaited complete informa- 
tion on the operating system is finally 
ready, and can be ordered by sending $30 
to Atari Inc., Operating System Manual. 
Attn. Tom Harris, 1346 Bordeaux Ave- 
nue. Sunnyvale, CA 94082. The manual 
goes beyond the material I covered in the 
last three columns and contains over 200 
pages of technical material. It is not ele- 
mentary reading. 

Adding Up and Down to our Back and 
Forth 

Back in January's column we experi- 
mented with a program to move player 
missile graphics horizontally across the 
screen. That was the easy part. Much 
more difficult is vertical motion. 

We could move small figures simply by 
PEEKing each byte and POKEing it into 
the next memory location, but that is a 
slow process and it is hard to do it 
between television refresh cycles for 



smooth motion. Instead we have chosen 
to fool the computer into thinking that 
the display area for Player is a string 
variable, so that we can use Basic's 
machine language string movement 
routines to move our player around in 
memory. 

In order to understand how to do this, 
it is necessary to know how Atari Basic 
stores variables in memory. Two areas 
are set aside in memory. The first, the 
Variable Value Table, stores 8 bytes of 
information on each variable declared in 
your Basic program. The second, the 
String Array Table, reserves space in 
memory according to the size specified 
when you dimension an array. For 
example, the very first command in our 
program. DIM P$(l). sets up information 
in the Variable Value table to tell us that 
string array variable number has one 
byte of storage reserved and bytes in 
use. and reserves one byte of memory in 
the array area to store the contents of P$. 

The Variable Value Table 

Memory locations 134 and 135 store 
the location in memory of the variable 
value table, which we can find by multi- 
plying the contents of location 135 by 256 
and adding the contents of location 134. 

The first of the eight bytes reserved for 
each variable tells what kind of variable it 
is. whether scalar, array, or string. If it is 
a scalar variable, this byte is 0. If it is an 
array variable, bit 6 is set. and if it is a 
string variable, bit 7 is set. In addition, if 
an array variable is properly dimensioned 
bit is set. We therefore should find this 
location to contain decimal values of 
for scalar variables. 65 for properly 
dimensioned array variables, and 129 for 
properly dimensioned string variables. 
The second byte is the variable number, 
in order from to 127. Since they are in 
order and in sequence, this is simply 



* 



tt 



wasted memory. The other six bytes vary 
according to the type of variable. 

Scalar Variables 

Byte 1 is 

Byte 2 is the variable number (0 to 127) 

Bytes 3 to 8 contain a 6 byte Binary 

Coded Decimal number. 

Byte 3 is the Exponent 

Byte 4 contains the least significant two 

decimal digits 

Byte 8 contains the most significant two 
decimal digits 

Array Variables 

Byte 1 is 65 

Byte 2 is the variable number (0 to 127) 

Bytes 3 and 4 contain the offset from the 

beginning of the Array Table Pointer 

area. 

Bytes 5 and 6 contain the size of the first 

dimension of the array. 

Bytes 7 and 8 contain the size of the 

second dimension of the array. 

(Bytes 3 through 8 contain two byte 

numbers stored least significant byte 

first. To obtain the contents, multiply the 

second number by 256 and add the first 

number.) 

String Variables 

Byte 1 is 129. 

Byte 2 is the variable number (0 to 127) 
Bytes 3 and 4 contain the offset from the 
beginning of the String Array Table 
Pointer to the memory location holding 
the contents of the string variable. 
Bytes 5 and 6 contain the dimensioned 
length of the variable. 
Bytes 7 and 8 contain the number of the 
last location in the variable that has 
actually had information written to it. 
As with the array variables, bytes 3 
through 8 contain 2 byte numbers. Calcu- 
late the contents in the same manner. J 



194 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Atari, continued. 



Here is our January program modified 
to demonstrate vertical motion of n 
number 0: 



Listinq number ONE 

100 DIM P«<1) ,B*< lb) ,Ll*lie> 

110 B»-"(Put 18 hearts here usinq CONTROL COMMA)" 

1 20 VTAB-PEEK ( 1 34) +256*PEEK < 1 T.5 > 

1 30 ATAB'PEEK < 1 40 ) +256»PEEK (141) 

200 GRAPHICS B 

210 POKE 559.62 j REM REGULAR PLAYFIELD 

230 POKE 704,86 ! REM PLAYER - PINK 

240 PMBASE-PEEK(106>-8 i REM TOP OF MEMOKy 

250 POKE 54279. PMBASE 

260 POKE 53277,3 i REM ENABLE DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS 

270 POKE 53256. 3 l REM PLAYER - 4 X NORMAL SIZE 



280 PMO-PMBASE«256+1024*236 

300 FOR Y-PMO TO PMO+17 
310 READ Z 
320 POKE Y,Z 
330 NEXT Y 

340 POKE 53248,100 i REM INITIAL HORIZONTAL POSITION 

400 DATA 60,60.60,60,60.60 

410 DATA 255,255,255,255,255,255 

420 DATA 60.60,60.60,60.60 

500 0FFSET-256 * PMBASE + 1024 - ATAB 

510 V3- INT (OFFSET/256) 

520 V2-0FFSET-256«V3 

530 POKE VTAB+2.V2 i REM NEW LOCATION OF P« DATA 

540 POKE VTAB+3.V3 

550 POKE VTAB+4.20 « REM SET P« LENGTH TO 276 BYTES 

56V POKE VTAB+5.1 i REM ( 1 * 256 + 20 -276) 

570 POKE VTAB+6,20 • REM BYTES IN USE - 276 

580 POKE VTAB+6. 1 

590 D»(l,18)-P*(236,253) i REM PUT DRAWING IN D* 

600 FOR X-236 TO 1 STEP -1 
610 P«(X,X<M7>-D« 
620 P*(X+18.X*35)-B» 
630 NEXT X 

70O FOR X-20 TO 200 
710 P*(X-18, X-l)-B« 
720 POKE 53248, X 
730 P*(X.X+17)-D» 
740 NEXT X 



BOO POKE S324B, 1 
810 POKE 53277,0 



REM MOVE HORIZONTAL POSITION OFF SCREEN 
REM TURN OFF DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS 



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The Editor, with renumber, maintains command syntax 
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Software for the Atari* 
MATH FACTS 



A series of set? paced instructional 
programs for elementary school chid 
ren The programs in this series 
automatically advance to the next 
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80% of the work generated by the 
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Each unit builds on the skills devel j 
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I MATH FACTS Level I 11500 
( 16K BASIC, grades K 2) Concepts 
covered in this level are: numbers, 
number placement number words 
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APRIL 1981 



CIRCLE 224 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MATH FACTS- Level ■ 115.00 
(24K BASIC, grades I 3) The child is 
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units, the column on the nght MOST 
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column on the left This level includes: 
number sequences to 100. greater 
than/leu than (11 CO), addition and 
subtraction (2 and 3 columns) 



CON'PUTATION/ 
TOMAL ENCOUNTER $15.00 
Two memory building programs on 
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levels of play helps develop the/ 
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195 



CIRCLE 241 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Atari, continued... 

Explanation of the New Portions of the 
Program. 

1 will not explain lines 200 through 420. 
as they have already been covered in 
January's column. The rest of the lines 
are explained in order. 

Line 100 dimensions our string variables. 
We will trick the computer into putting 
P$ in the graphics memory area for 
Player 0. and we deliberately made it the 
first variable in the program so we could 
find it easily in the variable value table. If 
you add any other variable to this pro- 
gram before this line, the program will 
not work. We only reserve one byte of 
space in order not to waste memory in 
the string array table. We are going to 
change P$ to 576 bytes later. D$ will hold 
our data, and B$ will be used to blank out 
old pictures on the screen. 

Line 110 sets up BS as our blanking 
string. We need to fill it with zeros 
because any bit that is a one will light up 
a square on the screen. Since the Atari 
ASCII character for is a heart, we fill 
the string with hearts using CONTROL 
COMMA. If you wanted to experiment 
with larger players, you would have to 
reserve more space for BS and DS. and 
fill BS accordingly. 

Line 120 sets up the variable VTAB as a 
pointer to the Variable Value Table. 

Line 130 sets up the variable ATAB as a 
pointer to the String Array Storage Area. 

In line 280. player is stored in memory 
in the 256 bytes beginning 1024 bytes 
after the address we have designated as 
the player/missile base address. We 
initially poke our character into the end 
of this area of memory. 

Line 500 is where we play with the vari- 
able value table to fool the computer into 
relocating variable PS. This line calcu- 
lates the distance in bytes from the begin- 
ning of the string array table (remember. 
PS is the first variable declared, so it is at 
the beginning of the table) to the begin- 
ning of the memory storage area for 
player 0. 

In line 510 we convert our offset into two 
bytes to store it in our variable values 
table. This line calculates the most 
significant byte of the offset. 

Line 520 calculates the least significant 
byte of the offset. 

Line 530 puts the least significant byte of 
our offset into the variable values table. 



Line 540 puts the most significant byte of 
our offset into the variable values table. 
The table now locates PS in the Player 
graphics area. 

Line 550 contains the least significant 
byte of our new length for PS. I chose 276 
bytes to allow me to play easily with the 
blanking string at the end of the char- 
acters printed. Actually, the last 20 bytes 
are in the memory reserved for player 1 . 
so if I was using 2 players I would have to 
be more careful. 

Line 560 contains the most significant 
byte of the new length of PS. The compu- 
ter takes the 1 here, multiplies it by 256. 
and adds the 20 from the line above to 
get 276 bytes. 

Line 570 is just like line 550. except that it 
indicates that the whole length of PS is 
active and usable. 

Line 580 establishes the most significant 
byte of the usable length of PS. working 
just like line 560 above. 

Line 590 fills DS with the data we have 
POKED into memory near the high end 
of our Player memory storage area. 

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196 



From now on. we will use DS to move our 
Player around. 

In line 600 the FOR NEXT loop moves 
our player from the end of the Player 
memory (bottom of the screen) to the 
beginning (top of the screen). 

Line 610 puts our character at the appro- 
priate location in memory. 

Line 620 blanks out the 18 memory loca- 
tions following our character. In the 
present application, it is overkill, since a 
single byte of string or a POKE could 
erase the one byte left. However, using a 
larger blanking string allows you to 
experiment with moving the player up to 
18 steps at once. 

Line 630 sends the computer back to 
print at the next location. 

The routine in line 700 works the same as 
the routine at 600 to 630 except that hori- 
zontal motion is included. Player will 
move from the top right of the screen to 
the bottom right. I have used the same 
variable for horizontal and vertical move- 
ment to simplify the program. There is no 
reason independent variables could not 
be used. 

In line 710. since we are moving from top 
to bottom of the screen, we blank the 
memory before our character instead of 
the memory after the character. 

In line 720. as we discussed in the January 
column, memory location 53248 is the 
horizontal position register for Player 0. 
and establishes the left edge of the char- 
acter on the screen. 

Line 730 puts our character in the new 
position. 

Line 740 is the same as line 630. 

Line 800 is not really a part of the demon- 
strtion. I don't have an easy way to clean 
up the garbage from this program, so I 
simply push the character off the visible 
portion of the screen. I could have used 
the blanking string to wipe out the char- 
acter instead, but this is simpler. 

Line 810 turns off direct memory access. 

There you have it. High speed indepen- 
dent character motion from Basic. All 
you have to do is build on this and use the 
priority schedule and collision registers 
explained in last month's column, and 
you can do graphics with your Atari 
beyond the ability of any other small 
computer. 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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APRIL 1981 



197 



/Atari, continued. . . 

The ANTIC Chip 

In the February column we discussed 
the many functions of the CTIA dedi- 
cated microprocessor chip in the Atari 
computers. This month we will cover the 
ANTIC chip, another dedicated chip 
located in memory at D400 to D40E 
(54272 to 54287 decimal). 

Write Addresses 

54272 Direct Memory Access Control 
Register 



Lilting number TWO 



access display. 



Bit 
Bit 
Bit 
Bit 
fetch. 



- Turn of direct memory 
Bits 1 and 

1 Narrow Playfield (Width - 12B) 

1 Standard Playfield (Width « 160) 
1 1 Wide Playfield (Width - 192) 

2-1 Enable direct memory access for missiles. 

3-1 Enable direct memory access for players. 

4 - 1 Sinqle line resolution for players. 

5-1 Direct memory access enable for instruction 



54273 Character Control Register 

Listinq number THREE 

Bit 0-1 Invert line of characters. 

(followinq for 40 character mode only) 

B,t l-l If Bit 7 of character code is 1, print 
character black on white. 

Bit 2-1 If Bit 7 of character code is 1. blink that 
character. 



4*. CompuBridge % 

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CIRCLE 117 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



54274 • 54275 Pointer to display list 

This is presented least significant bit 
first, then most significant bit. The dis- 
play list is a sequence of one or three byte 
display instructions in memory. Each 
instruction can display one to sixteen 
lines of data on the screen. The single 
byte instructions consist of an opcode, 
while the three byte instructions consist 
of an opcode and an address. This 
address can be. depending on the 
opcode, the address in memory of data to 
be displayed directly, the address in 
memory of character data to be dis- 
played indirectly, or a jump. If it is a 
jump, the address is loaded into the 
display list counter. Otherwise the 
address is loaded into the memory scan 
counter. In the case of single byte 
opcodes, memory is displayed beginning 
at the present location of the memory 
scan counter. 

A full explanation of the memory map 
and character displays is too long for this 
column. I have asked a guest columnist 
to explain the display list in the June 
column. 

54276 Horizontal Scroll Register 

54277 Vertical Scroll Register 

These registers are triggered by flag 
bits in the instructions from the display 
list. Bit 4 of the display list instruction is a 
horizontal flag bit and bit 5 is a vertical 



flag bit. A one in the flag bit activates the 
scroll register, rotating the display right 
or up from to 1 5 locations according to 
the number in bits to 3 of the scroll 
register. 

54279 Player Missile Base Address 

Register 

54281 Character Base Address Register 

We used the first of these registers in 
line 250 of our demonstration program to 
establish a location for our display data. 
For an explanation of how this memory is 
organized, see my January column, page 
179. The character register works with 
character data in graphic modes - 2. 

The Player Missile Base register and 
location 54278 can also be used in 2 line 
resolution modes as a player missile scan 
counter (bits to 6). player missile select 
register (bit 7). and using bits 10 to 15 as 
the address register. 

The character register can also be used 
in conjunction with 54280. using bits to 
2 to indicate the character line and bits 3 
to 8 for the character name. Bits 9 to 15 
then become the base register. 

54282 Wail for Horizontal Blanking 
Synchronization 

Writing to this address sets a memory 
latch that pulls the READY line on the 
microprocessor low. causing output to 
stop until the next horizontal blank on 
the screen automatically resets the latch. 

54286 Non-maskable Interrupt Enable 

A zero in this location disables the 
interrupts, except the RESET button, 
which is always enabled. Only bits 6 and 7 
are used. If bit 6 is a 1. the vertical blank 
interrupt is enabled, and if bit 7 is a 1 . the 
display list instruction interrupt is 
enabled. 

Read Addresses 

54287 Non-maskable Interrupt Status 
Register 

This register identifies the causes of 
interrupts. Bit 5 indicates that the 
RESET button was pushed. Bit 6 indi- 
cates an interrupt caused by the begin- 
ning of a vertical blank. Bit 7 identifies a 
display list instruction interrupt. Write a 
zero to this location to reset this register. 

54285 Vertical Light Pen Register 
54284 Horizontal Light Pen Register 

These addresses identify the contents 
of the light pen registers. 

54283 Vertical Line Counter 

This location points to the current 
vertical line. This register is somewhat 
tricky, as it does not simply give the line 
number, and can count singly or 
doubly. D 



198 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




creative computing 

Challenger 



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CIRCLE 263 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Debra Howard 

Find and circle each word appearing in the list, crossing the 
word off the list as you find it in the puzzle. Be careful not to 
obliterate any letters in the puzzle, as some letters are used in 
more than one word. Words may appear in any direction. £(£ 
The remaining letters spell the puzzle's solution: what it is all 
about. 

Arm. Array. Assembler. Basic. Bounce. Card. Cassette. 
Challenger. Chip. Close. Computing. Creative. Cursor. 
Custom. Data. Debug. Disk. Else, Enter, Feedback. 
Firmware. Flowchart. Fortran. Games, Gosub, Graphics. 
Hobbyist. Impact. Input. I.ightpen. library. Memory, Nor. 
Pascal. Peek. Printer, Processor. Program. Remark. Resume. 
Run. Save, Software. Talk, lone. Turns. User. Work. Yes. 

Hint: Answer is 24 letters. 3 words. 



The solution appears on page 225. 



IJchra Howard. 1 1 1 Cleavcland Rd.. 20. Pleasant Hill. CA 94523. 



GALAXY SPACE WAR I 



Galaxy Space War 1' (WAR1) is a game of strategy in which the player has complete 
control ol his space Heel's tactical maneuvers Each lleet battles its way toward the 
opponents galaxy in an attempt to destroy it and win the war WAR1 simulates the 
actual environment encountered in a space war between two galaxies Optimum use 
is made ol Apple's high resolution graphics (HIRES) and colors in displaying the 
twinkling stars universe, the colored ships ot each lleet. long range sensors colored 
illuminations, and the alternating blinking colors used in battles between ships 
Complementing HIRES are the sounds ot war produced by Apple s speaker. 

WAR1 is played between Apple and a player or between two players You may 
play with total knowledge ol each others lleet or only ships sensor knowledge ot 
the opponents lleet Each player builds his starting lleet and adds to it during the 
game This building process consists ot creating the size and shape ot each ship, 
positioning it. and then allocating the total amount ol energy for each ship 

During a player's turn he may dynamcially allocate his ships total energy between 
his screen/detection and attack/move partitions The percentage ot the total energy 
allocated to each partition determines its characteristics The screen/detection 
partition determines how much energy is in a ship's screens and the detection sector 
range ol its short range sensors The attack/move determines the amount ol energy 
the ship can attack with, its attack sector range, and the number of sectors it can 
move in normal or hyperspace 

When an enemy ship is detected by short range sensors, it is displayed on the 
universe and a text enemy report appears The report identities the ship, its position, 
amount of energy in its screens probable attack and total energy, a calculated de- 
tection/attack/move range, and size ol the ship Also shown is the number of days 
since you last knew these parameters about the ship When a ship s long range sensor 
probes indicate the existence of an enemy presence at a sector in space, this sector 
is illuminated on the universe 

An enemy ship is attacked and destroyed with attack energy If your attack energy 
breaks through his screens, then his attack energy is reduced by two units of energy 
lor every unit you attack with A text battle report is output after each attack The 
program maintains your ship s data and the latest known data about each enemy 
ship You may show either data in text reports or display the last known enemy posi- 
tions on the universe You can also get battle predictions between opposing ships 
The text output calculates the amount of energy required to destroy each ship for 
different energy allocations 



APPLE' II. 48K. APPLESOFT * 

ROM CARD. DISK II DOS 3.2 3 

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(CA residents add 6% sales tax) 
Write or call for mnre information 



GALAXY 

DEPT. CC5 

P.O. BOX 22072 

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APRIL 1981 



199 



Apple-Cart 



Chuck Carpenter 



Coirapondence is always welcome ami a response 
will be, made to those accompanied by a SASK. 

Scml wmr loiters to: Chuck Carpenter, 222H Montelair 
I'l.. Carrollton. TX 7.s<HKi 



Wow! Did anyone send in their 
$190,000 for the Radcom Plus+ FSK C \V 
board? (Dee "80 column.) I'm sure by now 
you know the price is $190.00. And. the 
program for it is not called Integer Basic- 
it's written in Integer Basic. 

READKR INPUT 

This month I'm going to catch-up on 
all the reader contributions l'\e been 
collecting them tor a lew months, and now 
have several. Which brings up a point. 
When I batch them like this, the ones 
received last get into the column right 
a way . Those sent earlier don't get used for 
several months. So. from now on. anything 
sent to me will be used in the next column. 
It will still be 3 to 4 months before you set- 
it. That's the cycle time from the time I 
write a column to the time it gets printed. 

Reset Defense 

Those of you having the Autostart 
ROM can use these suggestions from 
Douglas Dougherty (I didn't save his 
address). The first item is in response to a 
letter by Robin Ault in the June "80 issue. 
The letter claimed there was no software 
defense against accidentally pressing the 
RESET key. Douglas writes . . . "This is 
completely untrue! Since $3F2 contains 
the "soft-entry vector', the RESET key can 
cause a jump to anywhere the programmer 
desires, To make a program reset proof, 
follow these steps! 

1. Assemble the following program at 
location $300. 








IGTJ S7*"K eOTTTEF 




is:.v 


jFETt, 






:rrcn ; w i 


Dft 














t^w 





r- 



This routine will report its return address 
by reading it from the stack. 

2. Get back into Basic and type CALL 
768. You should see 23 D8. showing that 



$D823 is the address to continue in Basic. 
(Note that the symbol $ indicates a hex 
number . . . CC) 

3. If your system does not have a disk, 
that is. no DOS. follow these steps from 
the monitor. 



• T? : 77 K 

. K 



:io» msic contmut 

:sn F»TR UP EHE 

:wcv to b*5B 



If you have DOS. the above will clobber 
it every time the RESET key is pressed. 
Therefore. DOS users should see that the 
original content of $3F2 is $9DBF, the 
address of a subroutine which re-enables 
DOS. and ends with a JMP($9D5E). The 
address $9D5E contains $D43C. the 
normal continue-in-Basic address. So type 
*9D5E:23 D8 to set the new address. Now. 
if we type in the following Basic program, 
and run it. we shall see that it lives up to its 
claim. 

-"IF PROGRAM IE FFFET PP.C 

However, if RESET is pressed 
repetitively, quickly enough, a '.'SYNTAX 
ERROR will occur and halt the program. 
But. simply adding 5 ONERR GOTO 10. 
will solve this problem. The program 
becomes goof-proof against everything 
including using a CONTROL C (It you 
want to trap the control C. use the 
associated error code in a code line. I he 
error codes can be found on pages 1 14-1 IS 
of The DOS Manual . . . CC) Exceptions 
are turning the machine off and throwing 
a brick at your Apple. Incidentally, 
assuming you are running DOS. this all 
reduces to the following: 

II X*rtSH«lMM«Sat*M 
7» »0KF *,35 : WE im.zm 
'. k» muz «£sft rtrrmoM 

7" TJKF. *.M '. mi X«l,212 

: FT" "IWtF n 

Douglas included two other items ol 
interest in his letter. The first describes an 
interaction between the use of FRE(0)and 



the Applesoft Renumber Append pro- 
gram. Second, he describes how to edit a 
program line without picking up extra 
spaces. 

Use of the Applesoft TRI(0) function 
after using the Renumber Append pro- 
gram implemented with the & com- 
mand will produce disastrous results. 
Savs Douglas. "I have not a clue as to why 
this is true, but if one says X=FRE(0) after 
any &(if& points at Renumber Append, a 
very useful program, by the way), it will 
cause the screen to flash and the system to 
go bonkers, requiring you to turn it off and 
on again to recover On one occasion this 
caused the clicking sound which signifies 
power supply failure, which in turn caused 
a disk file to get messed-up. I hope that 
Apple will notice this and fix it in the next 
version of Renumber Append." 

Continuing with multiple line state- 
ments. Douglas adds . . . "Any of you out 
there who. like me. try to pack as many 
statements as possible into a multiple 
statement line will have noticed what a 
pain it is to recopy them when editing a 
program. Due to the way Applesoft 
formats a listed line you will pick up extra 
spaces at the beginning and end of the lines 
. . . However. POKE 33,33 sets the line 
width down, and the extra lormat spaces 
will not be insetted. Hence the line can be 
copied exactly. The following program 
segment, which should be put into a text 
file, then EXECed into an existing 
program, when needed, will be of help in 
these situations: 

t ioc : w 
I mv. 

: ntvt i : goto 2 

Now type RUN then the program line to be 
listed and then CON I ROI C (RETURN) 
to get out. and the program line will be 
ready to be copied. Use the escape codes to 
move the cursor as required." 



200 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Worth A 
Fortune 



Past issues of Creative Computing. What 
are they worth today? It varies. To a collec- 
tor, Vol. 1. No. 1 is worth $7 or $8. To a 
scrap dealer, less than two cents. 

But we're not selling old back issues. 
We're all out. 

On the other hand, you know that much 
of the content of Creative Computing is 
timeless. The Depth Charge program in 
Vol. 1 , No. 1 is just as challenging today as 
the day it was written. Walter Koetke's 
series of five articles on using computers in 
the classrom are as valid today as the day 
they first ppeared in print. And scores of 
people have written about obtaining re- 
prints of Don Piele's classic problem- 
solving series. 

Our Mistake 

In our early growth years when we had 
5.000 and then 10.000 subscribers we 
couldn't imagine we would ever need more 
than 1 000 extra copies for back issue sales 
That s about what we printed extra. How- 
ever, by the time we were going into Vol- 
ume 3. we found our stocks of Volume 1 
issues virtually depleted. 

Our Solution 

So we selected the best material from 
Volume 1 . edited it. put it together in book 
form and sold it for $8.95, about the same 




as the six individual issues. Nine months 
later, we did the same with Volume 2. Then 
a year and a half later we did it again with 
Volume 3. 

Most other magazines in a high tech- 
nology field like small computers find their 
contents are quickly out of date. However, 
because we've concentrated on applica- 
tions and software, our content retains its 
value for a much longer time Our sub- 
scribers know this and retain their copies of 
Creative Computing long after they've dis- 
posed of the more hardware-oriented 
magazines. 

Now you can obtain the best material 
from the first three years of Creative Com- 
puting in book form and the next three 
years (minus four issues) in the original 
magazine form. 



Our Offer 

We have a unique special offer, so pay 
close attention to this paragraph. (Compu- 
ter types ought to be able to understand 
this). If you order any one item below, you 
pay the full price. If you order any two 
items, take a 5% discount from the total; any 
three, take a 10% discount; any four, take a 
15% discount, any five, take a 20% dis- 
count, and on all six take a whopping 25% 
discount from the total price. 



Best of Creative Computing-Vol 1 $8 95 

Best of Creative Computing-Vol 2 8.95 

Best of Creative Computing-Vol 3 8.95 

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Volume 6 (Twelve issues) 1 8.00 

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six) Shipping ($2.00 USA. $5.00 foreign) 

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you're not completely satisfied after you've 
read them, send the books or magazines 
back to us and we'll refund your full pur- 
chase price plus the return postage. 

creative 
computing 

Morris Plains, NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800-631 -81 12 

(InNJ 201-540-0445) 



ARTICLES AND COMMENTARY 

• Editorials 

Birth of a Magazine Ah! 

A Computer in th« Classroom' 

Is Breaking Into A Timesharing 

System A Crime' T*9fl 
Where Are We Going? AM 

• Computers m Education 
What s Wrong With the Little 

Red School house' Ahl 
How to Cope With Vour Computer 
Recent Trends 

Curriculum i 
CITALA C- 

How. 
EXPER sir 
Monty Pytl 
IF IP Confer 

• Transport*. 
The Parable 
Technical Tr 
CONDUIT Do 
Statewide Po 

Expected Bt 

• Hard Cora C* 
PLATO TV Syst 
TKXIT System 
PLANIT The Pi 

• Careers 
A Computer Car 
Career Educatior 
Key to Your I 
Profile of an 

• Applications 
Computers and the 
Computer SimulatK 
Weather Forecasting .^..cations 
Relativity tor Computers AH Arithmetic 
Mr Spock s 7th Sense Kibler 

• Programming and Languages 
Structured Programming Hoogendyk 
On Computer Languages - Ahl 
Toward A Human Computer 

Language — Cannara 



Learning About Smalltalk Goldeen 
Eclectic Programming Languages 
A New Approach to Testing 
• Computer Impact on Society 

Thi> Computer Threat to Society Ahl 
Digital Calculators — Then and Now 
The Computer Threat to Society' 
Putting Teeth Into Privacy 
Legislation Hastings 



Irwin 




•aders at Privacy 
Hastings 

i m the Space Age 
r Looks at Data 



Attitudes Toward 
- Ahl 
onterence 

vacy Should You Have 
Ex Social Security 
r — Campbell 
mputers — Malcolm 
igement Information 



minal Justice 

I man 

to the Computer 



fat Computer 
OS 
Snyder 

ANO THINGS 



Exchange — 
Todd 
Playing PONG to Win — Ahl 
Your Own Computer? — Ahl 
Introducing Computer Recreations 

Corp — Todd. Guthrey 
Creative Computing Compendium 
Flying Buffalo — Loomis 
Compleat Computer Catalogue 
National Computers in Education 

Conference? 



ARTICLES AND COMMENTARY 

• Technology — Present and Future 

The Future of Computer Technology - 
Computing Power to the People 
Videodiscs - The Ultimate Computer 

Input Device 7 - Bork 
Round and Round They Go 
The $2 98 Computer Library - 
Personal Computers 
Russian Computing • Ahl 
Desk Calculator from Chi »* *•*** 
Microprocessors & Micrc 

The State of the Art - C 

• Languages and Prog ran 
The Reactive Engine Pa 
About Computing • Ch, 
David vs i2Goliaths- 
Sixth Chess Champior 
Beating the Game - It 
Simulated Strategies 

Renman 
Beyond BASIC ■ Salt 
The Computer Gias 

Teaching with AP' 
Creative Chess - Ko 
SNOBOL • Touteu 
A Smalltalk Airplar 

• Artificial and Extra 
Non-Human Intel! 
An Esoteric Ethic. 
The Thinking Coi 
Pnmer on Artitici 
Can Computers 
An Ear on the Ui 
Communicator 
The Cosmic Su_ 

• Literacy. Philosophy, Opinion 
What is Computer Literacy - Moursund 
Computer Literacy Quiz - Moursund 
A Fable - Spero 

Let Us First Make It Taylor 
Some Thoughts - Le08 
Information Anyone' - Griffith 
The Government Dinosaur - Winn 
The Magic of EFTS • Ahl 



•Computers in Education 
Instructional Computing m Schools - Ahl 
Should the Computer Teach the 

Student, or Vice-versa'' - Luehrmann 
The Art of Education Blueprint tor a 

Renaissance - Dwyer 
Computing at the University of Texas 
Computers m Secondary Schools - 1975 
Compyouter Fair - Thomas 
The Madness known as 

• Every Person and the Computer 

Amateur Computing - Libes 

^tore? You Gotta Be 
berts 

a Computer on 



nbol ■ Mueller 
oetry - Chisman 
afrCaJuaay 




IS. AND PROGRAMS 



.iz/les • Ahl 
Recreations 
nto A Lesson - Homer 
r 

me - Yarbrough 
tor Games - Rogers 



The My sue m. m - Dickens 

Magic Squares on the Computer - Piele 

Non-Usual Mathematics - Reagan 

The World of Series - Reagan 

Change For A Dollar - Hess 

Sequences - Jessen 

Progression Problems - Reeves 



Apple Cart, continued... 

My thanks to Douglas for sharing 
some of his discoveries and suggestions. 
This last example may be confusing to the 
beginner. The real reason for including it 
was to show the use of POKE 33,33. The 
normal window width stored at address 33 
is 40. Applesoft, in formatting a listing, 
adds 7 spaces to lines that continue on 
another line. The lines look better with 
uncluttered line numbers. But. any text 
you type will include these spaces if you 
copy over them with the cursor. This will 
not occur with commands, equations or 
between multiple line statements: only text 
between quotes. You can simply type the 
POKE 33.33 as a direct command, too. To 
reset the window width after you have 
done your editing, type TEXT or POKE 
33.40 (or even RESET). Remember to 
retype any control codes you have included 
in a line. Things like CONTROL D will not 
be copied when the cursor is passed over a 
line. 

Wandering Apples 

Do you have a need to provide some 
security for your Apple? This idea from 
Jim Levin at the University of California at 
San Diego will be helpful then. Jim 
suggests using an automotive ground 
strap, a bicycle cable, and a combination 
lock. 



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novation a.nr ,w pnom numotr 



• First, loop the ground cable up 
through and back down through 
the ventilation slots in the bottom 
plate of the Apple. This will put the 
holes in the cable next to each other. 

• Next, loop the bicycle cable around 
some secure object. A pipe or desk 
leg for instance. 

• Finally, lock the ground cable and 
bicycle cable together with the 
padlock. 

Jim acknowledges that this is not maxi- 
mum security. But. it will keep the Apple 
from walking away. The parts are readily 
available and inexpensive. You may 
qualify for insurance this way too. 

Jim has also included some Pascal 
information. The information is related to 
the Pascal programs included in the 
August '80 column. Procedures for 
Inverse, Normal and Flash were included. 
The following Language Card Assembler 
routines demonstrate how Jim worked 
around some pccularities in his version of 
the assembler. He further points out that 
each .proc line has to end with .0 and there 
has to be a .END at the end. 



CIRCLE 257 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



»:. vroro.TtKT 




.PROC DUTCE.O 


LM 


JT18? 


IDA 


oro33 


LM 


It 


STA 


OWED 


LM 


0CI88 


RTS 




.PMC WPHAL.J 


LM 


crass 


LM 


0CI83 


LM 


UN 


STA 


CPSED 


IDA 


3H89 


RTS 




.FROCFLASH.O 


LM 


0CI93 


IDA 


ICIB3 


LM 


•041 


STA 


OOfJED 


LM 


0CO88 


RTS 




.DO 





Readers are left to their own devices 
to find out if these procedures work. My 
abilities in Pascal are limited (more than in 
Basic). So these procedures, included for 
your information, are untested. 

Direct Text 

Here's a little program from H. Owen 
Jones from Gormlcy Ont., Canada that 
lets you put characters directly in the text 
area of memory. Owen did this to 
determine how memory locations cor- 
respond with screen position. Here's the 
Applesoft program. 

If HOC 

ZI Mm ! J=32 

31 IF PEEK <-1438*»lZ7 THEN END 

«1 POX l,j»!28 

50 I«M ! .KM : REM TNCfthTKT rTWT, NEXT ASCII 

tt f nzn7 T!Ot ?i : rem out or text memory? 

71 94IM ! HUE ! Cm 3J : REM YES, START DvTJ: 
n IF J^v5 THEN >s : REM RESTART ASCII seoupce 
III ggjK ,, 



The program fills the screen with the 
available character set. Pressing any key 
will stop the program. Variables are 
initialized to the beginning of text memory 
(I) and the lowest ASCII value (J. 
decimal). Note that when the ASCII value 
is POKEd, the number 128 is added to it. 
This ensures that the display mode is 
NORMAL. If 128 is not added, the 
INVERSE mode is obtained. 

Owen suggests a couple of enhance- 
ments, too. Adding this line: 

35 FOX I-I,3MS« 
will display a single character. The 
character moves across the screen and 
changes as it does. The rest of the screen is 
filled with ASCII spaces. Add 40 to the 
initial value of I and add this line: 

•rl VTAB 1 : PRI?T"ADCfESS : "II 

to see a display of the current memory 
location. You can slow the speed of the 
display down by using the SPEED 
command or inserting a delay loop. This 
routine demonstrates the possibilities of 
inserting text directly on the screen. It is 
not necessary to use the tab commands. 

Some additional comments. I would 
change line 30 to read: 

30 IF rXD (-16381) W THEN FOX -14348 ! END 
Having read the keyboard data ( 16384), 
the keyboard strobe ( 16368) should be 
reset. Do this to avoid problems reading 

~ Jk> , \jBLy Instructional 

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t%V> programs for 

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d^T the Apple " II computer. 

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Simple Machines 

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Geometric Proofs 

A Memory Myth 

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MICRO 
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CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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S'V U ? , i C DUM f S: COMPUTER STATION offers the 
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APRIL 1981 



203 




CIRCLE 149 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Apple Cart, continued... 

the keyboard at some other point in a 
program. Note that these are addresses 
SCOOO and SCOIO respectively. For more 
information on the memory locations used 
for the screen display of text, see pages 16 
and 82 83 of the Reference Manual. The 
last pages are actually the memory 
locations that are not used by text 
memory. 

Rounded Applesoft 

Geoff Puterbaugh from Sunnyvale. 
California contributed the program in 
1 isting I. He found that Apple insists on 
changing numbers from one form to 
another. For instance, (ieoff typed in: 

• .0"! 

and found that . . . "the gleeful response 
from the Apple is 

tc-er 
After several frustrating and futile 
attempts at rounding he found that any 
number less than O.OI will be printed in 
exponential notation (a computerized 
form of engineering notation). I his 
previous!) unnoticed "feature" of Apple- 
soft was found on page 4 of the Applesoft 
Reference Manual. Since business pro- 
grams dont require exponential notation, 
the program in Listing 1 was written to 
convert numbers to conventional decimal 
notation. 

The subroutine is given a variable 
called "FLOTE" (your program should 
determine that this is less than 0.01 before 
calling the subroutine) and returns two 
variables: OUTS and EFLAO. If EFLAG 
is zero there is a problem. The actual 
subroutine begins on line 100 and ends on 
line 290. The other lines simply call the 
subroutine with various values of 1T.OTE. 
A sample run of the program included with 
Geoff's letter showed how Applesoft 
would print a number and the results of 
using this program. Incidentally, the 
PRIM USING command in other ver- 
sions of Basic keeps you from ha\ ing to do 
this. (Microsoft Basic-KO that comes with 
the Z-K0 Softcard for instance.) 

GET >s INPl T 

A program by Alan Thomas using the 
GET command in place of the INPUT 
command was included in the Oct. "80 
column. Eric Shenk from Harrisonburg. 
Va. has found another way to do some- 
thing similar. Eric, as have others, finds the 
lack of an LIN PUT command one of 
Applesoft's problems. The LINPUT 
command, allows typing most anything 
into an INPUT statement. With Eric's 
program, the LINPUT command is 
effectively implemented in Applesoft. The 
program uses the keyboard input buffer 
($200) and monitor routines to convert 
input into a string. Sec Listing 2. 



l [81 

jo turru j ooo 

100 OUT* - STKt (H nil - 

[?0 "fOR^HARK - 1 TO UENtOUTJ) 
ISO It HID* COUT*.HARK.l ) 

T III N I- F I AC - I IEHARK HARf 

SHARK LEN (OUT*) 

140 NEXT MAKK 
,. a ii in ,il. - O II If N 290 
\o EX • Oai ( Ml!-* COUT*.EHARK 

» 2,2 >": REM CET VALUI tH 
EXPONENT , . M . 

170 MANTISSA* - MTU* (rU JJ';. 1 ,', 1 " 
RK - 1 )S Rl M PROBABI Y HAS 

A DOT IN IT 
180 il I HARK 2 rHFN 200t REH 

(,„ R | [8 MO Dl CIHAI P0IN1 IN 

Illl MAN I I SSfl 

170 HANTI8SA* LEFT* <HANTISBA* 

, ! > ; nun i hani rssA*f3.i ma 

RK 1 >: REH Rl HOVING THI D 

I CIHAI POINT. I ROM MM MAN I ''■ 

200 N 1 1 l l 

210 FOR MAI;K - l Id I XI- .1 

• NICI : NICI 1 : "O" 

230 NEXT MARK: REM MI I t IB MO 

U •• .00" thru •• .oooooooooo 
< EXP )" 
,., mci I NICI i I HANI ISI 

o (uir» - nici i : Rl ruRN 

IOO0 PRIN1 " *»* VARIOUS IRRI « <" 

AR SHAI I NUHBI RS *** " 
1010 FOR I I OTI I ■' MOOO TO .0 

i STEP .00 
1020 BOSUB 2000 
10 NEXT I i n n 
1040 PRIM! " *** Rl GUI AR PA1 It RN 

0| BHAI l NUHBI RS *** " 
1030 FOR I I mi .O0<H 10 .004 STt F 

.0001' 
HU.O COSUB 20O0 
10/0 NEX1 11(1(1 

1080 END ., , „. 

VOOO PRINT - APPLI 801 ('!. ORICINA 

I 101 i", I OR THIS NUHBI R I «» 

2010 C08UB ioo: ii i r i AG -" ° "" '' 

PRINT " ABOR1 I I ** nPPI I SOI 
I Nti I BEHAVING": ll-ir'I " AS 
ADVERT [SEDI I *: I NO 
2O20 PRINT " REFORMATTED NUMBrR 

IE : " !tl 

UT* 
2030 Rl IllKN 
l.st.ng I. Program by Geoff Pctcrbaugh to lormal number- in decimal notation 



Lib! 

10 Mb'JB 10000 
20 HKl.1T AS 

■i*> if as = "siae" ihe-i MJr' 

JO WI3 10 
»Wil KM 

I OOUU CALL < - 6b7l 
I JO I (J AS » •'" 

ioj^o ran j - i i' «!■>'■ 

MOJO IF r-F.E4 <J ♦ 51 I > « ■«■ THtN I00AO 
10040 Ai = AS ♦ CrlKi < PEE4 <J ♦ 111)) 
I JO'iJ MEX[ J 
IJOAJ KETUKM 



IKiJ'J 

r3J <J)T1CF THAT 

»3U 'JJUOE IrtAT 

I I '.-.ILL ALbJ AOCErM 

I I WILL ALS3 ACUEr-T 

bldr' 

iI3f 



IT ACCEt'Tb CtMMAb! 
11 ACCttMb CJIlAb! 

. AMU uJJItb *•*» JJbT AUJJI AMrMIIC ELbfe.! 

» AXU d'JITEb AXO J'Jbl AbJOl HMflrtlMO ILill 



1 iM.ng 2 Program by Eric Shenk to Simulate the LINPUT Command in Applesoft Bask. 



204 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



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205 



CIRCLE 131 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



LnaV 



Apple Cart, continued... 

According to Eric . . . "The actual 
subroutine is lines 10000 to 10060, 7 very 
short lines. In the sample run. the first line- 
is the input, while the computer prints the 
second line in verification. Of course, this 
won't allow quite as much flexibility as Mr. 
Thomas' program, in that, if you want to 
not accept certain characters, you can't 
throw them out immediately. (Although it 
would be no problem to throw out "illegal" 
characters by checking PEEMJ+511) 
between lines 10030 and 10040.) This 
routine has the following advantages: 

1. It will accept any character 
leading trailing spaces, commas, colons, 
quotes, and control characters except 
the carriage return. 

2. Since it's using the monitor rou- 
tines, all editing features (available on the 
Apple . . . CC) are automatically available 
without extra programming. 

3. It will accept a full line of input and 
it's very short and totally not messy! 

In short, it's exactly the same as an 
LIN PUT statement (probably) would be in 

Applesoft." 

And. I agree. The LIN PUT command 
used in Microsoft Basic (Z-80 card) does 
just that. If you use this command, youcan 
type whatever format you choose into the 
input line. Prevents you from having to use 
special formatting on dates and so on. 

Another commend on Alan's pro- 
gram comes from Paula Hodgkinson 
(again, didn't save the address). She has 
been using the program quite a bit. A 
problem occurred though, when she used it 
in a program that saved the string to a disk. 
Paula says . . . "The problem is in line 
1001 1. The RETURN at the end is added 
to the string. It becomes an invisible 
character that doesn't show up on the 
screen. When 1 saved the string to the disk 
the invisible RETURN at the end of the 
field (or record) became the next field (or 
record) read. This messed up everything 
after that. 

1 caught this by checking the length of 
my string and found out it was one longer 
than it should be. Once 1 realized what the 
problem was. fixing it was simple. Just 
change line 1001 1 to: 

F M ■ A5« THEN At = Alt : FKBTf : RETURN 

You don't need toadd the RETURN to the 
end of the string." 



Integer < ataloger 

Here's a program from Norman 
Clarke from Hoffman Estates, 111. This 
program combines the Puffer program 
from the Aug. "80 issue, and the Integer 
Basic Cataloger program from the Sept. '80 
issue. The Integer program did not have 
the neat scrolling capability that the 
Applesoft version did. Norman's program 
uses the Puffer program to add the 
^scrolling feature. See I isting 3. 



1 DIM A»(70).B«(6>.C«(70> 

5 POKE -16298.0: POKE -16300. 

o: TEXT 
7 p=o:q=o:i=o 

10 D»-"t PRINT D*»"H0HONC0I": 

CALL -936! PRINT »♦! "CATALOG" 

20 1 = 1 + 2: IF SCRN( 4.1-1 >=10 THEN 
20!P=I/2 

30 "TAB P+0: TAB * 

31 PRINT "C ]":o=q+i:r=i+o*2-2 

; C0L0R=< 0+128 )/16: PLOT 4. 
R-lt C0L0R=< + 128) MOD 16: PLOT 

4 ? R-2 

40 IF SCRN(4.R+1 >«10 THEN 30:T- 
PEEK (37): G0SUB 200 

k*t G05IJB 200 

50 K- PEEK (-16384): IF K>176 AND 
K 181 THEN 60! IF K=181 OR 
K 192 AND K<193+0 THEN 80 : GOTO 

60 IF K=177 THEN B*="L0AB": IF 
K=178 THEN BS="L0CK": IF K= 

179 THEN B*=" UNLOCK": IF K= 

180 THEN B*="DEI.ETE" 

61 VTAB II TAB tl CALL -868 

70 PRINT " PRESS 'LETTER' YOU HISH 
TO "II IF K=180 THEN POKE 50 
,127: PRINT B«S: CALL -198 
80 POKE 50 f 255: POKE -16368.0: 
IF K.176 AND K<181 THEN 50 
; IF K=181 THEN END :i = I+(K- 
193>t2-2: IF SCRN(1.I>=2 AND 
B*="RUN" THEN B*="BRUN" 
85 PRINT 

90 FOR X=7 TO 39: POKE 2046+X. 
SCRN(X,I)+ SCRN(X.I + 1 )*16: 
NEXT X 
92 PRINT D«tB»!A« 
100 GOTO 5 __ 

200 A*="TYPE LETTER TO RUN. OR L0AD= 
1 L0CK=2 UNL0CK=3 DELETE=4 EXIT = 



210 B»="RUN" 

'.TAB II PRINT AS(24) 
230 FOR U-l TO 100 : NEXT U 
240 C»=A«(2.63) 
150 C*( 63>=A»( 1.1 ) 
260 M r« 
270 K- PEEK (-16384): IF K<128 THEN 

280 RFTURN 

I iMing V Integer Cataloger Resiled 



Again, my thanks to all who have sent 
ideas, programs, comments and sugges- 
tions. Ill use them whenever practicable 
and of course, more timely from now on. 

INPUT TESTING 

Someplace 1 read that Applesoft 
would not allow you to test the ASCII 
value of characters in an INPUT state- 
ment. Since I have been doing this in some 
of my programs, I dont have the foggiest 
notion what this person meant. The ASCII 
value of any character depends on the "on" 
bits (0-5) used to represent the particular 
character. As you probably know, ASCII 
is an acronym for the American Standard 
Code for Information Interchange. A 
unique value from to 127 is assigned to 
each of 128 numbers, letters, special 
characters and control characters. Your 
Apple does not allow all the characters to 
be used. There is no direct lower-case 
capability for instance. Additionally, the 
Apple adds bits (6 & 7) to the code to 
provide inverse and flashing capability. 

There are commands in Applesoft to 



let the programmer deal directly with the 
ASCII value of a character. If you want to 
'generate' a specific character, you would 
use the CHR$(N) command. N represents 
the decimal equivalent of the ASCII value. 
To test the value of a character in a string, 
you would use the ASC (A$) command. 
The following routine is a modification of 
one 1 have used to test for input from a 
menu. See Listing 4. 

100 HOME : PRINT "INPUT A NUMBER 

- 6" 
110 PRINT : PRINT "MHICH NUMPER 
DO YOU WANT...";: GET A* : IF 

ASC (A»> < 18 OR ASC <At) 
57 THEN PRINT : PRINT "ENTR 
Y IS NOT A NUMBER"! FOR 
1 TO 30001 NEXT It GOTO 100 
120 S = VAl. (AS) 
130 IF S = THEN PR INI I PRINT 

"END": END 
140 PRINT : PRINT : IF S 1 OR 
h THEN PRINT "INCORRECT 
SELECTION": FOR I = 1 TO 30 
00 t NEXT II HUME : GOTO 10 
150 PRINT : PRINT : PRINT "THAT' 
S RIGHT": PRINT "YOU MADE IT 
PAST THE TRAPS." 
1 

l.isiint: 4 Demo Program Illustrating the Use ot the 
ASC Command to IeM Input. 

Lines 100 and 1 10 ask you to input a 
number from to 6. The number is 
accepted into the program as a string. This 
is necessary in order to use the ASC 
command. Next, the value of the input is 
tested for correct ASCII range. If the range 
is not correct, a message is displayed for a 
few seconds and program control is 
returned to the input line. A correct range 
indicates that the input was a number. You 
could restrict the range to just the numbers 
you wanted. 1 didnt do that, choosing 
instead to check for correct numbers in 
another line. Line 120 converts the string 
to a real number. The integer command 
modifier could be used here if you wanted 
to be sure the number was an integer. I 
have never experienced any difficulty by 
not specifically using integers. In line 130 
the program is ended if the number 
selected is zero. I usually use this to escape 
from my menu. 



Correct number range is tested in line 
140. Again, if the range is wrong, program 
control is returned to the input line. At this 
point my program usually uses an ON (X) 
GOTO statement. I like this approach for 
selecting the program segment to be used 
as a result of a menu selection. In this 
example. I tested for the input to be in the 
range of ASCII numbers and then for the 
correct number range. If these both 
occurred then a message was printed to say 
so. As you can see. whoever said Applesoft 
would not allow you to test for the ASCII 
value of a number was wrong. Pages 1 38 
and 139 of the Applesoft Basic Program- 
ming Manual include the Applesoft ASCII 
character codes. y 



206 



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The Company cannot be liable for pictorial or typographical inaccuracies. 



APRIL 1981 



207 



Apple Cart, continued... 

REVIEWS 

Over the next few months. 1 will be 
reviewing a variety of hardware and 
software products. Some of the ones I am 
working on now are: 

• Vidcotcrm by Videx - My choice 
of the 80 column video boards now 
available. This one has a good character 
set. is flexible in operation, and is 
compatible with all peripherals and 
languages. 

• Z-80 Softcard by Microsoft — 
Makes a very good version of Basic 
available to you and the best version of 
Fortran too (reportedly better than 
Apple's). Lots of nice features in CP M 
and plenty of CP M based software will 
become available soon. (My forecast.) 

• Information Master by High Tech- 
nology — One of the better Data Base 
Systems around. 

• Microsystem by CJM A rugged 
game paddle expansion system. Well 
constructed and provides buffered inputs 
and outputs for you to experiment with. 
Includes an improved joystick, too. 

• Stringy Floppy by Exatron — An 
alternative to a disk operated system. The 
cost is about half of a single drive. The 
system is fast and operates a lot like Apple 
DOS. Really looks good. 




• Data Capture 4.0 by Southeastern 
Software — If you have a modem then you 
will want this program. With it, you can 
capture and save anything coming into 
your system. If you work with remote 
computers and have always wanted a way 
to save and edit from your Apple, this 
program will help you do it. 

And lots more. 

If you are considering the purchase of 
a product, let me know. Ill give you my 
opinion and let you know where you can 
find more information. There are several 



sources of review information now. Check 
the advertisements in the magazine. You 
can find most of them listed there one time 
or another. 

M Ml. ORDERING 

Ordering by mail is sometimes a 
rather traumatic experience. Here are a 
few of the places 1 have found to be reliable 
and responsive. The prices were quite 
competitive, too. 

Southeastern Software 

6414 Derbyshire Drive 

New Orleans. LA 70126 

(504) 246-8438 7937 

All Apple hardware, software and 

some supplies. 

AB Computers 

115 F. Stump Road 

Montgomeryville, PA 18936 

(215)699-5826 

Supplies and some software. 

Pacific Exchanges 

100 Foothill Blvd. 

San Luis Obispo. CA 93401 

(800) 235-4137 in CA (805) 543-1037 

Mostly diskettes 

You can use your plastic money if you 
choose. My experiences with these 
suppliers has been good. I'm sure yours 
will be, too. □ 



TAX-MANAGER* 



A Unique Tax Management System 

(or Apple II. II Plus, and III 



STANDARD FEATURES 

Tax- Manager is an integrated lax manage- 
ment system (or individuals that helps you 
reduce your lax liability. It is three 
interactive modules that work together to 
give you a complete tax management system. 

Tax- Manager allows you to easily enter 
your lax data for Form 1040 ancf related 
schedules ( A B. C, I). E, G, & TQ. Your 
tax liability is accurately calculated using 
the correct tax table or rate schedule. 

I.<>i>kir.g for more tax drdurtiona? Using 
a data base of over 800 items. Tax- Manager 
helps you find those hidden deductions. 
Simply enter a questionable item and Tax- 
Manager quickly tells you if it is deductible. 
Or you can review the entire list by category. 

Confused about whirh tax forms and 
schedule* you should be using?' lit 

Tax* Manager help you. By answering a 
series of simple questions. Tax- Manager 
determines which forms and schedules are 
appropriate for your situation. 

Still time to file 
extension; April 15th 




COMPARE OTHER SYSTEMS 

Why buy a system that only does math 
calculations and computes your tax? Why 
buy a system that does not help you 
reduce your tax liability? 

We offer a unique system that meets your 
needs now and will continue to meet them 
in the future. When tax regulations change, 
so will Tax-Manager. You will be provided 
with yearly updates for a nominal cost. 

We backup Tax-Manager with a staff of 
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specialists and tax consultants, who use 
their expertise to help you reduce your 
taxes. Most importantly, we provide 
documentation to educate you in how to 
best obtain the system's maximum potential. 

Requires 32k. Applesoft ROM. Dos 3.2 or 

3.3. Printer noi required. 

Introd uct ory Special S75. (tax deductible) 

For more information write: 

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(EST) 1-800-241-7131, ExL 620. 
In Ga. 800-282-2686, ExL 620. 
Mastercharge and Visa accepted. 
No charge for postage or handling. 



I CIRCLE 246 ON READER SERVICE CARD ■ 



208 



Complete 6-year Index 

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Our new 6-year cumulative index lists 
every article, program and review that has 
appeared in Creative Computing from its 
inception in November 1974 to December 
1980. The index lists not only the issue in 
which an article appeared but a cross 
reference to The Best of Creative Computing. 
Volumes 1 . 2 and 3. It also lists all the articles 
in ROM magazine. 

Articles are classified by subject area and 
listed by title and author Over 3500 separate 
items are included. Note: the index does 
not include a cross reference to author. 

Looking for information on computers in 
education? You II find 76 articles and 155 
application programs. How about art and 
graphics? You II find 44 entries. In the market 
for a computer? You find 82 hardware 
evaluations and 94 of software. 

Price of this huge index is just $2.00. 
Even if you ve been a reader for only a year 
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Saucer Invasion. Fire missies to destroy Rocket PHol. Maneuver your spaceship over 
the invaders who fly at different speeds the mountain using horizontal and vertical 
and altitudes thrusters 



Strategy Games 

Cassette CS-4003 * 1 1 95 4 Programs Requires 1 6K Apple II or Apple II Plus 




Star Ware. Shoot down as many TIE fighters Dynamic Bouncer. A colorful ever-changing 
as possible in 90 seconds graphics demonstration 



Sports Games- 1 

Cassette CS-400? SI I 95 4 programs Requires 16K Apple II or Api i. 





Blockade. Build a wall to trap your opponent UFO. Use lasers, warheads or guns to des- 
but don t hit anything troy an enemy spacecraft 





Skunk. A 2-player strategy game played Genius. A fast-moving tnvia quiz with scores 
with dice skill and luck of questions 





Baseball: A ?-p!ayer game with pitching Breakout Four skill levels and improved 
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Torpedo Alley Sink as many warships as Darts. Use game paddles to control the 
possible in 2 minutes throw ol 6 darts 



Space & Sports Games Strategy & Brain Games 



Disk CS 4501 $24 95 

Requires 32K Apple II or Apple II Plus 



Disk CS-4502 $24 95 

Requires 32K Apple II or Apple II Plus 



This disk contains all eight games from Thisdiskcontainsall 1 2 games and programs 
cassettes CS 400 1 and CS-4002 from cassettes CS-4003 and CS-4004 






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Parrot A Simon-type game with letters and Midpoints and Lines T wo colorful graphics 
tones Dueling digits is a version with num- demonstrations Tones k-ts /on make music 
Ders and sound effects 



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209 



CIRCLE 3S0 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Correspondence is welcome. 
Letters with interesting quest- 
ions and ideas will be used in the 
column along with a response. 
No personal replies can be 
made. Send to: David Levy, 104 
Hamilton Terrace, London NW8 
9UP, England 

Poker 

For some reason which I fail to under- 
stand, poker is one of the most widely 
misrepresented games ever invented. Most 
people who do not know how to play poker 
consider it a game of luck, in which the 
person who gets dealt the best cards wins. 
I have even heard highly intelligent people 
refer to poker as a 'base, gambling game.' 
And there are those who associate poker 
with the card sharps of the 19th century 
Mississippi steamboats and assume that 
every poker player is some sort of low life. 
These opinions could not be further from 
the truth and. in my opinion, there is no 
less skill in poker than in chess or bridge. 

The game of poker that became famous 
during the days of the Wild West is now 
known as five-card draw and is still popular. 
But there is another family of poker games 
which require even greater skill and which 
are much more interesting to play: these 
go under the generic name of stud poker. 
This month. I shall describe in some detail 
how a stud poker program might be written 
and next month I shall write about the 
older form of the game — draw poker. 

Five-Card Stud 

Briefly, each player is dealt one card 
face down and one card face up. and may 
look at his own down card. A round of 
betting takes place, and all those who put 
in the necessary amount of money on this 
round will stay in the game and receive a 
second face up card (the others drop out 
of the hand). After receiving the second 
up card, the players indulge in another 



round of betting and. once again, those 
who put in the necessary remain for a 
further round, while the others drop out. 
The third up card is followed by another 
round of betting, and then comes the fourth 
and final card up and the fourth and final 
round of betting. When the last round of 
betting is over, those remaining in the 
hand turn over their one down card, and 
the player with the best five cards wins the 
money. In order to determine whose cards 
are the best, the following ranking applies 
to the hands: 

Straight flush: This is the best type of 
hand to have, and most regular poker players 
will only have such a hand a few times in 
their life. A straight flush is five cards of 
the same suit which are in an unbroken 
sequence, for example the 6. 7. H. 9. and 10 
of hearts. 

Four of a kind: As its name suggests, this 
type of hand has four cards of the same 
denomination. 

Full house: Three cards of one denomina- 
tion and two of another, for example three 
6"a and two aces. 

Flush: All five cards of the same suit but 
not in an unbroken sequence. 
Straight: All five cards in an unbroken 
sequence, though not all of the same suit. 
Three of a kind: Three of the cards are of 
one denomination, the other two are not 
of the same denomination as each other. 
Two pairs: For example two aces and two 
7's - the fifth card is of no importance 
unless two players have the same two pairs, 
in which case the fifth card breaks the tie. 
One pair: Aces is the highest pair, then 
kings, queens, and so on down to 2's. 
High card: If a player has none of the 
above hands, then his holding is valued in 
accordance with the highest denomination 
card in his hand (ace is high) and then if 
two players have the same high card their 
second highest cards are compared and so 
on. 

So much for the procedure and the 
ranking of the hands. Various betting 



options exist in most forms of poker, the 
most common ones being: 
Bet: At the start of a round of betting, one 
player is first to speak. There are various 
methods for deciding who is first to speak 
and in stud poker it is usually the player 
with the highest face up cards. He has two 
options, he may bet or he may check." If 
he wishes to add to the money in the pot. 
the player bets, by putting into the pot any 
amount of money that is in accordance 
with the house rules. We shall assume that 
we are playing 'pot limit." which means 
that the size of the bet may be anything 
from one unit up to the total amount of 
money already in the pot. So if the pot 
stands at $10 and we are playing in $ 1 units 
the first person to speak may. if he wishes 
to bet. put in any amount from SI to $10. 
Check: If the person whose turn it is to 
speak does not wish to bet and no-one else 
has put money in on that round of betting, 
he may say 'check.* which means that he 
does not wish to put money in at this stage 
but he may decide to do so when it is next 
his turn. If. at any time in a round of 
betting, all the players check in succession, 
then the round of betting is over. 
C all: Once someone has put some money 
into the pot during a round of betting, the 
next player must put in at least the same 
amount if he wishes to remain in the game. 
Putting in the same amount as the others 
is known as calling. When all the players 
have put money into a particular betting 
round, that round may only end when all 
of the players bar one have called — at 
that point everyone has put in the same 
amount. 

Raise: It is possible to put in more than the 
previous bettor and this is known as raising. 
If the first player puts in $1 and the second 
player wants to put in an extra $1. he will 
say something like your $1 raise $1." and 
put $2 into the pot. Once there has been a 
raise it is necessary for all the players after 
the last raiser to call the bet before the 
round is at an end. so that everyone will 



210 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




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Intelligent Games, continued... 

have contributed the same amount to the 
pot. The maximum that can be raised is 
the amount in the pot before the raise 
takes place. So if the pot stands at $1 . and 
the player bets $1. making the pot $2. the 
second player can put in the $1 to meet 
the bet and then raise $3 (the current size 
of the pot). 

Pass: Sometimes known as 'fold.' This is 
what happens when a player decides that 
he no longer wishes to take part in this 
particular hand - he turns his cards face 
down and relinquishes all claim to the 
money. Beginners often think that passing 
is cowardly but in fact more hands are 
passed by good players than by bad ones. 

Some Basic Principles 

Two essential principles should be fol- 
lowed in a game of stud poker. On card 
two and card three (i.e. when you have a 
total of two or three cards, including the 
down card), you should never put money 
into the pot unless your cards so far. 
including the down card, can beat every 
hand that you can sec on the table. T he 
reason for this is obvious enough - if your 
up cards are a ft and an 8 of different suits, 
and your down card is a 2. and if your 
opponent is showing a 5 and a 9 of different 
suits, you should not be putting money 
into the pot because you are beaten on 
the table' and your opponent has a hidden 
card which may well go nicely with the 
others. Many beginners make the mistake 
of assuming, in a situation such as this one. 
that they have just as much chance of 
hitting a pair' (i.e. getting another 2. 6 or 8 
on the fourth of fifth card) as their opponent 
and so it is almost an even money shin if 
they stay in the pot. But this is false 
accounting. Firstly, your opponent may 
already have a pair — his down card might 
be another 5 or a 9. In this case he will 
certainly beat you if you do not draw a 
pair: he may beat you even if you do draw 
a pair because his pair of 9's or .S's may be 
higher than your eventual pair: and if he 
does not yet have a pair and you both 
draw a pair, he has better chances than 
you because his cards at the moment are 
higher than yours, so it will be odds on that 
his pair will be higher than yours. The only 
way that you can win is if he does not 
make a pair and you do. but then your pair 
may be 'open' (i.e. both cards face up) in 
which case he will not put any money into 
the pot on card five. If you don't believe 
me. try it for yourself. 

The second golden rule is that when 
betting on card four, don't put money into 
the pot unless you have 'equity.' that is to 
say. unless the ratio of the money already 
in the pot to the money you are now putting 
in is no less than the odds against you 
having a winning hand when the last card 

is dealt. .„ , . .. 

A simple example will explain this 



principle. Suppose that you hold the 2, 3, 4 
and 8 of hearts (the 2 is the down card ) and 
that your opponent is showing the 5 of 
clubs, the 5 of diamonds and the 10 of 
spades. The pot stands at $10 and your 
opponent bets $10. What should you do? 
In order to win the hand, and to be sure 
that you are winning the hand, you need 
to hit a fifth heart to make a flush. Then, 
unless your opponent already has three of 
a kind or two pairs, and makes a full house 
on the last card, you must hold the winning 
hand. And if he does have a chance of 
making a full house you will see it from 
his fifth card, so there will be no danger of 
your betting too heavily on the fifth 
round. 

Since you need to hit a heart to win and 
you have already seen four hearts (the 
ones in your hand), there are nine hearts. 
The odds against your hitting a heart are 
therefore (44-9):9. or 35:9 (almost 4 to 1 ). 
But your equity, or investment odds, are 
only 2: 1 . because there is $20 currently in 
the pot and you must put in $10 to stay in. 
In making this calculation it is important 
to remember that the money in the pot 
does not belong to you in any way. even 
though you put some of it in there — the 
money belongs to the pot until someone 
wins it. It is also important to remember 
that you cannot usually count on winning 
any more money on the fifth round of 
betting, because your opponent will not 
be obliged to put in any more money, but 
there will be some occasions when it ii 
reasonable to assume that your opponent 
will put money in the pot after the fifth 
card. 

It is precisely because of this concept of 
equity that it is vital to make a good-sized 
bet when you are in the lead, because 
otherwise you are making it cheap or free 
for your opponent to stay in the pot. and 
then he may hit better cards than you do 
later on in which case he will steal" the 
pot. In the above situation, for example, if 
your opponent bets only $ 1 instead of $10. 
he is playing like a sucker. You call his $1 
bet and now you have 11:1 money odds 
while the odds against hitting a winning 
card are only about 4: 1 . If your opponent 
plays like that often enough, in the hope 
of 'sucking you in" to the pot when you 
really should be out of it. he will be sorry 
to see his financial empire crumbling as 
you get better cards than he one hand out 
of five. 

These two golden rules provide the basis 
for solid play in a game of five-card stud. 
Of course like most rules of thumb, there 
will be occasions when they should be 
broken, but it takes a good player to 
recognize these situations and. until you 
or your program is a regular winner, you 
should play it safe. There is one exception, 
and that is concerned with bluffing, about 
which 1 have written a little in the past. To 
play good poker it is essential to bluff 



occasionally, but the good player will judge 
when to bluff by taking careful note of his 
opponents' styles of play and their manner- 
isms. I shall write more on the subject of 
bluffing next month, when we will be looking 
at draw poker, so for our stud poker program 
let us assume, for the time being, that 
there will be DO bluffing. 1 shall give an 
algorithm for programming stud poker but 
its parameters are subject to variation at 
the reader's discretion. In order to illustrate 
the algorithm. 1 shall describe one hand of 
stud poker in some detail and for the sake 
of simplicity I shall assume that the program 
is playing against only one opponent - 
you may extend the principles of the 
algorithm to a higher number of players 
and I would recommend five or six as 
being the right number for a personal 
computer program. 

The Algorithm in Action 

Our stud poker algorithm is based on a 
system for estimating the probability that 
our opponent's down card is of a certain 
denomination. These probabilities art- 
adjusted in the light of information obtained 
from his play, or more precisely, from the 
way that he bets during the hand. Other 
factors, such as bluffing and poor play by 
the opponent, could also be included in 
such an algorithm but for the purpose of 
this example I shall keep things as simple 
as possible. The reader ought to have little 
difficulty in generalizing from this example, 
to produce a routine that implements the 
algorithm successfully. 

Let us suppose that when the cards are 
dealt the program receives the Ace of 
clubs as the down card, and the 9 of hearts 
as the up card. The opponent has the 8 of 
diamonds as his up card. 
PROGRAM:(AC)9H 
OPPONENT:*??) 8 D 

Before the betting begins, we can already 
make certain probability estimates about 
our opponent's down card. We have seen 
one ace. one 8 and one 9, and there are 49 
unseen cards at this stage in the proceedings. 
Of these 49 cards three are aces, three are 
8's and three are 9's and there are four of 
every other denomination. So without any 
more information to go on. we can estimate 
the probabilities of the opponent's down 
card being an ace as 3 49. of its being 
a king as 4/49. a queen 4/49. and so on. 
giving us Table 1 . 

The program has the highest face up 
holding (9 is higher than 8). so it opens the 
betting. There is an ante' of $1 in the pot. 
so the program bets $1 and the opponent 
decides to call, putting in $1 to make the 
total amount of money in the pot $3. From 
the fact that our opponent called, it is 
reasonable to make two deductions, (a) 
he almost certainly has a down card which 
can beat a 9. otherwise he was very foolish 
to call the bet; (b) he may have another H. 



212 



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Intelligent Games, continued... 



DENOMINATION PROBABILITY 



Ace 


0.061 


King 


0.082 


Queen 


0.082 


Jack 


0.082 


10 


0.082 


9 


0.061 


8 


0.061 


7 


0.082 


6 


0.082 


5 


0.082 


4 


0.082 


3 


0.082 


2 


0.082 



Table I. Probabilities for opponent's down card 
before first round of belling (correct to three decimal 
places). 

giving him a pair of 8's but if he did have a 
pair of 8's he might well have raised the 
bet. so he is probably less likely to have 
another 8 than to have a 10. J. Q, K or A. 
(This deduction can be made into a learning 
mechanism, so that after playing a long 
session against the same opponent, the 
program could estimate the number of 
hands in which the opponent had not raised 
with a pair on card two.) 

We must now apply some formula to 
adjust the old probabilities in the light of 
the new information received. This must 
be done in some way that weighs the 
importance of the old information relative 
to the new. Since the information that we 
had prior to the first round of betting was 
all a priori information, whereas we now 
have some a postori information. I would 
give the new information something like 
four times as much weight as the older 
information. Furthermore. I would suggest 
that we assume it to be twice as likely that 
the opponent's hole card was an A . K . 0- J 
or 10 than another 8. So from the assump- 
tions made on the basis of the one called 
bet we can estimate the probabilities of 
the various denominations being the oppo- 
nent's down card as in Table 2. 



Ace King Queen Jack 10 

2/11 2/11 2/11 2/11 2/11 



(2/11 =0.182; 1/11 =0.091) 



Table 2. 



These fractions come from the fact that 
we wish to estimate the probability that he 
holds an ace. king, queen, jack or 10 as 
being twice as great as the probability of 
his holding an 8. and we must have all the 
probabilities adding up to 1. We estimate 
the probabilities of his holding a 9. 8. 7. 5. 
4. 3 or 2 as being zero, on the assumption 



that he is not playing badly, though as I 
mentioned before, this presumption can 
be varied by the program itself. 

We must now combine the old and new 
probabilities in accordance with their 
weightings (new:old = 4:1). and so the 
new measure for the opponent holding an 
Ace as his down card is given by: 
(0.061 x 1) + (0.182 x 4) = 0.789 
The measure for the King is given by: 
(0.082 x 1) + (0.182 x 4) = 0.810 
The Queen. Jack and 10 have the same old 
estimates and the same new estimates as 
the King, so their revised measures are all 
given by: 

(0.082 x 1) + (0.182 x 4) = 0.810 
The measure for the 9 is given by: 
(0.061 x l) + (0x4) =0.061 
The measure for the 8 is given by: 
(0.061 x 1) + (0.091 x 4) = 0.425 
and the measures for the 7. 6, 5. 4, 3 and 2 
are all given by: 
(0.082x1) + (0x4) = 0.082 

Finally, to arrive at the new probability 
estimates for all the denominations, we 
need to normalize these figures so that the 
total probability adds up to 1 . So we sum 
the above measures: 
0.789 + (4 x 0.810) + 0.061 + 
0.425 + (6 x 0.082) = 5.007 
and divide each of them by 5.007 to arrive 
at the new probability estimates (Table 3). 



DENOMINATION 


PROBABILITY 


Ace 






0.789/5.007 = 0.158 


King 






0.810/5.007 = 0.162 


Queen 






0.162 


Jack 






0.162 


10 






0.162 


9 






0.061/5.007 = 0.012 


8 






0.425/5.007 = 0.085 


7 






0.082/5.007 = 0.016 


6 






0.016 


5 






0.016 


4 






0.016 


3 






0.016 


2 






0.016 


Table 3. 


Probabilities f 


?r opponent's down card 


after the first round 


of betting. 


9 


8 


7 


6 5 4 3 2 


1 


1/11 









The first round of betting is now over, 
and the dealer gives each of the players 
one more card. The program receives the 
7 of spades while its opponent gets the 10 
of clubs, so the situation on the table now 
looks like this: 
PROGRAM: (A C) 9 H. 7 S 
OPPONENT: (??) 8 D. 10 C 



and there is S3 in the pot. The opponent is 
now 'high,' i.e. he has the highest cards 
showing on the table, since 10. 8 is better 
than 9. 7, and so it is the opponent to open 
the betting on this round. He may check, 
or he may bet anything from $1 to S3. Let 
us assume that he bets the maximum of S3. 

The first thing that the program must 
do is to determine whether or not. on the 
basis of the probability estimates that it 
had before this S3 bet. the opponent is 
likely to have the winning hand and if so. 
by what margin of probability. In order to 
be winning at this stage, the opponent 
must hold, as his down card, an Ace. an 8 
or a 10. An ace would give him A. 10. 8 
against A. 9. 7. while a 10 or an 8 as the 
down card would give him a pair. From 
Table 3 the program can determine that 
the probability of its opponent's down card 
being an A. 8 or 10 is: 
0.158 + 0.085 + 0.162 = 0.405 
So the probability that he does not hold 
the winning hand is 1 — 0.405 = 0.595, 
and the odds against the program having 
the winning hand are 0.405:0.595. or 1:1.47. 
If the program calls the S3 bet. since the 
pot now stands at S6 the program will be 
getting 2:1 money odds, so the program 
definitely has enough equity to call the bet 
because 2:1 is better than 0.68:1. From 
this calculation the program may determine 
that is is safe to call the bet. The algorithm 
ought to have some randomly-based adjust- 
ment in its calculations to determine when 
to raise rather than call — possibly this 
might be a probability function whose input 
parameters are the actual odds against the 
opponent having the better hand, and some 
measure of how the opponent sees the 
situation. It is clearly better for the program, 
when raising the pot. to have its strength 
hidden in the down card if it wants the 
opponent to stay in the hand, while it is 
better to have all its strength on the table 
(with the 'threat' of more strength in the 
down card ) if it is try ing to bluff its opponent 
out of the pot. 

Having made the above calculations, 
the program has determined that it is safe 
to call the $3 bet but since the odds against 
the opponent having the best hand at this 
stage are only 1.47:1. it would be a little 
imprudent to raise at this stage. What the 
odds should be is not an easy question to 
answer but I would recommend not raising 
unless the odds are at least 2:1. (In fact I 
would recommend an over-riding heuristic, 
under which the program would never 
raise when the opponent could have a cast 
iron cinch, as here, if he has another 10. 
the opponent knows for sure that he is 
winning.) . 



214 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 






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Intelligent Games, continued... 

The program therefore calls the $3. 
making the total in the pot S9 and the 
dealer gives out another card to each player; 
this time the program gets the 6 of diamonds 
and its opponent the Jack of spades, so the 
situation on the table is now this: 
PROGRAM: (A C) 9 H. 7 S. 6 D 
OPPONENT: (??) 8 D. 10 C, J S 
and there is S9 in the pot. The opponent is 
still high, since J. 10. 8 is a better holding 
than 9. 7. 6. but the program's hidden Ace 
is still an important card, because unless 
the opponent already has a pair or an Ace. 
the program is still winning. The situation 
has now been made even more complicated 
because the latest cards to be dealt give 
each player, in theory at least, the chance 
for a straight if the fifth card is exactly 
right. For example, if the opponent's hole 
card is a 9, 7 or Q. he can make a straight 
on card five by hitting a 7 or Q (if he holds 
a 9). or a 9 (if he already holds a 7 or Q). 

The opponent's betting situation has 
improved somewhat since his highest face 
up card is better than the program's highest 
face up card, the opponent's second highest 
up card is better than the program's, and 
so is his third highest up card. So the 
opponent happily tosses in $9 with a smile 
on his face that the poor microcomputer 
cannot see. What should the program do 
now? Answer: stay calm and calculate the 
odds. In order to be winning at this stage, 
the program's opponent must hold an Ace. 
8. 10 or J as his hole card. The probability 
of this, from Table 3, is: 
0.158 + 0.085 + 0.162 
+ 0.162 = 0.567 

This means that the program probably 
doesn't hold the winning hand at the 
moment, but the odds against it holding 
the winning hand are only 0.567:0.433. or 
1.31:1. whereas if it calls the $9 bet it is 
getting 2: 1 money odds, since the $9 bet 
has made the pot up to a total of $18. 
Therefore, the program should still call 
this bet. even though the odds indicate 
that at this stage it is probably not holding 
the best cards. So the program calls the 
bet. the pot stands at $27. and the fifth and 
final card is dealt. The program gets an 
Ace while its opponent gets another Jack, 
so the players have the following cards 
showing: 

PROGRAM: (A C) 9 H. 7 S. 6 D. A D 
OPPONENT: (??) 8 D. 10 C. JS. JH 
and there is $27 in the pot. The human 
opponent now feels very smug, with a pair 
of Jacks showing, and says, i suppose I 
ought to bet something — here is $20." 

The principles apply here, just as they 
did on the previous rounds of betting, except 
for the fact that this is the final round, 
after which whoever has the best cards 
will take the money. The program calculates 
that to beat it the opponent must have a 
Jack (for three Jacks) or a 10 or 8 in the 
hole (for two pairs). The probability esti- 



mates indicate that the total probability of 
the opponent having the winning hand is: 
0.162 + 0.162 + 0.085 = 0.409 
therefore the odds against the program 
are 0.409: ( 1 -0.409) = 0.692: 1 . well below 
the money odds, so there is every reason 
to call the final bet. 

Refinements to the Algorithm 

There are various ways in which the 
reader might care to modify this algorithm. 
To begin with, there is the fact that when, 
for example, the opponent hit a 10 at card 
three, the program knew that its original. 
a priori estimate of the probabilities wasn't 
accurate because the lOof clubs was actually 
still in the deck. At that point it could have 
recalculated the original a priori probabil- 
ities in the light of the news that the 10 of 
clubs and 7 of spades were still in the deck 
after card two and this would have the 
effect of making the calculations of the 
probability estimates more accurate from 
card three onwards. 

Another useful idea is to modify the 
probabilities all the way through the hand 
on the basis of the opponent's betting. If 
the opponent shows strength (i.e. raises 
when he could call, or bets when he could 
check) the program could assume that it 
was more likely that he held a good card, 
and adjust the probabilities for the good 
cards upwards by (say) 10 percent, normal- 
izing the others as necessary. If the opponent 
showed weakness by checking when he 
might have been expected to bet. then the 
probabilities for the good cards could be 
adjusted downwards by 10 percent. 

Bluffing plays an extremely important 
part in poker, so it would be as well to 
assume that on a certain percentage of 
occasions the opponent will bluff, and then 
adjust this percentage over a number of 
hands in the playing session. The program 
can then allow for the possibility of the 
opponent bluffing when making its calcula- 
tions, possibly by calling a suitable propor- 
tion of slightly adverse equity situations. 

More Players 

If you want to get the most fun out of a 
poker program. I would suggest that you 
write one for six players, five hands being 
played by the program and one by the 
user. You can use similar probability esti- 
mates, although the actual calculations 
will be more complex and you will find the 
game with more players is more stimulating 
than the two-handed game. q 




216 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



!ail Roster 



rr^hr^i^^r^-^L. 




CALIFORNIA 

Advance Data Concepts— 2280 Dia- 
mond Blvd., Concord, 94520; (415) 671- 
9016. 9-5 Mon-Fri. Vector-Graphic, 
CP/M Software Headquarters-User's 
Croup. 

D.E.S. Data Equipment Supply-8315 
Firestone, Downey 90241. (213) 923- 
9361. 7 days. Commodore PET spe- 
cialists. Hardware Software, Books, 
Mags, Supplies, In House Maintenance. 

Rainbow Computing, Inc.— 9719 Res- 
eda Blvd., Northridge 91324; (213) 349- 
5560. 10-7 Tues-Fri, 10-5 Sat, 12-5 Sun. 
Apple, DEC, and Atari. Authorized Sales 
and Service. 

CONNECTICUT 

Computerworkt— 1439 Post Rd., East 
Westport 06880; (203) 255-9096. 12-6 
Tues-Fri, 12-9 Thu, 10-5 Sat. 

FLORIDA 

AMF Electronic* -11158 N. 30th St, 
Tampa 33612; (813) 971-4072. 106 
Mon-Sat. Apple Computer Sales & 
Service; TRS-80, Apple Software & 
Peripherals; S-100 boards, computer 
parts & books. 

GEORGIA 

Atlanta Computer Mart— 5091 Buford 
Hwy, Atlanta 30340; (404) 455-0647. 
10-6 Mon-Sat 

ILLINOIS 

Computer Junction— 543 S. York Rd., 
Elmhurst 60126; (312) 530-1125. Mon & 
Thu 9:30-8:30 pm; Tues-Sat 9:30-5:30; 
Sun 12-4:30. 



To induot your iton In Cream* Computing* 
••tail AoMar. call Ito AAWrtwMg Oapartmanf at 

tz>ns40-»m 




ComputerLand/Downer* Grove— 136 

Ogden Ave, Downers Plaza 60515; 
(312) 964-7762. 1f>6 Mon-Sat, 10-8 
Tue, Thu. 

Data Domain of Schaumburg— 1612 E. 
Algonquin Rd., Schaumburg 60195; 
(312) 897-8700. 12-9 Tues-Fri, 11-5 Sat. 
Apple, Alpha Micro, Hewlett-Packard 
Calculators. Largest book and magazine 
selection. 

Famsworth Computer Center— 1891 N. 
Farnsworth Ave, Aurora 60505; (312) 
851-3888. M-F 10-8, Sat. 10-5 Apple, 
Hewlett-Packard, Corvus, HP Calcu- 
lators, IDS-440C printers. 

Lillipute Computer Mart, Inc.— 4446 

Oakton, Skokie 60076; (312) 674-1383. 
M-F 10:30-8 pm, Sat 10-6. We sell 
Cromemco, Gimix, Bell & Howell, 
NorthStar and others. Starting our fifth 
year in business. 

Video Etc.— 465 Lake Cook Plaza, 
Deerfield 60015; (312) 498-9669; Open 
Everyday. Strong software support for 
Apple, Atari. 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Neeco— 679 Highland Ave, Needham 
02194; (617) 449-1760. 9-5:30 Mon-Fri. 
Commodore, Apple, Superbrain, 
Tl 99/4. 

MICHIGAN 

Upstate Computer Shop— 629 French 
Rd., Campus Plaza, New Hartford 
13413; (315) 733-9139; Mon-Fri 10-6, 
Sat 11 — 5. Apple— Commodore— Data 
General. 

NEVADA 

Home Computers— 1775 E. Tropicana 
#6, Las Vegas 89109 (702) 798-1022. 10-7 
Mon-Sat. Apple, Commodore, Atari, 
AIM 65, (Books) Sales & Service. 



Computemook— Rt. 46, Pine Brook 
Plaza, Pine Brook 07058; (201) 575- 
9468. 10-6:30 MTVVS, 10-8 Thurs., Fri. 
Apple/Commodore Authorized dealer. 

Silent Partner —2050 Center Ave., Fort 
Lee 07024; (201) 947-9400; Mon-Sat 
10-6. Apple/Atari/Commodore/Vec- 
tor/Malibu. 

Stonehenge Computer Shop— 89 Sum- 
mit Avenue, Summit 07901; (201) 
277-1020. 10 am -6: 30 pm Mon-Sat. 
Apple/Bell & Howel I/Commodore 
Authorized Dealer, Sales and Service. 

Software City— 111 Crand Ave., River- 
edge 07661; (201) 342-8788. Ed/Rec/ 
Home Programs for TRS-80, Atari, 
Apple and PET. 10-25% off list. 

NEW YORK 

Computer Center— 28251 Ford Rd. 
Carden City (313) 425-2470 Books, 
Magazines, Hardware and Software for 
Apple, Northstar, TRS80, & Pet. 



OHIO 

Abacus 11 — 1417 Bernath Pkwy., Toledo 
43615; (419) 865-1009. 

The Basic Computer Shop— 2671 W. 
Market St, Akron 44313; (216) 867-0808 
10-6 Mon-Sat. 

Mkro Mini Computer World— 74 Rob- 
inwood Ave., Columbus 43213; (614) 
235-5813/6058. 11-7 Tues-Sat. Author- 
ized Apple/Commodore dealer. Sales, 
Service, Business Software. 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Personal Computer Corp.— 24-26 W. 

Lancaster Ave, Paoli 19301; (215)647- 
8463. 10-6 Mon-Fri, 10* Wed, 10-5 
Sat. 



APRIL 1981 



217 



Effective Writing 



Wayne Dickson 



Good Writers Make 
Good Proi 




Considering the technical orientation 
of its readership, one of the most attrac- 
tive and courageous features of Creative 
Computing is its willingness to print 
articles encouraging good writing. Simi- 
larly, one of its most amusing features is 
its occasional letter from a reader who is 
puzzled about that willingness. 

Dear Sir: 

I think your magazine is terrific. But 
why does a magazine about computers 
have all those articles about grammar 
and usage and prose style? 

Sincerely. 
Baffled 

The editors' response is always firm 
but patient. In a practical sense, they say. 
an improved writing style will enable you 
to share your ideas more effectively with 
others. ("Potential contributors to 
Creative Computing please take note!" 
adds Ted Nelson.) Furthermore, in a 
more fundamental sense, good writing 
deserves to be encouraged for its own 
sake— if for no other reason, than for the 
simple joy and satisfaction it brings to a 
sensitive reader. 

As an English teacher. I can appreciate 
that response. However, as a recently 
converted computer enthusiast and a 
fledgling programmer. I can add still 
another justification to those given by the 
editors. The fact is that the skills of prose 
composition and of "top-down" compu- 
ter programming (at least in Basic) are so 



Wayne Dickson. P.O. Box 1304. Stetson Univer- 
sity. DeLand. FL .12720 



closely interrelated that careful attention 
to one will almost always bring improved 
competence in the other. 

To begin with, the prose writer and the 
Basic programmer employ the same 
language— English. (Admittedly Basic is 
a primitive pidgin dialect, but it is still 
English.) Furthermore, the computer is 
just as particular about the spelling and 
punctuation of this language as the most 
fanatical Miss Fidditch who ever bullied 
a grammar class. The spelling 
"PRIMTT" will not be accepted; the 
comma cannot be substituted for the 
semicolon; the quotation marks at the 
beginning of a statement must be comple- 
mented by quotation marks at the end of 
that statement. This particularity is one 
reason why at our school we encourage 
remedial students in English to learn 
Basic. 

Moving on to the "larger units of dis- 
course" in Basic programming— 
subroutines, routines, and complete pro- 
grams—the prose writer should feel 
equally at home. The process of creation 
and the principles of construction are 
very much the same in writing computer 
programs as in writing essays. 

The first step in both is the most 
crucial and frequently the most difficult. 
In writing, this step is to define the thesis 
to be proved or question to be explored; 
in programming, it is to define the 
problem or task to be resolved. In both, 
the next step is obvious, to determine 
how best to accomplish the previously 
defined goal. In writing, this is done by 
marshalling and juggling the necessary 
arguments and evidence; in program- 
ming, by developing an appropriate 



algorithm (a systematic set of procedures 
for solving a problem or accomplishing a 
task). 

Interestingly enough, the currently 
favored "top-down" method for develop- 
ing a computer program is very much like 
the familiar technique for developing an 
analytical essay. The top level of the pro- 
gram corresponds roughly to the over-all 
framework of the essay, including 
perhaps its introduction and conclusion. 
The second level corresponds to the 
major sections in the essay: points in the 
argument, steps in the process, sets in the 
classification, etc. In both kinds of writ- 
ing the process of subdivision continues 
until the complete argument or algorithm 
is exhausted. 

To see how similar these techniques 
can be in practice, one needs only to 
compare the structure of this article with 
that of a typical quiz/tutorial program of 
the kind used in computer assisted 
instruction. To help in doing so, diagrams 
of these structures are included below. 

After the skeleton is completed, the 
next step for the writer and for the pro- 
grammer is to flesh it out with language. 
The former executes his rough draft, the 
latter his preliminary coding and docu- 
mentation. For both there follows the 
drudgery, but also the discovery, of 
smoothing and polishing the finished 
product. At this point the writer should 
edit and proofread his essay, looking for 
such gremlins as missing transitions and 
misplaced modifiers. The programmer 
must debug his program, hunting such 
common slips as a "RETURN" without a 
"GOSUB" or a command to "GOTO" a 
line that does not exist. 



218 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



I inure I. Structure of Article. 



Figure 2. Structure of Program. A typical quiz/tutorial program for 
use with almost any subject in a school classroom. 



Introduction: Encouragement of good writing by Crea- 
tive Computing; statement of thesis. 



Similarity of Language: Both writers and programmers 
use dialects of the same language. English. 



Similarity of Process: Writers and programmers use 
comparable principles and procedures in com- 
pleting their work. 



Illustrative Diagrams 






Structure of Article 












Structure of Sample Program 











Conclusion: 



Introduction: Student is asked if instructions are ne- 
cessary. If so. control of the program is sent to the 
"Instructions" routine: if not. it is sent directly to the 
"Quiz" routine. 



Instructions Routine: Instructions are displayed; then 
control is sent to the "Quiz" routine. 



Quiz Routine 



Question and Answer Subroutine: Student is 
asked a predetermined number of questions 
and his answers are tested for accuracy. 



Score Tallying Subroutine: After each 
response control of the program shifts here 
to update the student's total score; then it 
shifts back for the next question. 



Conclusion: Score is obtained from the "Score Tallying" 
subroutine and reported. Student is given a congra- 
tulatory or admonitory message, as indicated. 



It should be noted that in this final step 
considerations of style, elegance, and 
appearance are almost as important as 
outright errors. In both processes the 
procedures as recorded should "work." 
of course. But the reason for recording 
them is so that others might understand 
that working at another time or place. It 
follows consequently that the writer or 
programmer should make his work as 
clear and as attractive as possible. Frus- 
trated or irritated readers are not often 
attentive to subtleties of meaning. 

In addition to the usual concerns of 
style, the essay writer will help his reader 
with parallel structure, strong transitions, 
and concrete illustrations of abstract 
ideas. The program writer will make 
judicious use of blank lines, indentations, 
and "REMARK" statements to indicate 
structure. (Depending on his version of 
Basic, he may have to use "PRINT" state- 
ments, colons, and other dodges to 
achieve these effects.) In both cases con- 
cern for the reader and attention to form 
will pay substantial dividends. 

The salient qualities of a good essay 
and a good program alike are efficiency 
and elegance. And because the two 
activities are so similar, the person who 
strives to achieve these qualities in one is 
in a much better position to achieve them 
in the other. Computer programmers 
should study effective writing if for no 
other reason than because such study will 
make them more effective programmers 
as well. □ 



rr 



MECC Software 

Creative Computing is now your source for the out- 
standing educational software developed by the Minnesota 
Educational Computer Consortium (MECC). Three pack- 
ages are available in the initial release. 

Demonstration Disk 

Requires 32K Applesoft in ROM or Apple II Plus. DOS 3.2 



creative 

cotapntfRti 

software 



MECC-701 $19.95 



A sampling of different applications in drill and practice, tutorial, simulation, 
problem solving and worksheet generation. Samples from music, science, social 
studies, industrial arts, reading and mathematics are included. 

Elementary, Vol. 1 — Mathematics 

Requires 32K Applesoft in ROM or Apple II Plus, DOS 3.2 MECC-702 $24.95 

Programs for the elementary mathematics classroom. Includes games of logic 
such as Bagels, Taxman and Number; drill and practice programs such as Speed 
Drill, Round and Change; and programs about the metric system such as Metric 
Estimate, Metric Length and Metric 21. 

Elementary, Vol. 4 — Math & Science 

Requires 32K Applesoft in ROM or Apple II Plus, DOS 3.2 MECC-705 $24.95 

Two mathematics programs. Estimate and Mathgame provide reinforcement on 
estimating and basic facts. Food chains in fish and animals can be studied through 
Odell Lake and Odell Woods. Solar Distance teaches the concepts of distances in 
space and Ursa is a tutorial on constellations. 

To order, send payment plus $2.00 shipping to the address below. Credit card 
orders may be called toll free to 800-631-8112 (in NJ 201-540-0445). School 
purchase orders should add an additional $2.00 billing fee. 

Creative Computing, 39 E. Hanover Ave., Morris Plains. NJ 07950 



CIRCLE 300 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



APRIL 1981 



219 



* 

mm... compendium . . . cc 




Oh, oh, 
again. 



looks like the computer's overloaded 



The Grays Matter 

Recently a challenger of the world back- 
gammon champion defeated this formidable 
adversary through a series of seemingly 
unconventional if not maniacal moves that 
were actually based on an amazing foresight 
and an iron-clad grip on the situation. 
However the champ retained his crown after 
this unprecedented and whirlwind defeat 
because the winner was a machine. Yes, for 
the first time a computer defeated a human 
world champion at an intellectual endea- 
vor. 

Hans J. Berliner of Carnegie-Mellon 
University, the man who constructed the 
program for the winning computer, places 
the real significance of this game on the 
ability of his machine to "capture the essence 
of judgement and deal with relatively ill- 
defined, fuzzy situations. Berliner went about 
giving his computer the ability to make such 
judgements by providing it with what he 
calls "real world knowledge." 

Berliner calls his program SNAC: a Smooth 
Non-linear function with Application Coef- 
ficients In simplified terms, the SNAC 
program breaks away from clear-cut equa- 
tions such as A = 2B to consider the various 
conditions that A or B may came under, 
thus rendering the equation faulty in its 
simplicity The equation "Value=CiA|Fi + 
C2A2F2+ ... C»A| F,, "has been given to 
illustrate the SNAC concept where F repre- 
sents the number of items of a certain type, 
C represents their unit cost, and A represents 
the importance of the coefficient given certain 
information about the present situation. 

Berliner has recently revised his SNAC 
program, retired it from the players seat 
and given it a coaching position where it is 
used to analyze a player's moves and 
determine whether they are good. In the 
long run, Berliner hopes to open the eyes 
of the general public to computers that can 
go much farther beyond the black and white, 
into the various and more realistic shades 
of gray.— Science News 



Computerized Credit Cards 



The French and Italians have developed 
credit cards with built-in computers for 
electronic banking purposes. Rather than 
slipping these new cards— which are about 
the size of ordinary credit cards— into a large 
computer, they will contain microprocessors 
of their own. Their electronic circuitry will 
take the place of the magnetic strips that 
hold credit information on regular cards. 

These new cards are considered a part of 
a pre-paid system. Each card will be pro- 
grammed to account for a certain amount 
of money, and after each purchase the card 
will be inserted in a special machine in the 
store that will record the transaction in its 
own memory and deduct the payment from 
balance on the computer card. "The big 



advantage of the system," says one French 
banker, will be that the amount of credit to 
be put into the card memory will be negoti- 
ated in advance." 

French computer credit cards are being 
developed by Cll-Honeywell Bull. Philips 
Data Systems France, and Schlumberger 
Flonic. The Italian cards are being developed 
by SGS-ATES. As for the United States, 
there is no plan to market these cards as of 
yet, mainly because the magnetic card system 
is so well established here. However certain 
US banks have their eyes on the French 
and Italian developments and are considering 
a structure adaptable to international parti- 
cipation— The Wall Street Journal 



House of the '80's 



The Sun/Tronic House, a showcase house 
for the 1 980 s, has recently been completed 
near Stamford, CT. This three bedroom 
house, devised and built by the Cooper 
Development Association Inc., features active 
and passive solar heating systems plus 
computers that can serve as nursemaid, 
secretary, guard, entertainer and tax audi- 
tor. 









in the family room. There are also remote 
computer terminals in the kitchen and the 
master bedroom from which homeowners 
can check up on the kids, figure their taxes, 
or look up the guest list and menu from a 
previous dinner party. 

Companies involved in the development 
of the Sun/Tronic House include General 
Electric Company, Solarex Corporation, 




The central computer in the Sun/Tronic 
House is located in the library, the operational 
control center of the home. Here a micro- 
processor retrieves data on energy perfor- 
mance and controls each aspect of the 
nurnerous mechanical systems in the home. 
Apple II personal computers are utilized 
both as monitors of the security systems 
and as a source of educational fun and games 



Edison Electronic Institute, and Apple 
Computer Inc.: Micro-computer Systems. 
The model opened for viewing by industrial 
professionals in fall 1 980. Those interested 
in receiving information on Sun/Tronic House 
should write the Cooper Development 
Association Inc.. 405 Lexington Ave., New 
York, NY 10174. 



220 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



flot 






.Ai ******* Get More 

From Your Microcomputer 

Keep Informed With MICRO 



os» 



MICRO, the 6502 Journal — First Issue Published November 1977 



PET 



AIM 



svM 



MICRO is the technical reference journal which reports monthly on the development and 
practical and theoretical application of new 6502 microcomputer technology. Feature articles 
discuss languages, techniques, and application programs for the major 6502-based micro- 
computers. The journal regularly includes a comprehensive bibliography of 6502-based informa- 
tion from most major publications; a software catalog of new products; detailed reviews of major 
products; information on microcomputer clubs; and other factual material of interest to the 6502 
microcomputer community. 

BEST OF MICRO Series — First Volume Published December 1978 A TAR/ 

The BEST OF MICRO Series consists of collections of the best technical articles which have 
appeared in MICRO. Each volume is organized by major microcomputers. To date, over 20,000 
copies of volumes 1 and 2 have been sold, and sales are still strong. Volume 3 was published in 
November 1980. 



KIM 



% 



MICRO 

P.O. Box 6502 

Chelmsford, MA 01824 

(617) 256-5515 

To subscribe, enclose your check for one year, $18.00. 



APPLE 



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SO BIO> so small 
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An easy-to-use. intelligent program for 
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By answering simple questions one at a time, 
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221 




Gregory Yob 

There's a Problem with Success 

Now and then I get a letter saying "Your 
column is wonderful, etc.. I subscribe to 
Creative just to read it, etc." Toward the 
bottom comes the punch line: "But your 
column didn't appear in the last issue! Will 
there be more of them???" Be assured, 
there will be more columns, probably with 
more spaces between them. I find myself 
with more and more neat things to do. and 
less and less time. Rather than doing this 
column on a monthly basis, my target is 
two issues out of three. 

While we are at it. may I mention the 
subject of stamped self-addressed enve- 
lopes? Providing one considerably improves 
your chances of getting a reply. 

A Neat Widget 

If you own an "old-fashioned" PET with 
8K, 6550 RAM chips so on, there's always 
the possibility that some of your RAM 
chips will fail. Finding 6550's is no mean 
feat, and Optimized Data Systems (P.O. 
Box 595. Placentia. CA 92670) sells an 
adaptor which will let you use the much 
more common 2114 RAM to replace your 
bad 6550's. For $24.95 you get a 3" x 5" 
card with two 6550 sockets, one 21 14, and 
two 2114 sockets. Space is provided for 
eight 2114's which is 4K of your RAM. 
Two of these boards will permit total 
replacement of your 6550 RAM. The 6550 
sockets let you use any good 6550 chips 
until they need replacement. (My own 
experience with an 8K PET is that once 
the "infant fatalities" are past that the RAM 
is very reliable. Two years of constant use 
did not kill any 6550 RAMs. However, 
your luck may be different.) 

The Uncrasher 

As those of you who work with machine 
language or exotic POKEs know, the PET 
can crash if you make an error. If you 
have the "old" ROMs, there is no hope —you 
must reset the machine, either by flipping 
the power switch or grounding the RESET 
line on the memory expansion. Your Basic 
or machine language program will vanish 
in the process. (If you have a memory 
expansion addressed to give a "hole" in 
your memory, the area above the hole will 
survive a reset. However. Basic can't use 
such forbidden areas.) 

If you have the "new" ROMs, this awful 
Jate may be avoided. Two pushbuttons. 



fersonal 

Electronic 

Transactions 



I am happy to hear Irom you. and encourage 
your correspondence I wilt try to acknowledge all 
correspondence, and a SASE makes things easier 
for both of us Please send your letters to 
"Personal Electronic Transactions" c/o PO Bo* 
354. Palo Alto CA 94301 



one wired to RESET and ground, and the 
other wired to the User Port's Diagnostic 
Sense and ground will let you preserve 
your program. To perform a PET resurrec- 
tion press the Diagnostic Sense pushbutton, 
and while down, press and release the 
RESET pushbutton. When the display 
(which will be from the Monitor) appears, 
release the Diagnostic Sense button. Now, 
press semicolon (;), RETURN, and then 
move the cursor to the SP (which will be 
I ) and change it to F8. Press RETURN. 
X. and RETURN. You are now in Basic 
with your program intact. If you only press 
RESET, the PET will come back with the 
"BYTES FREE" message and your program 
vanishes. Failure to twiddle the Monitor 
will also leave you in the boonies. 

ITS (P.O. Box 264. Woodbridge. VA 
22194) sells two pushbuttons and the needed 
jumpering for$14.95(A very reasonable 
price) as the Uncrasher. Once you have 
the PET opened, it takes about two minutes 
to install— and is very definitely worth the 
trouble and cost. The pushbuttons mount 
handily on the back of the TV monitor out 
of the way of accidental handling. (I am 
sure you know about the Reset button on 
the Apple.) 

The VIC 

At the Consumer Electronics Show in 
Las Vegas, Commodore introduced (for 
the USA) the VIC (for the Video Interface 
Chip which is in the critter) which is a 
"poor man's PET" and costs about $300. 1 
predict that this machine will become very 
popular, and here's why: 

1 ) It can do more than the TRS-80 Color 
Computer, and costs $100 less. 

2) It runs full PET Basic with some 
additions. 

3) 172x 172 dot graphics are possible, as 
well as eight foreground and sixteen back- 
ground colors. 

4) Lots of I/O on the back, including 
plug-in modules for RAM, ROM. IEEE 
488 and so on. 

5) The VIC can read standard PET tapes. 
Happy program conversions to you! 

To answer your next question. I have 
no plans to cover the VIC in this column. 
My focus will remain on the CBM 8, 16 
and 32K machines with 40-column screen. 

A Speedy Story 

Robert Maas. an Artificial Intelligence 



hacker I know, relates the following story: 
"Several years ago, I became interested 
in the problem of how to cut a checkerboard 
into two identical halves. If the checker- 
board has an odd number of squares on its 
edge, the center square is first removed. 
The problem had been solved for the 6x6 
demonstration plot.) 

The most important speedup trick was 
to make all constants variables as seen in 
Line 3110. 

Line 20 prints the clear screen character 
which won't appear on my printer. 

Santa Paravia and Fiumaccio 

One of the "classic" computer games is 
Hammurabi— a simulation of a kingdom 
in old Sumeria in which you play the king. 
You plant grain, feed the peasants, buy 
and sell land and try to avoid famine, plague 
and revolution. If you are successful, the 
rats come to eat the grain, and the peasants 
are fruitful and multiply. To keep going, 
you must choose a middle course of 
occasional starvation and occasional well- 
being. 

Santa Paravia and Fiumaccio is an 
extended version of Hammurabi set in the 
early Italian Renaissance. Your role is a 
petty ruler who wishes to become a king. 
Each round of play has four phases: 
agriculture and land deals, adjustment of 
taxation, display of your territory, and 
internal development and public works. 
As life is short, you have from 18 to 25 
years in which to make your kingdom rich 
enough to become king. 

The game can be played solo or with up 
to six players, with four levels of skill. So 
far. I haven't become king at the lowest 
level, so this game will take some time to 
master. 

I like simulations of this sort, where 
success depends on a balance of things— 
much as success in business or one's career 
Kill'em games are not of much interest for 
they concentrate on the battle action, and 
not on the consequences of real life battles. 
If Space Invaders ever happened for real, 
it would be no joke (and would be all over 
within five minutes in the Invaders' favor.) 

I did find the graphics in Santa Paravia 
annoying, particularly in the reports phases. 
Changing several of the PRINT AA$ to 
PRI NT AB$ with AB$ set to a line of Shif t- 
F removed a lot of the Shift-& (the little 
checkerboard halftone graphic) and made 
the reports more readable. 

If I were to make more modifications I 
would change to a "balance sheet" style, 
as balance sheets are used by most busi- 
nesses to tally their financial scores. 

Santa Paravia comes from Instant Soft- 
ware in Peterborough. NH 03458. The cost 
is $9.95. catalog 30175P. You need at least 
16K to run the program. 

If you have a good simulation program. 
I'd like to see it. I feel that simulations will 
be the basis for most successful games in 
the future. □ 



222 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



A REMARKABLE MAGAZINE 




creative 

computing 

"The beat covered by Creative Computing 
is one of the most important, explosive and 
fast-changing."- Alvin Toffler 



David Ahl. Founder and 
Publisher of Creative Computing 



You might think the term "creative com- 
puting" is a contradiction. How can some- 
thing as precise and logical as electronic 
computing possibly be creative? We think 
it can be. Consider the way computers are 
being used to create special effects in 
movies— image generation, coloring and 
computer-driven cameras and props. Or an 
electronic "sketchpad" for your home 
computer that adds animation, coloring 
and shading at your direction. How about a 
computer simulation of an invasion of killer 
bees with you trying to find a way of keep- 
ing them under control? 

Beyond Our Dreams 

Computers are not creative per se. But 
the way in which they are used can be 
highly creative and imaginative. Five years 
ago when Creative Computing magazine 
first billed itself as The number 1 maga- 
zine of computer applications and soft- 
ware, we had no idea how far that idea 
would take us Today, these applications 
are becoming so broad, so all- 
encompassing that the computer field will 
soon include virtually everything! 

In light of this generality, we take "appli- 
cation ' to mean whatever can be done with 
computers, ought to be done with comput- 
ers or might be done with computers. That 
is the meat of Creative Computing 

Alvin Toffler. author of Future Shock and 
The Third Wave says. I read Creative Com- 
puting not only for information about how 
to make the most of my own equipment but 
to keep an eye on how the whole field is 
emerging. 

Creative Computing, the company as 
well as the magazine, is uniquely light- 
hearted but also seriously interested in all 
aspects of computing. Ours is the maga- 
zine of software, graphics, games and sim- 
ulations for beginners and relaxing profes- 
sionals. We try to present the new and im- 
portant ideas of the field in a way that a 14- 
year old oraCobol programmer can under- 



stand them. Things like text editing, social 
simulations, control of household devices, 
animation and graphics, and communica- 
tions networks. 

Understandable Yet Challenging 

As the premier magazine for beginners, it 
is our solemn responsibility to make what 
we publish comprehensible to the new- 
comer. That does not mean easy; our 
readers like to be challenged. It means 
providing the reader who has no prepar- 
ation with every possible means to seize 
the subject matter and make it his own. 

However, we don t want the experts in 
our audience to be bored. So we try to 
publish articles of interest to beginners and 
experts at the same time. Ideally, we would 
like every piece to have instructional or 
informative content— and some depth- 
even when communicated humorously or 
playfully. Thus, our favorite kind of piece is 
acessible to the beginner, theoretically 
non-trivial, interesting on more than one 
level, and perhaps even humorous. 

David Gerrold of Star Trek fame says. 
Creative Computing with its unpreten- 
tious, down-to-earth lucidity encourages 
the computer user to have fun. Creative 
Computing makes it possible for me to 
learn basic programming skills and use the 
computer better than any other source. 

Hard-hitting Evaluations 

At Creative Computing we obtain new 
computer systems, peripherals, and soft- 
ware as soon as they are announced. We 
put them through their paces in our Soft- 
ware Development Center and also in the 
environment for which they are intended — 
home, business, laboratory, or school. 

Our evaluations are unbiased and accur- 
ate. We compared word processing printers 
and found two losers among highly pro- 
moted makes. Conversely, we found one 
computer had far more than its advertised 
capability. Of 16 educational packages. 



only seven offered solid learning value. 

When we say unbiased reviews we mean 
it. More than once, our honesty has cost us 
an advertiser— temporarily. But we feel 
that our first obligation is to our readers and 
that editorial excellence and integrity are 
our highest goals. 

Karl Zinn at the University of Michigan 
feels we are meeting these goals when he 
writes. "Creative Computing consistently 
provides value in articles, product reviews 
and systems comparisons . . in a magazine 
that is fun to read." 

Order Today 

To order your subscription to Creative 
Computing, send $20 for one year (12 
issues). $37 for two years ( 24 issues) or $53 
for three years (36 issues). If you prefer 
call our toll-free number. 800-631-81 12 (in 
NJ 201-540-0445) to put your subscription 
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surface subscriptionsare $29 per year, and 
must be prepaid. We guarantee that you 
will be completely satisfied or we will re- 
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tion. 

Join over 80,000 subscribers like Ann 
Lewin, Director of the Capital Childrens 
Museum who says. I am very much im- 
pressed with Creative Computing It is 
helping to demystify the computer. Its arti- 
cles are helpful, humorous and humane 
The world needs Creative Computing: 

creative 
Gompubin& 

P O Box 789-M 

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Toll-free 800-631-8112 

(In NJ 201-540-0445) 

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APRIL 1981 



223 



HOW TO GET STARTED WITH 
CP/M (Control Programs for 
Microcomputers) 

Carl Townsond 

One of the world's most popular operating 
systems is explained in simple terms. Includes a 
handy guide on shopping for an operating sys- 
tem, a glossary, a list of hardward manufac- 
turers supporting CP/M and a list of major CP/M 
softwor© 
ISBN 0-91 8398-32-0 $9.95 






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TAKE AIM: VOLUME ONE 

James H. Clark 

This lab and learning manual for the AIM-65 and 
other 6502 microcomputers includes computer 
precautions, programming basics, a glossary, 
and 30 fully documented utility and game pro- 
grams, which teach math, data handling, simu- 
lation and more. 
ISBNO-916460-29-X $16.95 



32 BASIC PROGRAMS FOR THE 
APPLE COMPUTER 

Tom Rugg and Phil Feldman 

Chock full of programs with practical applica- 
tions, educational uses, games and graphics, 
each of the 32 chapters fully documents a dif- 
ferent program. 
ISBN 0-91 8398-34-7 $17.95 



Our books are available from B. Daltons, Kroch's 
and Brentanos, computer stores or directly from 
us. 



Write for Free Catalogl 

®dilithium Press 
P.O. Box 606 
Beaverton, OR 97075 

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ReVk* 



Steve Gray 



Beginning Basic, by P.E. Gosling. Robotics Press. Box 10766. 
Portland. OR 97210. 1 10 pages, paperback $10.95. 1977. 
Continuing Basic, by P.E. Gosling. Robotics Press. 146 pages, 
paperback $10.95. 1980. 

These two books were originally published in England by 
Mac mil Ian Press Ltd. and are part of the Mac mil Ian "Basic 
Books in Electronics" series. 

Both books were written for first-time users, defined by the 
author as perhaps being "school children using a computer 
terminal, technical college students, university under- 
graduates and commercial and industrial users." 

Beginning Basic uses Data General's Basic for the Nova 
and Eclipse computers. The 14 chapters are on What is a 
Computer. Talking to a Computer. Introduction to Basic 
Teleprinter Algebra. Printing Literals. Conditional and 
Unconditional Jumps. Commas and Semicolons. FOR... 
NEXT...Loops. Lists and Arrays. Function Statements. REM 
Statements. Saving and Deletion Program. Using the Paper- 
tape Punch and reader, and Specimen Programs. A six-page 
appendix provides a summary of Basic. 

After a couple of interesting programs to show what can be 
done on a computer. Gosling starts with a four-line program 
and takes seven pages explaining it and modifying it slightly. 
At all times he tells the reader exactly what to expect in 
interactive operations, and uses many callouts to explain 
program printouts, mainly in the first chapters, where they're 
needed most. 

The author then proceeds, after laying a firm base, to add 
to it with short programs that expand on previous programs, 
most of them only half a dozen lines long. RUNs are provided 
for nearly all programs, in legible Teletype output. 

The last chapter provides 16 mathematical and statistical 
programs as examples of how programs should be written, 
and also as being "of general use to students who are learning 
programming." 

Continuing Basic continues "from where Beginning Basic 
left off. although it is perfectly possible for a student with an 
elementary knowledge of the Basic language to use the book 
on its own." as the preface puts it. 

The book is in two parts. Part I. with three chapters, on 
Design of Algorithms. Subroutines, and Flowcharting Exer- 
cises, "formalizes an approach to designing computer pro- 
grams by dealing with the construction of algorithms." and is 
totally language-independent. 

Part II starts with the first third of the summary of Basic 
that ends the earlier book, and offers five chapters on Some 
Additional Features of Basic. Strings, Matrix Manipulation. 
Subroutines, and Files. The book ends with a dozen program- 
ming exercises, seven assorted programs that "illustrate a 
number of uses of the Basic language." and answers to the 
flowcharting exercises. 

The programs in Part II are written in Data General Basic 
and Hewlett-Packard Basic. A new ribbon should have been 
used on the HP printer. 

Part I can be read with profit by anyone interested in 
learning the basics of flowcharting. It is simply written, nicely 
detailed, and could scarcely be improved upon. 

Part II uses flowcharts to illustrate various points, and gets 

224 CREATIVE COMPUTING 



into much longer programs than the earlier book, but builds 
up to them adequately. 
The two books make an excellent introduction to Basic. 



Practical Basic Programs, edited by Lon Poole. Osborne/ 
McGrawHill. Berkeley. CA. 179 pages, paperback $15.99. 
1980. 

This is a follow-on to a previous Osborne book. Some 
Common Basic Programs, and contains 40 Basic "financial, 
mathematical, scientific and management decision-making 
programs people use all the time." according to the back 
cover. 

All the time? Perhaps someone in a financial position might 
make frequent use of programs such as Current Value of a 
Treasury Bill or Present Value of a Tax Deduction, but who 
would be using Markov Analysis or Lagrangian Interpolation 
all the time? 

To be fair, some of these 40 programs might be used 
frequently by some, including Checkbook Reconciliation. 
Home Budgeting and maybe even Music Transposition. But 
this book is best suited to those who never know when they'll 
be called upon to provide a Basic program for something like 
Syndicated Investment Analysis. Nonlinear Breakeven 
Analysis. Data Forecasting Divergence, or Economic Order 
Quantity. 

The programs are all well documented, with a description, 
sample RUN. practice problems, and a Basic listing. 

As for the brand of Basic used, the various writers have 
"adopted programming conventions that would allow the 
programs in this book to run unmodified on as many versions 
of Basic as we could. In some cases we could not do this. 
String variables, string functions, and string operators are 
treated too differently in some versions of Basic. Wherever 
we could anticipate such compatibility problems, we identi- 
fied them in the appendix and suggest alternatives there as 
well." according to the introduction. 

The appendix contains suggestions on how to resolve Basic 
problems, and is a nice finishing touch to a well-produced 
book of not-so-common programs. 



Microcomputers for External Control Devices, by James A. 
Gupton Jr. Dilithium Press, 30 NW 23 PI., Portland, OR 
97210. 285 pages, paperback $13.95. 

The back cover says "Can you use a microcomputer to 
control devices in your home, business or elsewhere? This 
book will show you how....This guidebook for controlling 
mechanical or process operations with a microcomputer 
covers everything from the most basic control functions to 
mechanized robot controls." 

Not quite. There's very little "how to" in this book, and it's 
confined to a couple of chapters. You're told how to calibrate 
a Datel unipolar D/A converter (one page), how to program 
Dynabyte's Basic Controller ( 1 1 pages, half of which is photo- 
graphs), and basic theory of how the Gimix system works (9 
pages, half photos) and how the Summagraphics Bit Pad 
operates (6 pages). 

The rest of the book is a catalog of various products, 
heavily larded with photos and schematics, perhaps of in- 
terest if you have a good technical background, but of very 
little interest if you don't. 

The chapters are on the principles of data acquisition and 
conversion, remote control, microprocessors, programmable 
controllers. Computer Systems for Automating Your Home, 
control-related interfaces, process control, robots, and Con- 
trol Design Prototype Development. 

That last chapter sounds good, but actually it tells where to 
get breadboarding items, not how to develop prototype con- 
trols. The rest of the book is pretty much like that, full of 
material apparently taken from catalogs and spec sheets. 



""ess- 

.*- ^^.W^Z^f "" ■ turn MM ' ■■*■ ■ ■■ 

«5«i>* „, os*o*». i0*&f« 

*£jr A tew •**> poM 



The 6502 Resource Magazine 

ATARI •COMMODORE PET • APPLE • OSI 












We're going monthly m January, provialng even more up-to-date, useful Information 
for owners and users of 6S02 based computers 



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APRIL 1981 



225 



The story behind the two best selling 
computer games books in the world. 

Computer 

Games 



by David H.Ahl 

Everybody likes games. Children like tic 
tac toe. Gamblers like blackjack. Trekkies 
like Star Trek. Almost everyone has a favor- 
ite game or two. 

It Started in 1971 

Ten years ago when I was at Digital 
Equipment Corp. (DEC), we wanted a pain- 
less way to show reluctant educators that 
computers weren't scary or difficult to use. 
Games and simulations seemed like a good 
method. 



So I put out a call to all our customers to 
send us their best computer games. The 
response was overwhelming. I got 21 ver- 
sions of blackjack, 15 of nim and 12 of 
battleship. 

From this enormous outpouring I se- 
lected the 90 best games and added 1 1 that 
I had written myself for a total of 101. I 
edited these into a book called 101 Basic 
Computer Games which was published by 
DEC. It still is. 

When I left DEC in 1974 I asked for the 
rights to print the book independently. 
They agreed as long as the name was 
changed. 







Introduction 


Hi-Lo 


Contents of Basic Computer Games (right) 


The Basic Language High l-Q 
Conversion to Other Hockev 


and More Basic Computer Games (below). 


Basics 


Horserace 






Acey Ducey 


Hurkle 






Amazing 


Kinema 






Animal 


King 






Awari 


Letter 


Artillery-3 


Life Expectancy 


Bagels 


Life 


Baccarat 


Lissajous 


Banner 


Life For Two 


Bible Quiz 


Magic Square 


Basketball 


Literature Quiz 


Big 6 


Man-Eating Rabbit 


Batnum 


Love 


Binary 


Maneuvers 


Battle 


Lunar LEM Rocket 


Blackbox 


Mastermind 


Blackjack 


Master Mind 


Bobstones 


Masterbagels 


Bombardment 


Math Dice 


Bona 


Matpuzzle 


Bombs Away 


Mugwump 


Bogall 


Maze 


Bounce 


Name 


Bumbrun 


Millionaire 


Bowling 


Nicomachus 


Bridge-It 


Minotaur 


Boxing 


Nim 


Camel 


Motorcycle Jump 


Bug 


Number 


Chase 


Nomad 


Bullfight 


One Check 


Chuck-A-Luck 


Not One 


Bullseye 


Orbit 


Close Encounters 


Obstacle 


Bunny 


Pizza 


Column 


Octrix 


Buzzword 


Poetry 


Concentration 


Pasart 


Calendar 


Poker 


Condot 


Pasart 2 


Change 


Queen 


Convoy 


Pinball 


Checkers 


Reverse 


Corral 


Rabbit Chase 


Chemist 


Rock, Scissors. Paper 


Countdown 


Road race 


Chief 


Roulette 


Cup 


Rotate 


Chomp 


Russian Roulette 


Dealer's Choice 


Safe 


Civil War 


Salvo 


Deepspace 


Scales 


Combat 


Sine Wave 


Defuse 


Schmoo 


Craps 


Slalom 


Dodgem 


Seabattle 


Cube 


Slots 


Doors 


Sea war 


Depth Charge 


Splat 


Drag 


Shoot 


Diamond 


Stars 


Dr Z 


Smash 


Dice 


Stock Market 


Eliza 


Strike 9 


Digits 


Super Star Trek 


Father 


Tennis 


Even Wins 


Synonym 


Flip 


Ticker-tape 


Flip Flop 


Target 


Four In A Row 


TV Plot 


Football 


3-D Plot 


Geowar 


Twonky 


Fur Trader 


3-D Tic-Tac-Toe 


Grand Prix 


Two-tc-Ten 


Golf 


Tic Tac toe 


Guess-It 


UFO 


Gomoko 


Tower 


ICBM 


Under & Over 


Guess 


Train 


Inkblot 


Van Gam 


Gunner 


Trap 


Joust 


Warfish 


Hammurabi 


23 Matches 


Jumping Balls 


Word Search Puzzle 


Hangman 


War 


Keno 


Wumpus 1 


Hello 


Weekday 


LGame 


Wumpus 2 


Hexapawn 


Word 



Converted to Microsoft Basle 

The games in the original book were in 
many different dialects of Basic. So Steve 
North and I converted all the games to 
standard Microsoft Basic, expanded the 
descriptions and published the book under 
the new name Basic Computer Games. 

Over the next three years, people sent in 
improved versions of many of the games 
along with scores of new ones. So in 1979, 
we totally revised and corrected Basic 
Computer Games and published a com- 
pletely new companion volume of 84 ad- 
ditional games called More Basic Com- 
puter Games. This edition is available in 
both Microsoft Basic and TRS-80 Basic for 
owners of the TRS-80 computer. 

Today Basic Computer Games is in its 
fifth printing and More Basic Computer 
Games is in its second. Combined sales are 
over one half million copies making them 
the best selling pair of books in recrea- 
tional computing by a wide margin. There 
are many imitators, but all offer a fraction of 
the number of games and cost far more. 

The games in these books include classic 
board games like checkers. They include 
challenging simulation games like Camel 
(get across the desert on your camel) and 
Super Star Trek. There are number games 
like Guess My Number. Stars and Battle of 
Numbers. You'll find gambling games like 
blackjack, keno, and poker. All told there 
are 185 different games in these two 
books. 

Whether you re just getting started with 
computers or a proficient programmer, 
you'll find something of interest. You'll find 
15-line games and 400-line games and 
everything in between. 

The value offered by these books is out- 
standing. Every other publisher has raised 
the price of their books yet these sell for 
the same price as they did in 1974. 

Moneyback Guarantee 

Examine one or both of these books and 
key some games into your computer. If 
you re not completely satisfied we'll refund 
the full purchase price plus your return 
postage. 

Basic Computer Games costs only $7.50 
and More Basic Computer Games just 
$7.95 for either the Microsoft or TRS-80 
edition ( please specify your choice on your 
order). Both books together are $15. Send 
payment plus $2.00 shipping and handling 
to Creative Computing Press, Morris 
Plains, NJ 07950. Visa. MasterCard and 
American Express orders should include 
card number and expiration date Charge 
card orders may also be called in toll-free to 
800-631-81 12 (in NJ 201-540-0445). 

Order today to turn your computer into 
the best game player on the block 

creative 
computing 

Morris Plains, NJ 07950 

Toll-free 800-631-8112 

(In NJ 201-540-0445) 

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CREATIVE COMPUTING 



226 




Creative Computing- Albert Einstein in 
black on a red denim-look shirt with red 
neckband and cuffs. 



Creative's own outrageous Blonlc Toad 
in dark blue on a light blue shirt for 
kids and adults. 



Plotter display of Pi to 1 362 Places in 
dark brown on a tan shirt. 




I'd rather be playing spacewar- black 
with white spaceships and lettering. 



Give your 
tie a rest! 



All T-shirts are available in adult sizes S.M.L.XL. Bionic Toad, Program 
Bug and Spacewar also available in children's sizes S (6-8), M( 10-1 2) and L 
(14-16). Made in USA. $6.00 each postpaid. 

Specify design and size and send $6.00 for each shirt to Creative Com- 
puting, P.O. Box 789-M, Morristown, NJ 07960. Orders for two or more 
shirts may be charged to Visa, MasterCard or American Express Save time 
and call toll-free 800-631-8112 (in NJ 201-540-0445) 




Computer Bum- black design by car 
toonist Monte Wolverton on gray 
denim-look skirt with black neckband 
and cuffs. 



The Program Bug that terrorized Cyber- 
nia in Katie and the Computer is back 
on this beige t-shirt with purple design. 
You can share the little monster with 
your favorite kid. 

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Roll down the block with this little 
black Robot Rabbit (on a bright orange 
t-shirt) on your back and you can 
intimidate every carrot, radish or cuke 
in your way. 



Serv 


ce Advertiser 


Page 


102 


Aardvark Technical Service 


135 


103 


ABM Products 


216 


101 


Acorn Software 


87 


146 


Advanced Computer Products 


89 




alf Products 


24 


108 


Allen Gelder 


171 


104 


Amdex (Leedex) 


67 


105 


American Square Computers 


179 




Applefest 81 


19 




Applied Analytic. Inc 


175 


109 


ASAP Computer Products 


55 


116 


ASCII 


96 


115 


A-T Enterprises 


176 


110 


Automated Simulations 


44 


118 


Avant-Garde Creations 


96 


117 


Barclay Bridge 


198 


112 


Basics 4 Beyond 

Beagle Brothers Micro Software 


189 


139 


203 


121 


Borg-Warner Educational 






Systems Cover 


129 


Broderbund Software 


65 


119 


C & S Electronics 


189 


132 


Cavn Systems 


180 


107 


C.BA.S. 


179 


130 


Charles Mann 4 Associates 


203 


134 


Chatsworth Data 


10 


135 


Christine Enterprises 


172 


113 


Cload Magazine 


167 


133 


Color Software 


29 


146 


Components Express 


89 


147 


Com pu max 


117 


159 


CompuServe 


70-71 


114 


Compute Magazine 


225 


211 


Computer Applications Unlimited 


175 


176 


Computer Book Club 


57 


126 


Computer Corner of White Plains 


181 


124 


Computer Information Exchange 


182 


123 


Computers Plus 


184 


140 


Computers "Ft Us 


113 


128 


Computer Shopper 


211 


149 


Computer Station 


203 


127 


Computers Voice 


181 


177 


Computerware 


189 


137 


Computronics 114-1 


138 


Computronics 


131 


140 


Consumer Computers Mail Order 


113 


158 


Continental Software 


174 


161 


Cottage Software 
CPM Users Group 


189 




215 


171 


CPU Shop 


119 


179 


Cursor 


177 


122 


Dakin5 Corp 


15 


120 


Dakin5 Corp. 


73 



to Advertisers 

Service Advertiser Page 

125 OakinSCorp 121 

182 Data Soft 50 

184 Digibyte Systems Corp 139 

141 Dilithium Press 224 
Discount Software Group 205 

143 Disc/3 Mart 211 
136 Dynacomplnc 110 
154 Ecosoft 162 

164 Edu-ware Services. Inc 205 
166 Edu-ware Services. Inc 177 

142 Electronic Specialists 211 

218 Electronic Systems Furniture 128 
145 Ellis Computing 163 

150 Exai' *3 
148 Farnsworth Computer Center 215 
196 Faulier Enterprises 176 
252 Frederick Computer Products 205 

Galaxy 225 

198 Global Parameters 179 

199 Gulf Breeze Computer Store 197 

205 Hayden Book Co 123 
153 Hayes Microcomputer Products 

206 Heath Co 35 
Heath Co 34-35 

151 Highlands Computer Services 137 

144 Huntington Computing 173 

208 Info World 65 
160 Inmac 185 

207 Integral Data Systems 9 

209 Indis 180 

220 Island Cybernetics 181 

227 JayletCo 191 

219 Krell Software 125 

234 Lifeboat Associates 39 

235 Lifeline 47 

162 Magnolia Microsystems 179 

165 Mark Gordon Computers 207 
178 Mastertype 171 

228 Meta Technologies 169 
McMillian Book Club 185 
McMillian Book Club 163-164 

221 Med Systems Software 183 
232 Methods Research Corp. 196 

236 M.HE 131 
167 MicroAp 141 

222 Micro Architect 181 
156 Micro Lab 103 
155 Micro Lab 105 

152 Micro Lab 107 
272 Microlearningware 131 
238 Micro Magazine 221 
240 Micro Media 183 

163 Micro Management Systems 145 



Service 



Voodoo Castle 
The Count and Ghost Town 



Voodoo Castle (by Scott Adams) Count 
Cristo has had a fiendish curse put on him 
by his enemies. There he lies, you are his 
only hope . will you be able to rescue 
him— or is he forever doomed? Beware 
the Voodoo man. 

The Count (by Scott Adams). You wake up 
in a large brass bed somewhere in Tran- 
sylvania. Who are you. what are you doing 
here, and why did the postman deliver a 
bottle of blood? You'll love this Adventure 
In fact, you might say it's Love at First 
Byte. / 

Qhost Town (by Scott Adams) Explore a 
deserted western mining town in search of 
13 treasures. From rattlesnakes to runaway 
horses, this Adventure has them all' Just 
remember, pardner. they don t call them 
Ghost Towns for nothin! (Also includes a 
new bonus scoring system.) 



32KTRS-80 DiskCS-3517 $39.95 
48K Apple DiskCS-4514 $39.95 



creative 
computing 



P 




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CIRCLE 300 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



168 
243 
244 
233 
245 
157 
224 
191 
225 
226 



253 
174 
214 
172 
246 
249 
250 
251 
169 
204 
186 
239 
216 

170 
242 

230 
231 
175 
254 
255 
195 
188 



256 
223 
257 
258 

259 
194 
260 
261 
262 
183 
180 
210 

189 
212 
263 
264 
213 
270 
265 
201 
200 
187 
266 

215 
267 
202 
203 
246 
241 
229 
217 
268 
193 
181 
153 
185 

190 
269 
192 



Microsoft Consumer Products 

Microstand 215 

Micro Technology unlimited 23 

Microtrend 84 

Micro Works 167 

Mini Micro Mart 5 

Misosys 195 
Mountain Computer 

Muse Software 149 

Muse Software 31 

National Computer Show 52-53 
National TRS-80 Micro Computing 

Show 99 

NEC America. Inc 81 

Lawrence Norton 1 79 

NRI School 143 
Ohio Scientific Cover 4 

On Line Systems 49 

On Line Systems 82 

Orange Micro 27 

Osborne/McGraw Hill 68 

Pacific Exchanges 1 73 

Pacific Exchanges 1 75 

Pan American Electronics 1 79 
Peripherals Plus 77.213.147 
Personalized Computer 

Consultants 172 

Personal Software 2 

Pickles & Trout 191 

Personal Computer World 85 

Programnia International 61 

Programma International 63 

Program Store 151 

Programs Unlimited 92.93 
Prometheus Products. Inc. 

Quality Software 133 

Racet Computes 27 

Rainbow Computing 207 

Retail Roster 217 

Rochester Data 215 

Sebree's Computing 1 8 1 

Service Technology 202 

Slmutek 183 

Sinclair Research Ltd 41 

Sliwa Enterprises 185 

Small Business Application 46 
Small Business Systems Group 191 

Softsel. inc 36 

Solt-tools 181 
Software Exchange Cover 2 

Software Exchange 13 
Software Technology for 

Computers 155 

Spectrum Software 129 

Jeanne St Auber 181 

Stereo House 199 

Stocking Source 79 

Stoneware 1 57 

Stoneware 207 

Stoneware 171 

Strategic Simulations 25 

Strawberry Software 221 

Sub logic 161 

Supersoft 100 

Sybex 159 

Sync 129 

Syntonic Software 75 

Tarbell Electronics 164 

Tab Sales 193 

Taso 208 

THESIS 195 

3R Software 1 76 

TinyC 197 

TNWCorp 176 

Total Information Service 185 

Transnet Corp 1 77 

Trenton Computer Festival 95 

U S Robotics 173 

Vista 153 

Voicetek 197 

W & W Components 101 

Xtra Soft 185 



Creative Computing 

300 Apple Software 21 

300 Atari Software 40 

350 Basic Computer Games 226 

350 Best of Creative Computing 201 

350 Book Service 59 

350 Computer Coin Games 1 70 

350 Computers for Kids 74 

350 Computer Music Record 161 

300 Ecology Simulations 1 1 1 

300 Find it Fast 208 

Liquidation Giveaway 97 

300 MECC Software 219 

300 Novelties 187 

350 Outdoor Games 193 
350 Problems for Computer Solutions 130 

350 Sorcerer Graphic Games 174 

350 Sourcebook of Ideas 1 78 

Subscription Ad 223 

350 T-Shirts 227 

300 Voodoo Castle 228 

'Write advertiser directly 



228 



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I I | I 8 ^ODDDD 



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Individualized excellence 
for the eighties . . . and beyond 



Borg-Warner Educational Systems has always been in 
the vanguard in adapting the latest in technological 
advancements to practical classroom use. 
Now, as we enter the eighties, we are very proud to 
announce the immediate availability of Critical 
Reading by Dr. Joseph Scandura of the University of 
Pennsylvania, the first in a comprehensive series of 
MicroSystem80 courseware programs designed for 
use with the Apple II microcomputer. 
Taking full advantage of the extensive diagnostic and 
prescriptive capabilities of computer assisted 
instruction, Critical Reading quickly and accurately 
assigns middle grade students to their proper place 
in the program. Gradually, the students are led 
through a hierarchy of skills to a mastery of logical 
rules of inference which will help them improve their 
understanding of written material. 
In addition to adapting programming instantly in 



response to the individual requirements of each 
student, Critical Reading includes a management 
system which enables a teacher or teacher's aide to 
review the progress of a single student or that of an 
entire class at any time. 

A demonstration of the MicroSystem80 Critical 
Reading program will convince you that the potential 
of computer assisted instruction can be reality in 
your classroom today. Write or call us today. Be sure 
to ask about our other fine MicroSystem80 materials 
in college entrance examination preparation, math 
computation and language arts. 

Toll Free: (800) 323-7577; in Illinois: (800) 942-6995 

Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc., 
Cupertino, CA. MicroSystem80 courseware is designed for 
use with the Apple II 48K BYTE RAM disk input in Applesoft 
3.2 or 3.3 DOS. 



MicroSystem80 " circle 1 21 on reader service card 

■• BORG-WARNER EDUCATIONAL SYSTEMS 
BORGJCWARNER 600 W«»t Unlv.r.ity Or.ve 

Arlington Height*, Illinois 60004 



Educator, Entertainer, Accountant 

Your Challenger 



Personal Computer. 

Through the miracle of modern 
technology, a complete computer as 
powertul as the multimillion dollar 
room-sized computers of a few years 
ago can be put in a package the size of 
a typewriter and sells for as little as a 
color television set! 

Through its years of microcomputer 
experience, Ohio Scientific has effec- 
tively channeled this tremendous 
computer power into a "friendly" 
computer with hundreds of personal 
uses, via a huge software library 
of programs for a broad range of 
personal, home, educational and 
business use. 

This available software allows you to 
use and enjoy your computer without 
becoming an expert. The Challenger, 
however, is a powerful, general 
purpose computer which can be pro- 
grammed in several languages by 
those who choose to. 

Here are just a few of the popular uses 

of an Ohio Scientific 

Challenger 

Computer: 

Education 

The personal 
computer is 
the ultimate 



educational aid because it can enter- 
tain while it educates. Software 
available ranges from enhancing your 
children's basic math, reading and 
spelling ability, through tutoring high 
school and college subjects, to 
teaching the fundamentals of com- 
puters and computer programming. 

Entertainment 

Many of the Challenger's games 
educate while they entertain, from 
cartoons for preschoolers to games 
which sharpen mathematical and 
logical abilities. But, entertainment 
doesn't stop here. The Challenger's 
graphics capabilities and fast opera- 
tion allow it to display action games 
with much more detail than the best 
video games, providing spectacular 
action in games such as Invaders, 
Space Wars, Tiger Tank and more! All 
popular sports such as golf, baseball 
and bowling are available as simulated 
computer games as well as many 
conventional games such as chess 
where the computer plays the role of a 
formidable opponent. 



Accounting 

Your Challenger computer can keep 
track of your checkbook, savings 
account, loans, expenses, monitor you| 
calorie intake and your biorythms. 

If you are involved in a business, you 
can use it to do word processing; ac- 
counting, inventory control, order pro- 
cessing, customer lists, client records, 
mailing labels and planning. 

And more: 

This may seem like a lot of uses , but W'i 
only the tip of the iceberg for a general 
purpose computer. For example, your 
Challenger can be expanded to control | 
lights and appliances, manage your 
energy usage and monitor for fire and 
break-ins. Furthermore, it can commu- 
nicate with you, with other computers 
and the new personal computer infor- 
mation services over the telephone. 

In fact, the uses of general purpose, 
personalized computers are expand- 
ing daily as more and more people 
discover the tremendous capabilities 
of these new 
technological 
wonders. 

Ohio Scientific 
offers you four 
personalized 
computer sys- 
tems starting 
at just $479. 




For a f r€ 

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the name of tr 

dealer nearest you, ce 

1-800-321-6850 toll fre. 



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